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present,' and to seek to realize in its fulness the life that is.' Our Birmingham youth has taken refuge from the tyrants’ of his childhood in the belief that the world is fatherless; but he will make it, as much as he can, a pure, pleasant, and honourable home-he will strive to diffuse the utility and cheerfulness lacking in his mother's house.

I have mentioned a society of · Theological Utilitarians.' Of that association Mr. Holyoake was the founder; and I believe the following exposition of its objects is by his hand :

'I. The extirpation of the grosser religions and the refutation of the refined ones. II. The registering of Theological arguments-distinguishing such as remain unanswered from such as have been refuted. III. The reduction of the authority of the Bible

to the level of profane history-Moses to the level of Mahomet, David to Milton, Paul to Cicero. IV. The promulgation of systematic morality, founded on the nature of man, and his harmonious relation to external things-a morality independent of religion, and which, instead of showing men to heaven, shows them to themselves, and as Bishop Butler expresses it, " deduces their course of life and behaviour from that which their real natures point out.”'

The first clause excites at once a smile and a shudder, by the simplicity of its avowal. “The extirpation of the grosser religions, and the refutation of the refined'—the bloody rites of Juggernaut, and the sweet words of Jesus, alike to be trodden out by the iron foot of utility !—But some will not be displeased to see that Mr. Holyoake has no mercy for semi-Christianity-makes no advances to those who would sacrifice all that is substantial in the religion of the New Testament, for the sake of extending its merely nominal dominion.

The 'Society of Theological Utilitarians' has, I believe, come to a natural end. But, its leader has recently founded another, and a more elaborate organization, entitled the 'Society of Seculars. He appears to think that his mission has accomplished its first stage—that having won for free-thinking, even for Atheism, the right of free speech, it should now enter the field of constructive effort. The creed of the associationfor a creed is not disavowed-I take to be identical with that of the Utilitarians; but its object is of a more practical character. One public purpose is,' we are told, “to obtain the repeal of all Acts of Parliament that interfere with secular practices, by forcing religious compliances of speech or conduct, and to obtain the abrogation of so much of the common law as may be applied to the same purposes. The first branch of this object will be to obtain the passing of an Act of Parliament which shall enable persons to make affirmations, who object to the terms and ceremonies of oaths. This society will have branches wherever two or three of its adherents are resident. The number already attached to the society I know not. Mr. Holyoake has somewhere said that his (i. e. infidel—not exclusively atheistic) views, have a hundred thousand sympathizers in the United Kingdom, and are held, as deliberate convictions, by twenty or thirty thousand. In another place he speaks of the wide field open between the dilettante scepticism of gentlemen, and the undisciplined rationalism of the poor.' The estimate I deem moderate—the sphere, a wide one. Popular infidelity will, therefore, soon become an organized and distinct thing

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in the capital of Christendom. I doubt, however, whether organization can long exist where there is so little that is positive in belief. Yet I long to see Christians take their right place. It may be a step towards that, to get them to understand the man who is the impersonation of this element. One more quotation from his writings-the closing paragraph of a little volume on Discussion will show, better than further words of mine, how eloquent and earnest a man is he, and how false to the spirit of their faith have some Christians been :

'False is the tongue which tells us that we implore debate in vanity. Let our lives bear witness whether we have idly entreated the privilege of controversy. We sought it for light, we coveted it for direction, and we maintain it for self-defence. We have won the privilege dearly, and shall not resign it. We appealed to the clergy, and they would not heed us. Standing on the dim and shadowy verge of the future, where every man must tread for himself and alone the vestibule of the eternal labyrinth, we appealed to our brother traveller for light and help. We trusted to his Christian profession of love and truth, of service and gentle speech, and he turned from us in contempt, bestowed no word upon us, but went and denounced us to those who had influence-and abandoned us to the fury of the bigot and the vulgarity of the rabble-and we were driven away like a plague ship to carry our agony into the loneliness of the sea.'

This is not the true way to treat Infidelity. Mr. Townley has met it in the right spirit. So have others whom we could name. Is not the infidel-infidel though he be-a man and a brother? He may not know the Father of All, but is he not one of his children?


Jessie Bampton.


'WHAT are you doing here, miss?'

The young girl thus addressed was sitting by a centre-table, upon which stood a lamp, in a handsomely furnished drawing-room. She laid aside the book she was reading, and, without making any reply, rose up quickly and retired. Two or three persons, members of the family, were present. All observed the effect of Mrs. Freeman's words, yet no one had heard what was said; nor would they have been aware that more than a request for some service had been made, but for the lady's remark as the girl left the room.

'I might as well begin at once, and let Jessie know her place.' 'What did you say to her, ma?' asked a young lady who sat swinging herself in a large rocking-chair.

'I simply asked her what she was doing here.'

• What did she answer?'

Why do the Clergy avoid Discussion, and the Philosophers discountenance it? By G. J. Holyoake. London: J. Watson.

+Woman's Trials.' By T. S. Arthur. Philadelphia, U.S.: Lippincott and Co.

'Nothing. The way in which I put the question fully explained my meaning. I am sorry that there should have arisen a necessity for hurting her feelings; but if the girl doesn't know her place, she must be told where it is.'

'I don't see that she was doing any great harm,' remarked an old gentleman, who sat in front of the grate.


'She was not in her place, brother,' said Mrs. Freeman, with an air of dignity. We employ her as a teacher in the family, not as a companion. Her own good sense should have taught her this.'

'You wouldn't have us make an equal of Jessie Hampton, would you, uncle Edward?' inquired the young lady who sat in the rockingchair.

'You cannot make her your equal, Fanny, in point of worldly blessings, for, in this matter, Providence has dealt more hardly with her than with you. As to companionship, I do not see that she is less worthy now than she was a year ago.'

'You talk strangely, Edward,' said Mrs. Freeman, in a tone of dissent.

'In what way, sister?'

'There has been a very great change in a year. Jessie's family no longer moves in our circle.'

True; but is Jessie any the less worthy to sit in your parlour than she was then?'

'I think so, and that must decide the matter,' returned Mrs. Freeman, evincing some temper.

The old gentleman said no more; but Fanny remarked- I was not in favour of taking Jessie, for I knew how it would be; but Mrs. Carlton recommended her so highly, and said so much in her favour, that no room was left for a refusal. As for Jessie herself, I have no particular objection to her; but the fact of her once having moved in the circle we are in is against her; for it leaves room for her to step beyond her place, as she has already done, and puts upon us the unpleasant necessity of reminding her of her error.'


'It don't seem to me,' remarked Mr. Freeman, who had till now said nothing, that Miss Hampton was doing anything worthy of reproof. She has been well brought up, we know; is an educated, refined, and intelligent girl, and, therefore, has nothing about her to create repugnance or to make her presence disagreeable. It would be better, perhaps, if we looked more to what persons are, than to things merely external.'

It is all very well to talk in that way,' said Mrs. Freeman; but Miss Hampton is governess in our family, and it is only right that she should hold to us that relation, and keep her place. What she has been, or what she is, beyond the fact of her present position here, is nothing to us.'

Mr. Freeman knew from experience, that no particular good would grow out of a prolonged argument on this subject, and so said nothing further, although he could not force from his mind the image of the young girl as she rose up hastily and left the room, nor help thinking



how sad a change it would be for one of his own children, if reduced suddenly to her condition.

A good deal more was said by Mrs. Freeman, who did not feel very comfortable, although she fully justified herself for what she had done.

The young girl, who had been reminded so harshly of the error into which she had fallen, went quickly up into her cold chamber, and there, with a burning cheek, sat down to think as calmly as her disturbed feelings would permit. The weakness of tears she did not indulge; self-respect, rather than pride, sustained her. Had she acted from the first impulse, she would have left the house immediately, never again to re-enter it; but reason soon told her that, however strong her impulses might be, duties and considerations far beyond mere feeling must come in to restrain them.


• Whatever I have been,' she said to herself, as she sat and reflected, I am now simply a governess, and must steadily bear that in mind. In this house I am to receive no more consideration than a mere stranger. Have I a right to complain of this? Have I cause to be offended at Mrs. Freeman for reminding me of the fact? Her reproof was unkindly given; but false pride has in it no gentleness, no regard for another's feelings. Ah, me! this is one more lesson of the many I have to learn; but let me bear up with a brave heart. There is One who knows my path, and who will see that nothing therein need cause my feet to stumble. From this moment I will think of all here as strangers. I will faithfully do what I have engaged to do, and expect therefore only the compensation agreed upon when I came. Have I a right to expect more?'

The bright colour faded gradually from the flushed checks of Jessie Hampton, and with a calm, yet pensive face, she arose and went down into the room which had been set apart for her use when giving instruction to the children. It was warmed and lighted, and had in it a small library. Here she sat alone, reading and thinking, for a couple of hours, and then retired to her chamber for the night.

As was intimated in the conversation that arose upon her leaving the drawing-room, Jessie Hampton's circumstances had suffered, in a very short period, a great change. A year before she was the equal and companion of Fanny Freeman, and more beloved and respected by those who knew her than Fanny was or ever could be; but unexpected reverses came. The relative who had been to her as a father for many years was suddenly deprived of all his worldly goods, and reduced so low as to be in want of the comforts of life. So soon as Jessie saw this, she saw plainly her duty.

'I cannot burden my uncle,' said she resolutely to herself. He has enough, and more than enough, to bear up under, without the addition of my weight. Thoughtfully she looked around her; but still in doubt what to do, she called upon a lady named Mrs. Carlton, who was among the few whose manner towards her had not changed with altered fortune, and frankly opened to her what was in her mind. 'What does your uncle say?' inquired Mrs. Carlton. Does he approve the step?'

'He knows nothing of my purpose,' returned Jessie. 'Then had you not better consult him?'

"He will not hear of it, I am certain; but, for all that, I am resolved to do as I propose. He has lost his property, and is now in great trouble. He is, in fact, struggling hard to keep his head above water my weight might sink him. But, even if there were no danger of this, so long as I am able to sustain myself, I will not cling to him while he is tossed on the waves of adversity.'


'I cannot but highly approve your decision,' said Mrs. Carlton, her heart warm with admiration for the right-minded girl. The fact that your uncle has been compelled to give up his elegant house, and retire with you to a boarding-house, shows the extremity to which he has been reduced. I understand that his fine business is entirely broken up, and that, burdened with debts, he has commenced the world again, a few pounds all his capital in trade, resolved, if health and a sound mind be continued to him, to rise above all his present difficulties.'

And shall I,' replied Jessie, sit an idle witness of the honourable struggle, content to burden him with my support? No! Were I of such a spirit, I would be unworthy the relation I bear him. Much rather would I aid him, were it in my power, by any sacrifice.'

If I understand you aright,' said Mrs. Carlton, after thinking for a few moments, you would prefer a situation as governess in a private family.'

'Yes; that would suit me best.'

How would you like to take charge of Mrs. Freeman's younger children? She mentioned to me, only yesterday, her wish to obtain a suitable instructor for them, and said she was willing to pay a liberalsalary to a person who gave entire satisfaction.'

Jessie's face became thoughtful.


Mrs. Freeman is not the most agreeable person to be found, I know, Jessie,' said her friend; but the step you propose involves sacrifices from the beginning.'

'It does, I know, and I must not forget this. Had I a choice, I certainly should not select the family of Mrs. Freeman as the one in which to begin the new life I am about entering upon. She and Fanny are among the few who have ceased to notice me, except with great coldness, since my uncle's misfortunes. But I will not think of this. If they will take me, I will go even into their house, and assume the humble duties of a governess.'

Mrs. Carlton immediately called upon Mrs. Freeman, and mentioned Jessie. Some objection was made on the score of her being an old acquaintance, who would expect more notice than one in her position was entitled to receive. This, however, was overruled by Mrs. Carlton, and, after an interview with Jessie, an engagement was entered into for a year, at a salary of 807.

When Jessie mentioned the subject to her uncle, Mr. Hartman, he became a good deal excited, and said that she should do no such thing. But Jessie remained firm, and her uncle was at last compelled, though

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