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no lover of Zion or the true church, if not abused by the clergy, can be offended, that their covetousness and ambition is not gratified. Your fort of men applaud Constantine, whose moral character is as disagreeable to the rules of the gospel as Julian's ; and Jovian, a debauched man, but a firm friend 10 that sort of Christianity and Christian ministry that was in those days, is as famous among you as Julian is infamous.
Because it may tend to your instruction, I shall take the trouble to transcribe a passage concerning Julian from the au. thor of The Fable of the Bees. The passage is as follows.
When Emperors were once become Christians, the “ clergy received such power and other worldly comfort from “ their authority, that they could not think of living without, ” and therefore lost all patience when Julian was advanced to “ the empire. They did and said against him every thing " that rage and hatred could inspire, and fixed upon him the « firname of Apoftate, to render him odious, which has “ stuck by him to this day. Julian had been differently edu“ cated, as well at Pagan as at Christian universities, and at
one time he had Heathens, and at another Christians for Of his tutors : but I never saw it proved, that he adhered to “ Christianity at a time he might with safety have refused it. << It must be confessed, that as soon as he was master of his “ choice, he made the worst, and unfortunately embraced “ Paganism, because it was the religion of his ancestors.
« But let him be called Heathen or Apoftate, or what the “ clergy pleases, to judge of him impartially from history, we must
own, that he was a virtuous and gallant prince, “ endued with wit and humanity, and more Iteddiness and “ moderation than any of his Christian predecessors. In “ his letters, he appears to have been a father to his people ; « and one of them I will take leave to insert here, which « will make us perfectly well acquainted with the toleracing
temper of that prince, and at the same time, point at the “ real cause of the clergy's animofities against him.
Julian to the Boftrens. I Should have thought, indeed, that the Galilean leaders
would have esteemed themselves more indebted to me " than to him who preceded me in the administration of the “ empire : for, in his time, many of them suffered exile, “ persecution, and imprisonment; multitudes of those whom “ in their religion, they term beretics, were put to the
sword; infomuch, that in Samofata, Cyzicum, Paphlao gonia, Bithynia, Galatia, and many other countries, whole “ towns were levelled with the earth. The just reverse of “ this has been observed in my time. The exiles have been “ recalled, and the proscribed restored to the lawful poffef“ sions of their eltates : but to that height of fury and dis. “ traction are this people arrived, that, being no longer al. " lowed the privilege to tyrannise over one another, or per“ fecute either their own sectaries, or the religious of the “ lawful church, they fwell with rage, and leave no stone un. “ turned, no opportunity unemployed, of raising tumult and “ sedition. So little regard have they to true piety, so little " obedience to our laws and constitutions, however humane “ and tolerating. For still do we determine, and steadily re“ solve, never to suffer one of them involuntarily to be “ drawn into our altars. *** As for the mere people, in. “ deed, they appear driven to these riots and seditions by “ these amongst them whom they call clerics; who are now “ inraged to find themselves restrained in the use of their for. mer power
and intemperate rule. *** They can no longer « act the magistrate, or civil judge, nor assume authority to “ make people's wills, supplant relations, possess themselves “ of other mens patrimonics, by fpecious pretences, transfer « all into their own possession. For this reason, I have “ thought fit, by this public edict, to forewarn the people of “ this fort, that they raise no more commotions, nor gather " in a riotous manner about their seditious clerics, in de“ fiance of the magistrate, who has been insulted, and in
danger of being stoned by these incited rabbles. In their “ congregations, they may notwithstanding assemble, as they “ please, and croud about their leaders performing worship, “ receiving doctrine, and praying according as they are by " them taught and conducted: but if with any tendency to “ fedition, let them beware how they hearken or give assent, “ and remember it is at their peril, if, by these means, they “ are secretly wrought up to mutiny and insurrection. “ *** Live therefore in peace and quietness, neither spite. “ fully opposing, or injuriously treating one another. You “ misguided people of the new way, beware on your side ! “ And you of the ancient established church, injure not “ your neighbours and fellow citizens, who are enthufiafti. “cally led away in ignorance and mistake, rather than with “ dergn or malice. It is by discourse and reason, not by “ blows, insults, or violence, that men are to be informed
a of truth, and convinced of error. Again, therefore, and « again, I injoin and charge the zealous followers of the « true religion, no wise to injure, moleft, or affront, the « Galilean people.”
“ These were the sentiments of this Emperor, whom the « clergy make such a monster, and whose very clemency " they make a handle of for slander, complaining, that, by “ his mildness and unlimited toleration, he had done more “ prejudice to the church than others with persecution. He “ was a politic prince, yet the clergy proved too hard for “ him, and never ceased plotting against him, till at last, to “ the great joy of the orthodox, he was assassinated by one 66 of his own Christian soldiers."
Thus far my author. And, as his story tells, if the devil was teaching Julian this method with the Christians of those days, you may see he was not his only scholar at that time : for, according to the scripture-account of the devil's teaching and influence, the Heathens, whom Julian was restrain. ing from injuring, molesting, or affronting the Christians, and not they only, but the Christian clergy especially, seem to have been very good proficients at his school, for the time they had been at it ; and Julian did not think they deferved to be so treated by their fellow-disciples of another class. The mystery of iniquity began to work, even among the illiterate men that were set apart to the office of the mi, nistry, in the days of the apostles; but when they got these things from Constantine that Julian took from them, you see how they behaved.
Your warning of the danger of an illiterate ministry begins with an advice to your brethren to be as the well-furnished fcribe, that bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old. Where you point to our Lord's saying to his disciples, after he had been instructing them in the nature of the kingdom of heaven by parables, and inquiring, if they understood them, Matth. xiii. 51. 52. when they answered, that they did, he says to them, “ Therefore every scribe, which is ina “ structed unto the kingdom of heaven, is like unto a man " that is an householder, which bringeth forth out of his “ treasure things new and old." You give us some explication of this text, so far as you quote it ; the scribes treasure you say, is a stock of necessary and useful knowledge, out of which variety of provision may be brought for the entertainment of people's souls : “ The priests lips should preferre
“ knowledge." But this explication is more general, and
go about to enlarge the text of the Old Testa. ment that you cite in confirmation of your gloss, by forbearing to mention the latter part of it, which, as it stands in that context, Mal. ii. would have told what knowledge it is that the “ priests lips should preserve.” If by the law there you will not understand only “the law of truth, the law of & the Lord;” but will extend it to signify the law of the Roman empire, and the municipal laws of the nations, then you ought to have given that law a place among the sciences, your handmaids to scripture knowledge: and I am sure it deserved a place in your catalogue as well as any of them. Next, for an explication of “ things new and old,” you have a variety of provision for the entertainment of people's fouls, which variety you distribute under two heads. i. Their fouls must be entertained with scripture-knowledge, the knowa ledge of God, his perfections, the mystery of the Trinity and of Jesus Christ our furety and sacrifice. Here you are a little more particular, but take care never to mention “ the kingdom of heaven,” of which the text speaks. 2. The people's souls must be entertained with the knowledge of human arts and sciences, and of the languages, especially these in which the Bible was first written. And here again you are more copious than on the first head: you have a great variety here of provision for the entertainment of people's souls; history, philosophy, mathematics, geography, a. Itronomy, and polemic divinity. And thus we have your sense of “ the things new and old,” which serve to shew, that illiterate men cannot be “the scribes" of whom the Lord there speaks. But, after all you have faid, the illiterate may find you very lame, both in quoting and explaining the words of this text; and that you have wrested this scripture in such a manner as to bring a sort of scribes out of it that was never in it. The fcribe of whom the text speaks is
“ scribe instructed in or unto the kingdom of heaven ;' but this is not once mentioned in the instruction of your fcribe. The “things new and old” that the text speaks of are the things of “ the kingdom of heaven,” which “be
gan to be spoken by the Lord himself,” and were preach. ed by his apostles to the nations, and committed to writing in the books of the New Testament. These were the scribes whom Christ told the Jews he would « send to them,”
Matth. xxiii. 34. 35. And when they came to them, their doctors“ perceived, that they were unlearned and ignorant “ men,” but “ took knowledge of them that they had been 64 with Jefus," Acts iv. 13. as the Jews before marvelled when they heard himself teach, “how he knew the scriptures" (xpdge para comp. 2 Tim, iii. 15.) “ being unlearned," John vii. 15. They knew he could read the scriptures as other Jews did in the synagogues, but how could the “son of the “ carpenter," without the education of the feribes, take upon him to do their office; or, in a more modern stile, jump from his trade into the pulpit? Now these scribes, whom he first instructed and sent forth to make out the New Testament revelation, and commit it to writing, “ said none other “ things than these which the prophets and Moses did say « should come," Acts xxvi. 22. And thus the “ things “ brought forth out of the treasure," committed to these “ earthen vessels,” were new, and they were old. These « scribes brought forth the knowledge of the glory of God, “ in the face of Jesus Christ,” that had been of old shewed through “ a veil" by Moses and the prophets. These “ stewards of the mysteries of God spake the wisdom of God, " that was hid in mystery, and not the wisdom of this “ world, nor of the princes of this world, who knew not “ the wisdom of God” that was " hid in mystery ;" which wisdom these scribes fpake, “not in the words which man's « wisdom teacheth," but, with great plainness and simplicity, took the words of the Holy Ghost in the Old Testament, from a translation then in common use, and applied them to the things of the kingdom of heaven in the New Testament, according to the prime intent of these words, which was “ revealed to them by the Holy Ghost" that indited them. The Lord spake by figures concerning the kingdom of heaven, and explained these to his scribes; and the New Testament revelation, which he gave them to bring forth to the world, is the plain declaration of the same things that had been foreshewed of old in the dark prophecies and figures of the Old Testament: wherefore he says, “Every scribe in“ structed unto the kingdom of heaven, bringeth forth out " of his treasure things new and old.” Whosoever is skilled in this wisdom that is taught in the New Testament, so as to be able to teach it to others, is now the Christian scribe; and what a difference is there betwixt this and the knowledge of your scribe? which is “ the wisdom of words, the wif“ dom of this world, the wisdom of the Jewish scribe," and VOL.I. 30