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gainst the express Command of God. God forbade it to be eaten, for the Trial of Man's Obe. dience. And the Fitness of taking Trial of Man by that Mean, appears in that so it was taken in an external Thing, in itself indifferent, wherein Man's Obedience behoved to turn precisely upon the Point of the Will of God. This Sin was then, in effect, Man's practical Declaration that he would not be ruled by God's Will, but by his own: And therefore it was not a little Sin, but a breaking of the whole Law at once : Jam. ii.

For whosoever shall keep the whole law, ' and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all. • For he that said, Do not commit adultery; faid

also, Do not' kill. Now, if thoù commit no adultery, yet if thou kill, thou art become a tranfgreffor of the law.?

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Quest. 16. Did all Mankind fall in Adam's first Transgression?

Ans. The Covenant being made with Adam, not only for himself, but for his Posterity; all Mankind, descending from him by ordinary Generation, finned in hin, and fell with him, in his first Tranfgression.

EXPLICATION. Adam did not fall alone in this Tranfgression : But all Mankind, descending from him by ordinary Generation, were involved with him in the Ruins

of God for. Tan's Obe. al of Man is taken in , wherein isely upon was then, that he

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of his Fall: And these are all his Pofterity, except the Man Chrift: 1 Cor. V. 22. In Adam • all die.'

Christ as Man did indeed descend from Adam : Luke iii. 23. ' And Jesus himself began to be about

thirty years of age, being (as was supposed) the ' son of Jofeph. Compared with Verse last, 6. Which was the son of Adam. But he did not defcend from him by ordinary, but extraordinary Generation. That which was extraordinary in Chrilt's Generation, was, that he was born of a Virgin : Matth. i. 18. Now the birth of Jesus Chrift was on this wife : When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph; before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost.'

All the rest of Adam's Pofterity fell with him : They fell with him, from the State of Holiness and Happiness; both which they had in hand, and which they had in hope from the Promise of the Covenant of Works : And they so fell, by his first Tranfgreffion, Rom. v. 18. 19. By the offence

of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation. By one man's disobedience many

were made finners. His first Tranfgreffion was his eating of the forbidden Fruit. His eating of that Fruit, is called his firft Tranfgreffion; because by it his Sin and Apoftafy begun in his Heart, was completed, Gen. iii. 6. forecited. Now, that Tranfgression cast him and them down from these States of Holiness and Happiness, inasmuch as by it the Covenant of Works was broken : Gen. ii. 17. Compared with Chap. iii. 10. 11. 12. forecited. The Reason why they fell with him by that Tranfgreflion, was, that in it they finned in

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him: So that Sin, whereby the Covenant was broken, was our Sin, as well as his, Rom. v. 12.

* By one man sin entered into the world, and death by fin; and fo death passed upon all men, ' for that all have sinned. For by one man's dif• obedience many were made finners.'

It came to be our Sin, because he was our Covenant Head and Representative in the Covenant of Works; that is to say, The Covenant was made with him, not only for himself, but for his, Pofterity: 1 Cor. xv. And so it is written, The ' first man Adam was made a living soul. The Man Christ was not included in that Representation which Adam made as Head of the Covenant of Works, 1 Cor. xv. 22..45. ' For as in Adam Fall die, even so in Christ Thall all be made alive.' verf. 45. ' The first man Adam was made a living • soul, the last Adam was made a quickening

spirit;' and that because Christ came, not in virtue of the Blessing of Fruitfulness given while the Covenant of Works stood entire, but in virtue of a special Promise made after it was broken: Gen. i. 28. “And God blessed them, and God said unto

them, Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.' And Chap. iii. 15. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman,

and between thy seed and her feed : it shali bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.' Adam's Sin, then, could not be imputed to the Man Chrift, fince Adam did not represent him the Covenant. But Adam represented all the rest of Mankind in it: Rom. v. 12. forecited. It is


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true, we did not chufe him for our Representative, but God chose him for us : And he was the most fit Choice for that End : Ecclef. iii. 14. 'I know that whatsoever God doth, it shall be for ever : nothing can be put to it, nor any thing taken from it, and God doth it, that men should

fear before him.' And this he was, in regard he was the natural Head of Mankind, endowed with sufficient Ability: Acts xvii. 26. God hath made

of one blood, all nations of men, for to dwell on all the face of the earth, &c. Ecclef. vii. 29. God hath made man upright.'

Now, Man did not become free from the Cove. nant of Works, upon his breaking of it: For his breaking of it could never free him ; and the Honour of the Law barred his Discharge, till the Breach of it should be made up: If. xlii. 21. 'The ? Lord is well pleased for his righteousness-fake; he will magnify the law, and make it hónötrable.' Matth. v. 18. Till heaven and earth pass,

one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.' And Man bimself was utterly unable to make up that Breach : Rom. v. 6. ' For when we were yet without strength, . in due time Christ died for the ungodly.' All Men then by Nature are under the broken Covenant of Works : Rom. in. 19.

( Now we know that what things foever the law faith, it faith to them who are under the law; that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.',

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Quest. 17. Into what Estate did the Fall bring Mankind?

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Ans. The Fall brought Mankind into an Eñate of Sin and Misery.

EXPLICATION. The natural State of Mankind now, under the Covenant of Works, is a State of Sin and Misery : And we were brought into it by the Fall : Rom. v. 12. 'By one man sin entered into the world, and

death by fin; and so death passed upon all men, 6 for that all have finned.' We were all born or conceived in that State: Pfal. li. 5. Behold, I was

shapen in iniquity : and in fin did my mother • conceive me.. Eph. ii. 3. "We were by nature " the children of wrath, even as others. There is no true Holiness attainable in that our natural State; for it is a State of Sin. There is no Salvation from Wrath attainablé in it; for it is a State of Misery. The State we must be brought into, out of our natural State under the Covenant of Works, if we would be saved, is the State of Grace in the Covenant of Grace : Rom. vi. 14. ' For sin shall ! not have dominion over you: for ye are not under the law, but under grace.'

Those that are brought out of their patural State, from under the Covenant of Works, into the State of Grace, are all that are in Christ, converted Persons : Rom. viji. 1. « There is no condemnation to them which

are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, .but after the Spirit.' Those that are ftill in their natural State, under the Covenant of Works, are all that are out of Christ, unconvert. cd: Eph. ii. 1 2. At that time ye were without

Chrift, being aliens from the commonwealth of • Ifrael, and strangers from the covenants of pro

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