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The second and fourth columns of these letters from the right hand are used only when they are connected with a preceding letter; as Mohammed. Every letter fhould be connected with that which follows it, except these seven; | alif, ♪ dal, ¿ zal, ra, j za, j zha, and vau, which are never joined to the following letter, as will appear from the words berka leaf, l daveri a dominion.
Though the perfect proñounciation of these letters can be learned only from the mouth of a Perfian or an Indian, yet it will be proper to add a few observations upon the most remarkable of them.
It will be needless to say much of the three first confonants ☺☺ fince their found is exactly the fame as our b, p, and t, in the words bar, peer, and too, which would be written in Persian_↳
This letter, which the Arabs pronounce like a th, has in Persian the fame found with aors, as Abu Leis, a proper name. It might, therefore, have been rejected from the Perfian alphabet without any inconvenience; but it is useful in showing the origin of words,
as it is feldom, or never, ufed in any that are not Arabick.
may be observed of the following letters,
rarely occur in words originally Perfian.
تو and پیر
غ ع ظ ط ض ص
The first of these letters answers to our foft g in gem, which a Persian or to our j in jar : the fecond of them
exactly like our ch in the words cherry, cheek; as
is a very strong afpirate, and may be expreffed in our characters by 乙
a double h, as J↳ hhál a condition.
¿ is formed in the throat, and has a found like the German ch; but the Perfians pronounce it less harshly than the Arabs, and give it the found of c before a, o, or u in the Tuscan dialect, as chan a lord, which a Florentine would pronounce like can. This is the word fo variously and so erroneously written by the Europeans. The fovereign lord of Tartary is neither the cham, as our travellers call him, nor the han, as Voltaire will have it, but the khán, or cán, with an afpirate on the first letter.
answers exactly to our d in deer.
This letter, which the Arabs pronounce dh, has in Perfian the found of j ≈, and is often confounded with it; thus they write
guzefhten to pass: It is seldom used but in Arabick words; though it fometimes occurs in words purely Perfian, as Azarbiján the province of Media, so called from jól azar, an old word for fire, because the adorers of fire, if we believe the Afiatick hiftorians, first built their temples in that province.
and the three liquids m, n; as ¿ll arám rest, & bread. But C before a tower, is amber ambergris.
are pronounced exactly like our r, ↳, Y láleh a tulip, j↳。 már a serpent, ¿↳ nán has the found of m, as i kumbed a
j has the found of our z, as jy lalehzár a bed of tulips.
This letter has the found of our/in the words pleasure, treafure; and correfponds precifely with the soft g of the French in gens, or their j in jour. It may be expreffed in our characters by zh, as aj zháleh dew; for it has the fame relation to ≈ which has to s.
.Selim shah king Selim سلیم شاہ and are our s and b, as
ظ ط ض ص
These four letters are pronounced by the Arabs in a manner peculiar to themselves; but in Perfian they are confounded with other letters.
differs little from
Saddar the name of a Perfian book;
and ↳ has nearly the same found with ass otr effence; a word
letters ε and
lhi Nezzámi the name of a poet;
Khezzár the name of a pro
phet in the eastern romances.
These two letters are extremely harsh in the pronunciation of the
áin a founţain.” Sometimes it has a
has the found of fin fall, as Js an omen,
is another harsh Arabick letter, but in Perfian it is often confounded with, which has the found of our k, as
Kaf a fabulous mountain in the
mán the province of Carmania;