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now being Ann Hill Carter. From this marriage was born the famous Robert Edward Lee, of the Civil War.
General Lee was again to win fame, this time by a phrase. Elected to Congress in 1799, he was selected, after Washington's death, to pronounce a eulogy on his great commander. In this he characterized Washington as “first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen," a phrase which will not die while the memory of Washington lives.
On June 27, 1812, while visiting William Harrison, editor of the Federal Republican, at Baltimore, the office of this paper was attacked by a mob, infuriated by something in its columns. Lee aided in the defence of the office and as a result was severely injured, being left for dead in the street. He never recovered from the effects of this injury. In 1817 he went to the West Indies for his health and on his return stopped at the homestead of his old commander, General Greene, now occupied by the general's daughter, Mrs. Shaw. He died during this visit, in March, 1818.
FRANCIS MARION, THE SWAMP FOX OF
In the history of our country there is no more attractive figure than that of Francis Marion, the renowned hero of romance and adventure. His exploits form a story full of delight to all lovers of daring acts and skilled stratagems, of marvellous escapes and genius in partisan warfare. He had no rival in celerity of movement or in the art of concealment. Never once was he overtaken or traced to his hiding place, and so skilful was he in concealment that some of his own friends, well acquainted with his usual places of retreat, are said to have sought for days without finding him. Then at some unexpected point he would suddenly appear, pounce like an eagle upon the enemy, deal them a stinging blow and be away again before a superior force could reach him. An adept in the work of the scout and the partisan, he has ever been a favorite with lovers of the daring and romantic.
The history of the Revolution contains many thrilling stories of Marion's exploits. A small man, short of stature and very light in weight, he always rode one of the swiftest and most powerful horses the South could produce. When in pursuit no one could escape him; when in retreat no one could overtake him. His good steed saved him more than once from capture, of which we have a striking instance in the following story.
Once, when pursued and nearly surrounded by a party of British dragoons, he leaped a roadside fence
into a cornfield. The dragoons followed and were close upon him. The field descended and was marshy at its lower side, there being here a ditch four feet wide and deep, while inside the ditch was a bank of mud on which stood a fence, the whole being over seven feet high. To leap this fence was Marion's only hope of escape, and its height seemed to make this impossible. The dragoons saw the dilemma he was in and pressed towards him, shouting and laughing in disdain and calling on him to surrender.
Marion did not hesitate for a moment. Spurring his gallant horse, he rushed him at the fence. The noble animal seemed to recognize the strait his master was in, came up to the barrier in his finest style, and with a bound that seemed supernatural cleared the fence and the ditch and came down on his feet on the other side. Marion turned, fired his pistols without effect at his astounded pursuers, then, bidding them
good morning," wheeled his horse and vanished in triumph into a neighboring thicket, leaving them divided between admiration and chagrin.
As to the band of Marion, the followers of this wildwood hero, there is a story that clearly shows the kind of material with which he had to do his gallant deeds. In the summer of 1780 General Gates with his army had crossed the Pedee River and was marching towards Camden, South Carolina, where he was destined to meet with an annihilating defeat.
On his way thither there rode into his ranks a volunteer detachment of such woe-begone aspect that the soldiers looked at them with astonishment and mirth.
About twenty in all, they were a mosaic of whites and blacks, men and boys, their clothes in tatters, their equipment a burlesque on military smartness, their horses lean, half starved specimens of the war-charger. At their head 'rode a small, thin-faced man, modestlooking, but with a flash in his eye that admonished the soldiers not to laugh until behind his back. This was Marion and this was his band. Then but little known, he was soon to become the Robin Hood of warriors, the Swamp-Fox of romantic history.
He offered some modest advice to Gates, but the latter was too full of conceit to be open to advice from this or any other quarter, and was glad enough to get rid of his unwelcome visitor by sending him on a scouting expedition in advance of the army, to watch the enemy and report upon his movements. This was the work for which Marion's men were best adapted and they rode gaily away. But before they went Governor Rutledge, who was with the army and who knew Marion's worth, raised him in rank from colonel to general, and gave him a commission for guerilla work among the swamps and forests of the South.
Francis Marion was born near Georgetown, South Carolina, in 1732. A love for adventure was born in him, and at the age of sixteen we find him setting out in life as a sailor, on a vessel bound to the West Indies. On the way thither a gale of wind wrecked the vessel and the crew were forced to take to their boat without water or provisions, except a dog which had leaped into the boat and whose raw flesh supplied all the food they had for seven or eight days. Several of them died from hunger and exposure, young Marion being one of the few who escaped.
This adventure gave him enough of sea life and he engaged in farming until 1759, when he took part as lieutenant in an expedition against the Cherokee Indians, under Captain Moultrie. He comes into history
again in 1775, when he was appointed a captain in the first corps of soldiers raised by South Carolina for the war of the Revolution. In 1776, now a major, he served under his old commander Moultrie in the intrepid defence of Fort Moultrie against the British fleet. The British here got enough of South Carolina to last them for several years.
Marion took part in the defence of Georgia in 1777, and as lieutenant-colonel was at Charleston when besieged by the British in 1780. Here, having broken his leg in an accident, he left the city and thus escaped being made a prisoner when the garrison surrendered. To avoid capture he was carried from place to place, but as soon as he was able to take the saddle he was in the field again. The British had by this time spread widely through South Carolina and held the State in an iron grip, and the only kind of warfare practicable was that which Marion undertook. Gathering about him a band at first containing only sixteen men, he crossed the Santee and began that system of bold attacks and swift escapes which gave so much trouble and annoyance to the foe.
It was the chosen work of the Swamp-Fox to keep alive the fire of liberty in South Carolina and pave the way for the reconquest of the South. Marion was not alone in this patriotic duty: Sumter, Pickens and others were engaged in the same work. But he was the most daring, persistent and successful, and has become far the most famous of them all.
His sixteen men soon grew to a larger corps, but it was constantly varying, now swelling, now sinking, never large. The swamps of the Pedee, which formed his chief abiding place, could not furnish shelter and food for any large body of men. In their thicket