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the Vedas and all their dependent sciences. * I shall see the sovereign of the world, by whom the world is sustained; † who is worshipped as the best of males, as the male of sacrifice & in sacrificial rites. I shall see Keśava, who is without beginning or end; by worshipping whom with a hundred sacrifices, Indra obtained the sovereignty over the gods. That Hari, whose nature is unknown to Brahmá, Indra, Rudra, the Aświns, the Vasus, Adityas, and Maruts, will (this day,) touch my body. The soul of all, the knower of all, he who is all, and is present in all, he who is pcrmanent, undecaying, all-pervading, will converse with me. He, the unborn, who has preserved the world in the various forms of a fish, a tortoise, a boar, a horse,


1 The commentator | explains this to mean Hayagriva,--or Vishnu with the neck and head of a horse, -who, it is said, in the Second Book 1 of the Bhagavata, appeared at the end of a great

* To render vedánga.
+ Akhiládhára.
# Purushottama. See Vol. I., p. 16, note 1.
§ Yajna-purusha. See Vol. I., p. 163, note *.

|| The words of the commentators are, in common, simply pu: I kuuta: 1 But I show, presently, that they must be wrong

q The passage referred to is Chapter VII., 11, where Brabma is the speaker. The original and Burnouf's translation are subjoined:

सत्त्रे ममास भगवान्हयशीर्षाथो साक्षात्स यज्ञपुरुषस्तपनीयवर्णः । 1

छन्दोमयो मखमयोऽखिलदेवतात्मा

वाचो बभवुरुशतीः श्वमतोऽस्य नस्तः ॥ “Dans mon sacrifice, Bhagavat lui-mênie fut Hayaçîrcha, le mâle du sacrifice, dont la couleur est celle de l'or, dont les Vêdas et les sacrifices sont la substance, et les divinités l'âme; quand il respira, de ses narines sortirent de ravissantes paroles."

Professor Wilson's view of the meaning of the stanza just quoted is more than usually imaginative

a lion,* will, this day, speak to me. Now, the lord of the earth, who assumes shapes at will, has taken upon him the condition of humanity, to accomplish some object cherished in his heart. That Ananta, who holds

sacrifice performed by Brahmá, and breathed from his nostrils the texts of the Vedas. The fourth Avatára is always, elsewhere, said to be the Vámana, or dwarf. +

In the Bhagavata-purána, VIII., XXIV., 7, 8, it is said, that, as Brahmá slumbered, the Vedas slipped out of his mouth, and Hayagriva came, and furtively carried them off. Hari, or Vishnu, it is subsequently stated, at last slew Hayagriva.

According to Vol. II., p. 125, Vishnu is worshipped, in Bhadráśwa, as Hayaśiras,-the Hayaśirsha of the verses cited above, and of the Bhagavata-purána, V., XVIII., 1. For Aswaśiras, as an epithet of Náráyana, or Vishúa, see the Mahabharata, Śánti-parvan, él. 13100, &c.

With this divinity Professor Wilson has confounded the demon Hayagriva, for whom see Vol. II., p. 70, note §, and p. 210, note 1. AŚwagriva, mentioned in the Mahabharata, Adi-parvan, sl 253, is, presumably, identical with the latter, who has a fellow in Aśwaśiras,-ibid., sl. 2531 and 2646.

The passage in Vol. I., Preface, p. LXXXVI., where “Vishńu, as Hayagriva" is spoken of, I have not yet been able to verify. In the meantime, it may pretty safely be surmised that there is a mistake.

Hayasirsha, Hayasiras, and Aswaśiras are, being interpreted, Horseheaded'; Hayagriva and Aśwagriva, ‘Horse - necked.'

In the Sabdakalpadruma, the first definition of Hayagriva makes him an epiphany of Visbúu, for the sake of recovering the Vedas, which had been carried off by Madhu and Kaitabha. The passage there quotedMahábharata, Śánti-parvan, śl. 13497—13503,—does not, however, mention Hayagriva at all, but Aswaśiras.

My friend Mr. C. P. Brown informs me, that, in the Madras Presidency, Hayagriva is a not uncommon name for a Brábman to bear. The fact is noteworthy. Hayagrivahan, “Slayer of Hayagriva," is an epithetical designation of Bayasirsba, i. e., Visbúu.

* Siinha; which bere denotes nii-sinha, the commentators say. See Vol IV., p. 277, text and note :.

+ See Vol. III., p. 18, text and note 1.

the earth upon his crest, and who has descended upon earth for its protection, will (this day,) call me by my name. Glory to that being, whose deceptive adoption of father, son, friend, brother, mother, and relative the world is unable to penetrate! Glory to him, who is one with true knowledge, who is inscrutable, * and through whom, seated in his heart, the Yogin crosses the wide expanse of worldly ignorance and illusion! I bow to him, who, by the performers of holy rites, is called the male of sacrifice (Yajnapurusha); by pious worshippers f is termed Vásudeva; and, by the cultivators of philosophy, Vishňu. May he in whom cause, and effect, and the world itself is comprehended be propitious to me, through his truth; for always do I put my trust in that unborn, eternal Hari, by meditation on whom man becomes the repository of all good things.”

His mind thus animated by devout faith, and meditating in this manner, Akrúra (proceeded on his road, and) arrived at Gokula a little before sunset, at the time of the milking of the cows. || And there he saw Krishňa, amongst the cattle, dark as the leaf of the

Ameya. of Sátwata. Vedanta. $ यथा तत्र जगद्धानि धातर्ये तत्प्रतिष्ठितम् । I सदसत्तेन सत्येन मव्यसौ यातु सौम्यताम् ॥ स्मृते सकलकल्याणभाजनं यत्र जायते।

पुरुषस्तमजं नित्यं व्रजामि शरणं हरिम् ॥ || The original here has “at the milking-place of tbe cows", wieta गवाम् । Sridhara's and Ratnagarbha's comment: पादोहने। दोहनस्थाने। full-blown lotos; his eyes of the same colour, * and his breast decorated with the Srivatsat mark; longarmed, and broad-chested; having a high nose, and a lovely countenance brightened with mirthful smiles; treading firmly on the ground, with feet whose nails were tinted red; clad in yellow garments, and adorned with a garland of forest-flowers; § having a freshgathered creeper in his hand, and a chaplet of white lotos-flowers on his head. I

Akrúra **

also beheld, there, Balabhadra, white as a swan, a jasmine, or the moon, and dressed in blue raiment; having large and powerful arms, tf and a countenance as radiant as a lotos in bloom-like another Kailasa-mountain, crested with a wreath of clouds.

When Akrúra saw these two youths, his countenance expanded with delight, # and the down of his body stood erect (with pleasure). For this he thought to be supreme happiness and glory; this, the double manifestation of the divine Vásudeva. $$ This was the twofold gratification of his sight, to behold the creator

* प्रस्पष्टपद्मपचाक्षम्। + See Vol. IV., p. 268.

' प्रलम्बबाहुमासीनं तुङ्गोरस्थलमुन्नसम् । ६ वन्यपुष्पविभूषितम्। || ate tagatgaH | Variant, accepted by the commentator Ratnagarbha: सेन्दनीलाचलाभं तम् ।

1 सिताम्भोजावतंसकम् ।
** Yadu-nandana, “descendant of Yadu," in the or.ginal.
+ Add “and shoulders”.
* विकसहवासरोजः।
$ एतत्तत्परमं धाम तदेतत्परमं पदम् ।

भगवद्वासुदेवांशो विधा योऽयमवस्थितः ॥


of the universe: now he hoped that his bodily form would yield fruit, -- as it would bring him in contact with the person of Krishńa, * -—and that the wearer of infinite forms would place his hand on his back; the touch of whose finger alone is sufficient to dispel sin, and to secure imperishable felicity; that hand which launches the fierce irresistible discus, blazing with all the flames of fire, lightning, and the sun, and, slaughtering the demon-host, washes the collyrium from the eyes of their brides; that hand into which Bali poured water, and thence obtained ineffable enjoyments below the earth, † and immortality, and dominion over the gods for a whole Manwantara, without peril from a foe. “Alas! He will despise me for my connexion with Kaṁsa,-an associate with evil, though not contaminated by it. How vain is his birth, who is shunned by the virtuous!: And yet, what is there,


साफल्यमक्षणोर्युगमेतदत्र दृष्ट जगद्धातरि यातमुच्चैः ।


हत्तेऽङ्गसङ्गे फलवन्मम स्यात् ॥ † The original implies that Bali, who had dwelt below the earth, obtained, &c.:

बलिर्मनोशानवाप भोगान्वसुधातलस्थः । For Bali,-a Daitya, son of Virochana, -successively sovereign of Pátála and an Indra, see Vol. II., p. 69, and p. 210, note 1; Vol. III., p. 18, note , and p. 23.

The translation, towards the end of the present chapter, is very free, generally.

* अप्येष मां कंसपरिग्रहण दोषास्पदोभूतमदोषदुष्टम् ।

का न मौनोवहतं धिगस्तु तज्जन्म तत्साधु बहिष्कृतो यः ॥

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