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either to advance or to retreat. Under these circumstances General Wheeler gave the word to advance.

Instantly, with a yell of vengeance, the men sprang forward and charged in fury, soon reaching the foot of the hill and then rushing up it in face of a severe fire from the works. In front of the Rough Riders rode Roosevelt, the only mounted man in the line, filled with the battle fury, and waving his hat and shouting to his men as he led on. Nothing could stop the gallant fellows. A murderous fire swept their ranks, but on up the hill they went, their lines thinning, but every man on his feet pressing upward, until the crest was reached, and they swarmed over the breastworks and into the block-house, driving out the defenders in wild haste and revenging their own losses upon them as they fled down the opposite slope. It was like the charge at Missionary Ridge, as 'sudden and unexpected, and as successful.

There was fighting on the following two days, and then the siege began which ended on the 18th in the surrender of Santiago. General Wheeler took part in the negotiations which led to this result, and with this his service in Cuba was practically at an end. But the fighting spirit was not yet taken out of the old dragoon. He was reëlected to Congress after the war, but in 1899 he went to the Philippine Islands, where he took part in the fighting against Aguinaldo and his army. His campaign here was a brief but active one, he fighting in twelve engagements in ten days. In 1900 he was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general in the United States army, and shortly afterwards was placed on the retired list of army officers, having passed the legal age of retirement. He died on the 25th of January, 1906.

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ANTIETAM: THE FIGHT AT BURNSIDE'S BRIDGE.

AMBROSE E. BURNSIDE, THE DEFENDER

OF KNOXVILLE

AMBROSE EVERETT BURNSIDE was born at Liberty, Indiana, May 23, 1824. Here he learned the trade of tailoring, being subsequently sent to West Point, where he graduated in 1847. He left the army in 1852, with the rank of first lieutenant, afterwards making Rhode Island his place of residence. When the Civil War began he was appointed colonel of a volunteer regiment of Rhode Island troops, and with these took part in the battle of Bull Run, where he commanded General Hunter's brigade when the latter was wounded. In August he was made a brigadier-general.

Burnside had shown himself skilful and able, and in January, 1862, he was selected for an important service, as commander of the troops, sixteen thousand in number, sent to take possession of important points on the coast of North Carolina. The expedition numbered over a hundred vessels, of various styles and sizes, which left Hampton Roads on the 11th, their destination a profound secret. The Confederate authorities, however, were not deceived as to the purpose of the expedition, and when it appeared off Roanoke Island on the 5th of February, after suffering some loss from stormy weather, it found forts and garrison awaiting.

The attack began with a cannonade from the fleet which did some damage to the forts. This was followed by the landing of a strong force of troops, who attacked the works on the 8th in overwhelming numbers. The fortifications were soon carried, three thousand prisoners falling into the hands of the assailants. The Government thus won with ease a strong position on the southern coast. A month later the towns of Newberne, on the Neuse River, and Beaufort, with Fort Macon, on Beaufort Harbor, were taken, together with some smaller places. Burnside's operations in this locality ended in July, when he was hastily summoned, with all the forces he could bring, to Fortress Monroe, General McClellan being apparently in great danger.

Burnside in these operations had shown much energy, judgment, and sagacity. He was rewarded for his success with the rank of major-general and the command of a corps in McClellan's army. His next prominent service was on the battle-field of Antietam, where, on the morning of September 17, he was directed to cross the bridge over Antietam Creek, carry the heights opposite and advance along them to Sharpsburg

In this he had a most difficult and dangerous task, the approach to the bridge being a defile exposed to a raking fire from artillery and musketry. Several attempts to cross were repulsed with severe loss, and it was one o'clock in the afternoon before a crossing was forced and the heights were gallantly charged and taken. The movement was a threatening one for Lee, as it might have led to the capture or destruction of his whole army. Fortunately for him, General Hill's division, on its way from the capture of Harper's Ferry, came up at this critical moment and drove back Burnside's men with a heavy artillery fire. The bridge was held, but the heights were lost and the promising manæuvre failed.

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