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finds the promotion of happiness to be desirable and delightful in itself, and independently of a separate reward ; to be done for its own sake, and not merely as it is done by publicans and sinners. The great question now becomes, how when and where good can be done; and not what he shall gain by doing it. Now also he chooses to do good by rule, and from a spirit of obedience to the rightful law-giver and all-wise director, and thus makes it the purpose of his life. Now, finally, he does good conscientiously, with contrivance and design; not accidentally, loosely, and rarely. Towards · Christians this love assumes a peculiar character, being made up of two great and distinguished exercises, the general benevolence exercised toward them in common with all men, and that peculiar delight in their virtuous character, commonly called complacency, and in the Gospel, brotherly love.'. This is the object of the new commandment' given by Christ in the Gospel, and made the touchstone by which they are proved to be his disciples.

Of all these exercises of the mind it is to be observed, that they are active exertions, directed invariably and alway toward the promotion of real good; the spring of all excellent conduct within and without the soul. It is not to be understood that they exist and act in such a separate manner as to be distinguishable as to the times and modes of their existence or operations ; nor that they actually take place in that order in which they have now been mentioned. Of this subject the Scriptures give us no distinct account; and happily, as indeed might fairly be concluded from their silence, it is of no serious importance to us. All which is really necessary is, that they exist and ir crease in such a manner as is best in the sight of God.

As the regenerated man discerns his own unceasing need of divine assistance, and his general propensity to stop and backslide in his religious course, he will necessarily and instinctively look to God for assistance, strength, and success. Prayer will be the breath by which he will live, and grow, and thrive. The closet, the family, and the church will alternately be the scenes of his public and private devotions, the places where he will find hope, and peace and joy, and where he will advance in all evangelical attainments. To the Scriptures also will be betake himself for the same aid. In them


he finds God speaking to him, and declaring the very things which are necessary to enlighten bis understanding and to amend his heart. To the Scriptures therefore he will continually resort, and will make them the object of his investigation and reflection at all convenient seasons. Nor will he be less employed in exploring the recesses of his own heart; that he may

learn as far as may be the moral state of his mind; his sins and dangers, the improvements which he has made in holiness, and the means of future safety.

In the like manner will the renewed mind solicit and lay hold on the company, conversation, and friendship, of good

Their views of the Scriptures, of the danger of sin and temptation, and of the excellency and safety of holiness; their own affections and conduct; their example and prayers ; their sympathy, communion, and encouragment; will prove ever-flowing springs of spiritual life and consolation. These are its own companions in the path of life, the disciples of its own Saviour, the children of its own heavenly Father. All its interests are theirs. One common cause unites, one common family embraces, one common spirit quickens, and one God, the Father, the Redeemer, and the Sanctifier of all, loves, purifies, conducts, supports, and brings to his own house both the regenerated man and his fellow Christians. In them therefore he finds an interest, a friendship, a kindred character of soul, which binds him to them with an indissoluble attachment. With peculiar satisfaction he enjoys their company here, and with delightful hope anticipates their endless society hereafter.

Thus have I endeavoured summarily to explain the work of Regeneration, and to describe those immediate fruits of it, by means of which alone it is discernible by man. As these apparently co-exist with the work itself, I have in general language called them, its attendants. The name I confess is not metaphysically exact, nor will I insist on the entire propriety of adopting it. Yet as it naturally coincides with the views formed on this subject by the mind in wbich it exists, it seems sufficiently descriptive of what was intended, for my purpose.

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last Discourse I


an account of the work of regeneration, and particularly of its immediate effects on the mind, which, because they apparently co-exist with it, I styled its attendants. Of these I particularly mentioned faith in Christ, repentance, love to God, and love to mankind. All these exercises of the renewed mind are of such importance in the scriptural scheme, as to demand a distinct and particular consideration.

Faith, the first of them in the order which I have adopted, has heretofore been largely examined. In so complex a science as that of theology it is impossible not to anticipate particular subjects of discourse; because, among several things which are collateral and not regularly successive, and which are also variously connected, it becomes almost necessary to select, (for reasons irresistibly occurring, some one out of the several connections, which will prove in a measure injurious to the consideration of others. On some accounts the natural order would have induced me to discuss the subject of faith in this place; on others, it seemed desirable to give it an earlier examination. As the mind can very easily transfer it to that period at which in the order of time it begins to exist, the disadvantage will be immaterial, should it upon the whole be thought a disadvantage.

The next subject of consideration is repentance unto life, usually called evangelical repentance.

In the text we are informed that Judas, after he had betrayed Christ, seeing that he was condemned, “ repented himself. It is therefore certain that Judas was in some sense a penitent; yet it is equally certain that his repentance was not genuine'; or, in other words, was not the repentance which is required by the Gospel. As one of the most useful methods of distinguishing that which is genuine from that which is spurious is to compare them, I shall in the discussion of this subject,

I. Examine the repentance of Judas; and,
II. The nature of true repentance.

Concerning the repentance of Judas, I observe. 1. It was rea .

That Judas actually felt, and did in no sense counterfeit the sorrow which he professed for his treachery and its consequences, is evident beyond a possible doubt; its existence being evinced by the highest of all proofs, its influence on his conduct. False repentance therefore, by which I mean all that which is not evangelical, has a real and not merely a pretended existence. Of course it is not in this respect at all distinguished from the repentance of the Gospel.

2. It was deep and distressing.

This also is equally evinced in the same manner. son who was present to hear what Judas said, and to see the things which he did, could entertain a doubt that he was exceedingly distressed by the remembrance of what he had done. False repentance may not only be real, but deeply distressing;

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and cannot by this circumstance be distinguished from that which is genuine.

3. It was attended by a strong and full conviction of his guilt.

This is also amply declared both in his words and in his actions, so as not to admit even of a question. False repentance therefore cannot be distinguished from the true by this circumstance.

4. It was followed by a frank confession of his guilt.

• I have sinned,' said this miserable man, ' in that I have betrayed the innocent blood.' This confession he made before those to whom we should naturally expect him last to make it; viz. the very persons who had hired him to sin. It was also a confession extorted from him by a sense of his guilt alone, and not by any human persuasion, art, or violence. It was sincere ; being not only really, but intentionally true; a frank declaration both of his views and his conduct. Such a confession is therefore no decisive proof that repentance is genuine.

5. It was also followed, so far as was now possible, by a departure from his former conduct..

Whatever motives of a different kind prompted Judas to his treachery, it is plain covetousness had its share of influence. The attainment of money, he himself informs us, was an object primarily in his view. What will ye give me,' said he to the chief priests,' and I will deliver him unto you?' The sum which they offered was indeed very small; still it plainly operated with commanding force upon his mind. Nor need we wonder that he who, when he kept the bag which contained the little means of subsistence on which, when not supported by hospitality, Christ and his apostles lived, could from time to time basely plunder so small a part of it as not to be detected by his companions, should be induced to undertake a very base employment for thirty pieces of silver. But on the present occasion, covetous as he habitually was at all former times, he voluntarily returned the money which he had received to the chief priests, and in the anguish of his heart overcame for a season this ruiring propensity. Beyond this, he was desirous to do justice to the character of Christ. I have sinned,' said he, in that I have betrayed the innocent blood.'

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