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boldly along the back, FREE SITTINGS. This serves to prevent confusion and mistakes; for should the poor man drop in during a shower of rain he knows where to go-much as on the Shaveall Railway he is directed to its roofed-in bullock-pens, by means of a plain-spoken announcement along the side of each, FOR THE WORKING CLASSES. "There are "Negro pens" in your English meetings,' says my friend Smarte.
Veridicus is unusually pleasant upon the topic in hand. Well for our aristocracy,' says he, that their gilded saloons must never be polluted by the presence of the canaille. Well for our bourgeoisie that none but themselves should ever see their doubtful pictures and heavy plate. But I have heard it said that "the church is a republic;" and even Tractarian curates make war upon "pues," and lisp out that "the distinction of ranks is in logical phrase an accident." Were it not advisable then to erase from the benches near the door those invidious letters, if not to divest of its crimson curtains that dignified deacon's pew? Or suppose,' says he, we put the crimson curtains behind the Spitalfields weaver, who looks so pale and delicate, and on whose life the livelihood of so many depends.' Upon which there ensues such shaking of fat sides and universal convulsion of diaconal diaphragms, tickled by the thought, that he is fain to break off abruptly.
Discipulus has a few words in a graver strain. The entire system requires revision,' says he, if Christianity is to make any effectual inroads on the empire of Darkness and Sin. "Pews" and " pewrents are amongst the entrenchments and defences which the Evil One has thrown up across her path. Let her look to it in time; and forthwith send out some sturdy band of pioneers who shall make short work with these cunning contrivances of the enemy, which are an offence to her, and which obstruct her sublime march to victory.'
But, as if pausing upon this last thought, he muses awhile ere he adds, somewhat unexpectedly, but with an earnestness unusual even in him, Reformers are a prolific race; and he is but a simpleton who would throw himself into the arms of the first demagogue that hoists the pendant of liberty. Partisan leadership will do nothing for us, or worse than nothing, in this warfare; and the most inveterate Jesuit I ever chanced to know, was one who called himself a "Plymouth Brother." It may be that new organizations are not what we want, and that if they were, the materials for such do not exist at present. The Popery of CHAPEL EXTENSION would be ill encountered with the Popery of Plymouth Brethrenism; nor let worldly ambition dare to knot a scourge of small cords, thinking thereby to drive out of the temple the traffickers in PEW-RENTS. If any aspire to lead us, we must be sure that they have waited first, as did the fishermen once at Jerusalem, until "the day of Pentecost had fully come." Perhaps we shall look for such assurance in vain. Perhaps 66 no sign will be given" us. Perhaps it were better so. For then we may weary of crying day by day, "Lo here!" and "Lo there!" and instead of looking wistfully around us for guidance, may learn in our extremity
to look up. It is when we have reformed ourselves, that the wider reformation for which we sigh will be in sight. The Government is not upon our shoulders. But the New Testament is in our hand; and on the last page of its most wonderful book is that rebuke which Peter received from the Lord he loved so well, “If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee? FOLLOW THOU ME." !
X. Y. Z.
*Many daughters have done virtuously, but thou excellest.'
So frequently of late has the name heading this paper been before the public in connexion with emigration, that whilst during the last few years many families in England, Scotland, and Ireland, have become so directly interested in her movements, that · Caroline Chisholm' is with them a household name, there can be comparatively few to whom it is unknown. A lady who in five years has acquired so extensive a reputation in our own country—who came hither from the Antipodes, followed by the prayers and blessings of the whole population, and publicly recommended by the members of council, magistrates, landholders, merchants, and others, inhabitants of New South Wales who has been the subject of despatches between the Home and the Colonial Governments—and the results of whose experience have been sought by, and the wisdom of whose advice has guided, Colonial Secretaries and Emigration Commissioners, cannot be an ordinary person. It is not for these circumstances alone, however, that we propose to give our readers some account of her life and character. If her name is now to thousands the cherished symbol of what is good and kind and noble, it is simply because, being ever ready to act on the precept, ‘Do unto others as ye would they should do unto you,' she has seized every opportunity which Providence has thrown in her way of being useful to such as have most needed her sympathy and help. The works of one animated by this spirit, multiply and accumulate, for they are not the result of mere sentiment, or of fitful feeling, nor, when once undertaken, are they hastily abandoned. It is surprising, too, how naturally occasions for usefulness will present themselves to those who look for them-how numerous they become-and how they increase in apparent importance. At first, indeed, it may be but the giving of
a cup of cold
• Memoirs of Mrs. Caroline Chisholm, &c., by Eneas Mackenzie. 8vo. Pp. 187. Webb and Co., 1852. The Three Colonies of Australia, with illustrations by S. Sydney, Esq. Large 8vo. Ingram, Cooke and Co., 1852. Report of the Family Colonization Society. Daily News,' 1851-2, &c. Mrs. Chisholm's letter to Earl Grey. A B C of Colonization, &c.
water to one of the little ones ;' but if that first act of kindness be the ó fruit of the Spirit,' it may be the precursor of benefits that shall bless an entire community. How remarkably this is illustrated by the life of Mrs. Chisholm, our brief sketch will show.
The parents of Mrs. Chisholm resided at Wooton, in Northamptonshire, and are said to have been in respectable circumstances. At the place mentioned, Caroline was born, but we cannot give the date of her birth, as either the ignorance or the gallantry of her biographer (Mr. E. Mackenzie), has prevented his gratifying our natural curiosity in this respect, and we have not seen it mentioned elsewhere. Mrs. Chisholm, however, appears to be now in the prime of life. In her early education and associations she was fortunate. Her father (Mr. William Jones), was a man of great uprightness and integrity of character, and a yeoman of the old English school of kindliness and hospitality. Her mother, who was left a widow when Caroline was very young, was a pious woman, of much firmness of character, very acute perceptions, and overflowing benevolence. As one result of her early training, and the excellent spirit she imbibed, our heroine was accustomed, while yet a girl, to visit the abodes of the wretched, administer to the wants of the poor and sick, and advise and comfort the distressed. We are not surprised, therefore, to learn that before she was twenty years of age, she charmed the heart of one of like disposition, and that Captain Alexander Chisholm made her his wife. Two years after marriage, the young couple sailed for Madras. Here they were not long settled, before they felt much troubled, at observing the low state of morality existing amongst the families of the soldiers, and especially was Mrs. Chisholm concerned on account of the evils to which the young of her own sex were exposed, 'familiarity with licentious and profane expressions' obliterating, in many instances, all delicacy of mind and manners, and this education of the barracks leading too often to the very worst results. The ladies of the officers were too ‘fine’ or too timid to interfere. Mrs. Chisholm's energy of mind aided her benevolence of heart, and she resolved to attempt a reform. A girl's school must be established, and means taken to bring the scholars under the power of higher principles than those of the barrack-room, and to protect those who had the misfortune to be orphans. A school, in which “education was blended with the duties of housekeeping,' was accordingly commenced in the precincts of the barracks; and Mrs. Chisholm, anxious to exercise a personal superintendence,' and her husband sympathizing with her, they left their own comfortable residence, and took up their abode near it. So unhealthy was the district in which the school was situated, that her friends refrained from visiting her, from fear of infection. After persevering for a time, she found that this locality was too near the sink of iniquity, from whence she had taken the children, for the work of reform to make effectual progress. The school of industry' was, therefore, removed to a greater distance. The experiment, however, had shown the possibility of attaining the desired result, and experience had enabled Mrs. Chisholm to render her plans more efficient. Persons
high in office also now aided her self-denying efforts, which were ultimately crowned with so much success, that this institution is now an extensive orphanage, rearing in industry and protecting in virtue those who have lost the guardianship of parents, fallen a sacrifice to the glory'-or folly of their country.
The state of Captain Chisholm's health having rendered necessary a change of climate, he left India in 1838, accompanied by his wife and children, and sailed for Australia. About the end of that year they reached Sydney, and there for a time resided. In this nest of demoralized society, there was an urgent demand for the exercise of Christian usefulness. To the observant eye and kind heart of Mrs. Chisholm, that appeal was not made in vain. Appalling as was the state of things when viewed as a whole, she did not shrink from dealing humanely and actively with such individual cases as necessarily came under her notice. More than this—she sought them out. Emigrants, ignorant of the country and destitute, were constantly arriving, and settling down in idleness, were adding to the misery and immorality of the town. The local government scarcely attempted to cope with the evil—its system of mismanagement rather increased it. On the arrival, therefore, of the emigrant ships, Mrs. Chisholm went amongst the
passengers, took trouble to ascertain their circumstances, gave them good advice, recommended them to seek occupation in the interior where labour was in demand, and in necessitous cases lent them what she could spare from her own limited resources. occasion, her attention was specially attracted by“ a party of Highland emigrants,' who landed in the colony unable to speak any language but their native Gaelic, and without a friend to assist or guide them.' She ‘lent them money to purchase tools and wheelbarrows,' to enable them, as a temporary means of relief, to “cut and sell firewood to the inhabitants. The success of such experiments was gratifying, and stimulated her to yet greater exertions. Meanwhile (1840), her husband, who had ardently reciprocated' all her benevolent anxieties, returned alone to India ; it being thought desirable that Mrs. Chisholm and her family should remain in the more favourable climate of New South Wales. At parting the captain urged his wife to persevere in the self-denying course she had commenced.
Unobtrusive as were Mrs. Chisholm's efforts at this time, she was unconsciously laying the foundation of lasting benefits to the colony. Her increased experience and knowledge of the state of matters at Sydney, in relation to the influx of emigrants from the old country,' brought her into acquaintance with an evil, that appealed with irresistible force to her woman's heart. Amongst the hundreds of new. comers were many unprotected single young women. Arriving almost uncared-for, and quite unguarded, they were often taken in hand on ship-board by well-dressed ladies,' and conducted to ruin. “There were neither, writes Mrs. Chisholm, sufficient arrangements made for removing emigrants into the interior, nor for protecting females on their arrival. A few only were properly protected, while hundreds were wandering about Sydney, without friends or protection.
I received several into the "Home," whom, I found, had slept out many nights in the government domain, seeking the sheltered recesses of the rocks, rather than encounter the dangers of the streets. It was estimated that there were six hundred females, at the time I commenced the "Home," unprovided for in Sydney.' It greatly aggravated this evil that many young women arrived in the colony in a state of great poverty-having, in some instances, only a few pence in their pockets and in consequence of the practice of allowing persons to engage them in service before landing, they were often caught in the traps of designing parties. Mrs. Chisholm,' says her biographer, 'went amongst the helpless and gave them advice-the captains and agents she besought to act with caution and humanity, and sacrificing every domestic comfort and privacy, when she saw a poor creature amid dangers and exposed to ruin, she took her to her own house,' 'having sometimes as many as nine' sheltered and protected under her roof.
It is strange, yet true, that in all this Mrs. Chisholm not only met with no sympathy from people generally, but got considerably laughed at for her pains. Single-handed, however, she gave her energy and attention to the mitigation of the unfortunate circumstances of the young women, until, finding the work increase upon her hands, and becoming sensitively alive to the greatness of the evil prevailing-not only in its moral, but also in its social and political aspects-she was convinced that it was the duty of society to adopt means for its correction, and that to do the work effectually needed the earnest co-operation of all interested in the welfare of the colony. She, therefore, privately appealed to those within her reach. Her entreaties were entirely disregarded,' on account, apparently, of the very magnitude of the evil, and for a time she shrank from the greater publicity necessary to rouse the general apathy and indifference. Whilst hesitating between her sense of duty and her fears in this direction, an incident occurred which nerved her resolution. 6 A young and beautiful Highland girl,' respecting whom her mother, when warned by Mrs. Chisholm, had said, there was no fear of Flora, for her head had never rested but on her mother's hearth,' soon after her arrival in the colony, met the unfortunate fate of too many. A providential accident brought Mrs. Chisholm across her path when she was about to commit suicide. I did not leave the place,' she says, until, with subdued feelings, I heard her vow never to attempt self-destruction. I provided her lodgings; my spirits returned; I felt God's blessing was on my work. From the time I was on the beach with Flora, fear left me.'
Mrs. Chisholm resolved now, at all hazards, to persevere in her course, looking to heaven for wisdom, and strength, and blessing. Having propounded a plan for a Female Emigrants' Home,' she appealed to Governor Gipps and his lady for countenance and support, but was in the first instance disregarded, and treated as some wild enthusiast.' The clergy of various denominations were next appealed to, but doubted' until the appeal was made to them through the