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DISSERTATION ON THE ORACLE OF DODONA.

527

who was about to cut it down, to desist ; upon which the oracle of Jupiter was fixed there, and the brazen vessels, all of which sounded if one was touched. The other dove settled upon the head of the ram in Libya, and commanded that an oracle should be founded to Jupiter Hammon.

With regard to the destruction of the oracle by Arces, we may rely much more certainly on the account given us by the accurate Polybius, who tells us, Hist. iv. 7. that Dorimachus the prætor of the Ætolians, in the first year of the 140th Olympiad, made an incursion into the upper parts of Epirus, and arriving at Dodona (evidently on his return, and therefore Dodona must have been in the south of Epirus) burnt the porticoes, destroyed many of the votive offerings, and levelled the sacred edifice to the ground, xatérxaqe thuisgær oixlar. And though Philip took afterwards a severe vengeance for this sacrilege, as is related in the first chapter of the Book following, yet it is probable that the oracle never recovered from this calamity, as the affairs of Greece immediately afterwards declined, but sunk by degrees into that obscurity from which I have made this humble attempt to recover it.

What now is the result of all our investigation? It may be reduced into a narrow compass. Dodona, by the general consent of writers who must have known the fact, stood on a hill, either at the foot of, or actually forming part of a chain of mountains. It was in an angle of Molossia, bordering on Perrhæbia, to the west of Pindus, to the east of Thesprotia, to the south of Upper Epirus. A chain of mountains led westward from Dodona through Thesprotia to the

About Dodona was a plain, stretching probably to the south-east, and yet more to the east, towards Pindus, was a marsh or lake. These are features which must still remain. And if you find a place in the neighbourhood of Ioannina, bearing ruins on a hill, and whose local situation seems to correspond with that I have mentioned, search diligently for inscriptions, in the hope of finding Dodona.

sea.

APPENDIX,

CONTAINING A FEW REMARKS ON THE SITE OF THE TEMPLE OF DELPHI,

The oracle of Delphi is so well known, and the passages relating to it in ancient writers so much more numerous and accessible than those concerning Dodona, that it seems unnecessary to enter into any full details on the subject. Indeed any thing like a regular history of it would exceed the limits of a treatise, and any thing short of such an account, yet professing to give a detail, would be unsatisfactory. I shall confine myself therefore to an investigation into the actual site of the temple, a point which has hitherto been much controverted, but which, as far as I can judge, appears capable of being ascertained with very considerable precision from the documents which may be collected from the writers of antiquity.

In order to make this discussion more intelligible, I must beg to accompany it with what I conceive to be a rude outline of the place.

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530

DISSERTATION ON THE ORACLE OF DELPHI.

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Every one knows that the city of Delphi rose in a succession of terraces, the very first of which was considerably elevated above the vale of the Pleistus, till it was bounded by the rocks of Parnassus. It was nearly semicircular, and in the annexed plan the curved line will represent about a mile and a quarter, the straight line joining its extremities about three-fourths of a mile; in all about two miles, or rather more. The temple of Delphi was no doubt far more splendid and extensive than that of Dodona, which, if we may argue from analogy, was probably but of moderate size, for we know that the kindred temple of Hammon was far from being on a magnificent scale. For this assertion we have the indisputable authority of Lucan Pharsal. ix. 515.

Non illic Libye posuerunt ditia gentes
Templa, nec Eois splendent altaria gemmis.
Quamvis Æthiopum populis, Arabumque beatis
Gentibus, atque Indis, unus sit Jupiter Hammon,
Pauper adhuc Deus est, nullis violata per avum
Divitiis delubra tenens, morumque priorum
Numen Romano templum defendit ab auro.

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The riches and splendour of Delphi however are universally known, and I shall now proceed just to notice some of the principal passages which indicate its situation. Pausan. p. 817. Τραπoμένω εις άρισέραν και υποκατάβανε και πλέον εμοί

. p. . δοκεϊν ή τρία στάδια, πολαμός εσιν ονομαζόμενος Πλείσος.-'Εκ δε τα γυμνασία την ές το ιερόν ανίου., έσιν εν δεξία της δδε το ύδωρ της Κασαλίας. So that from the gymnasium at the eastern end of the semicircle you descended somewhat less than half a mile to the bed of the Pleistus, and turning, ascended in a N. N. W. direction to go to the temple, leaving the Fons Castalius on the right, Again, p. 818. Aérois de τι πόλις ανανθές δια πάσης παρέχεται σχήμα. Κατά τα αυτά δε τη πόλει τη άλλη και ο ιερός περίβολος τα 'Απολλώνος. Ούτος δε μεγέθει μέγας, ΚΑΙ ΑΝΩΤΑΤΩ ΤΟΥ ΑΣΤΕΟΣ EETIN. So that the whole city was built on a slope, as was also the peribolus of the temple, at the very top of the city, not only avio but diwrátw, at the very top, as high as possible. It must therefore have been at the very vertex of the arc. Again, p. 877. Το περιβόλε δε τα ιερά θέατρον έχεται, θεάς άξιον. ΕΠΑΝΑΒΑΝΤΙ έκ το περιβόλι Διονύσε άγαλμα ενταύθα Κνιδίων εσίν ανάθημα. Στάδιον δέ σφισιν ΑΝΩΤΑΤΩ ΤΗΣ ΠΟΛΕΩΣ ΤΟΥΤΟ ΕΣΤΙΝ. Here we see a theatre joined the peribolus,

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a perhaps on the east. Going out, I suppose to the west, you come to a statue of

I Bacchus and the stadium, ENANABANTI, a little rising, and we again find the

DISSERTATION ON THE ORACLE OF DELPHÍ.

531 game word ANQTATA used to describe the situation of the temple and stadium. Again p. 858. 'Εξελθόντι δε τα νάε, και τραπένι έπ' αρίσερα περίβολός έσι και ΝεοπΠολέμε τη

. . 'Αχιλλέως εν αυτώ τάφος ..... ΕΠΑΝΑΒΑΝΤΙ δε από τ8 μνήματος λίθος έσιν έ' μίγας ... ιεσι δε ως επί τον νέων αύθις μετά το λίθο την θεάν έσιν ή Κασσώλις καλεμένη πηγή. So that if you go out of the temple and turn to the left, or east (for I suppose it to have fronted the south, and had a magnificent view towards the Sinus Crissæus) you come to the tomb of Neoptolemus with its peribolus, and between this and the temple, higher than the former, but lower than the latter, is the stone of Saturn and the fountain Cassotis. If the fountain Cassotis could be found, this would point directly to the site of the temple, which must have stood a little to the N. N. W. of it. But in a limestone country at the foot of a mountain many fountains may be found, and some may have been choked up or diverted from their former channels by the fall of rocks or earthquakes.

Strabo agrees with Pausanias in his account of Delphi, p. 418. Kata i to νόμιον οι Δέλφοι, πετρώδες χώριον, θεατροειδες, ΚΑΤΑ ΚΟΡΥΦΗN EXON ΤΟ ΜΑΝΤΕΙΟΝ και την πόλιν ραδίων εκκαιδέκα κύκλον πληρέσαν.

That the adytum or cave was in the temple is certain. Diod. Sic. xvi. 26. "Όντος χάσμαλος έν τέτω τω τόπω κάθ' όν έσιν νυν τα τερά το καλεμένον άδυλον. The same thing is said nearly in the same words by the scholiast on Aristophanes, Plut. 9.

The authority of Justin is perhaps questionable, unless he may be considered as an epitomiser of Trogus, who himself indeed was but a Latin historian. Yet it contains a passage so remarkable that even while I am studying conciseness I cannot help inserting it. It occurs lib. xxiv. 6. Templum autem Apollinis positum est in monte Parnasso IN RUPE ÚNDIQUE İMPENDENTË. Media saxi rupes in formam Theatri recessit.-IN HOC RUPIS ANFRACTU MEDIA FERE MONTIS ALTITUDINE, planities exigua est, atque in ea profundum terræ foramen quod in oracula patet. By these expressions I understand Justin to mean that the temple was on the highest terrace above the town, and about half way up the nearest crags of Parnassus measured from the vale of the Pleistus below. And that this is his meaning is evident from a subsequent passage, c. 8. Contra Delphi-scandentes Gallos E SUMMO MONTIS VERTICE partim saxo, partim armis obruerunt. Here the sumMUS VERTEX can only mean the crags that overhung the town. Temples of Diana, Minerva, and the earth, were near the Pythian temple, as we learn from Justin and Plutarch.

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