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hausted armies regaining their strength for the next day's battle.

This began early on the 2d and for hours was as furious as before. The final result was due to a very heavy artillery fire, fifty-eight guns being massed and pouring their annihilating fire on the Confederate ranks. This was followed by a brilliant cavalry charge, which broke down all opposition. “In forty minutes,” says Rosecrans,“ the Confederates lost two thousand men and their entire line fell back, leaving four hundred captive." Bragg had enough. He held his ground during the next day, but in the night he retreated, leaving two thousand sick and wounded in the hands of the victors.

Rosecrans had won a great victory, but he followed it by months of exasperating inaction. The winter passed away, spring came and went, yet he still lay at Murfreesboro, getting ready for a new campaign, but with annoying slowness. The people of the North grew impatient, the authorities at Washington were equally impatient, frequent orders and remonstrances came from the war department, but it was the end of June before the dilatory leader consented to move. His movements then were very deliberate. July and August passed away and it was not until September 4 that he crossed the Tennessee, ready to deal with the large Confederate force which had gathered at Chattanooga.

The method now adopted by Rosecrans seemed a judicious one. Instead of attacking the strongly fortified position held by Bragg, he tried a flanking policy, threatening the railroads below Chattanooga over which Bragg received his supplies. The result was that the Confederate general hastily abandoned that place and the Federals took it without opposition. In the days that followed Rosecrans scattered his forces widely and perilously in the pursuit of what he took to be a fleeing enemy, and discovered his mistake barely in time to concentrate his men in Chickamauga Valley. He had learned that Bragg .was not fleeing in force before him and that Longstreet was bringing strong reinforcements from Virginia.

Battle was imminent, and on the 19th of September the blow fell, the conflict opening in an attack by Rosecrans on the enemy's right wing. All that day the battle raged and night fell with neither side victorious, though the Confederates had won several advantages. Late that night Longstreet arrived with his veterans from Richmond and the next day he poured his men into a gap left inadvertently in the Union centre, cutting the army in two and rolling both halves back in disorder and confusion. All seemed lost, and Rosecrans galloped in haste to Chattanooga to secure his trains and bridges and telegraphed to Washington that the Union army had been defeated.

The greater part of it really had been defeated, but one man, George H. Thomas, the “Rock of Chickamauga," saved the situation. All day long he held his post, repelling every charge and retarding Bragg's whole army. Not until night fell did he deliberately fall back, and when he reached Chattanooga it was in a firm and orderly march. We have told elsewhere how this place was held and Bragg was ultimately defeated. All we need say here is that on October 16 Rosecrans was removed from his command and Thomas appointed to succeed him.

The military career of General Rosecrans was near its end. Until now he had played an important part in the war, but he had been tried in a great command and found wanting, and he was shelved in Missouri, where all he had to do was to repel an invasion by his old antagonist, Sterling Price. He resigned from the army, March 28, 1867, with the brevet rank of major-general. During the next year he was for some months United States minister to Mexico, but was afterwards Democratic candidate for governor both in California and in Ohio. He was elected to Congress in 1881, and in 1885 was made register of the treasury. He died in March, 1898.

The character and career of Rosecrans are held by military critics to have borne a marked resemblance to that of McClellan. He was a strategist of high order, could draft excellent plans for a campaign, but lacked the force to carry them through vigorously, and by his procrastination lost the benefit promised by his successes,-a statement which is held to apply to both these commanders.



The Civil War was marked by the exploits of several famous cavalry leaders on the Confederate side, chief among them being Stuart, the hard rider of Virginia, and Forrest, the daring raider of the West and South, some of whose exploits have the brilliancy of those of Marion of old. One of his doings excited the admiration of General Lord Wolseley, who said that it“ read like a romance," and the same may be said of some others of his dashing deeds. An account of his career, therefore, properly belongs here.

Nathan Bedford Forrest was born in Bedford County, Tennessee, July 13, 1821. At thirteen he went to Mississippi with his parents, and here, after working on and managing a farm, he engaged in business at Hernando. He removed to Memphis, Tennessee, at twenty-one and became there a dealer in land and slaves. In 1859 he engaged in the cotton business in Coahoma County, Mississippi, where he acquired considerable wealth.

Such is a brief statement of General Forrest's uneventful career up to his fortieth year, in 1861, when the Civil War broke out and the opportunity for fame first came to him. The secession movement was not to his liking. He thought the South was making a mistake, and when his own State joined in it he entered the army reluctantly. But once in he quickly showed that he proposed to fight for his cause with all the vim he possessed.

He raised a cavalry regiment shortly after the war began, was made lieutenant-colonel in October, 1861, and was present at Fort Donelson when Grant descended on that devoted stronghold with soldiers and ships. Forrest seems to have been among those who saw that the place was doomed and that it was the part of wisdom to leave it a free man rather than to wait for captivity. At any rate he and his men escaped before the hour of surrender came and we hear of him next at Nashville, which he reached in February, 1862, shortly after the fall of Donelson.

He was a cavalry leader in the battle of Shiloh, and for some months after that battle he and his fellowraider, Morgan, kept things lively in that area of the war, Morgan raiding Kentucky with vim and boldness, while Forrest paid similar attention to Tennessee. He was now a brigadier-general, in command of the second brigade of cavalry, and as such succeeded in spreading consternation throughout his field of operations.

On the morning of July 13 he appeared suddenly before Murfreesboro at the head of three thousand men and made so vigorous an attack on the smaller Federal forces there that they were defeated and made prison

Valuable stores fell into his hands and he decamped for other operations. His bold attack on a place so near Nashville roused a sentiment of lively alarm in that city. The work on the fortifications was pushed and every effort made to prepare for an attack. There was good reason for it, for Forrest's rough riders came more than once within sight of the city, and for a whole month it was threatened by cavalry raiders.

These movements had a deeper purpose than that


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