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Order of Instruction. *Follow the same order as in the second grade, changing the exercise in the Preceding History into an exercise in the Preceding Parallels, which implies increased mental cultivation.'
• While the same subject is taught simultaneously throughout the whole school, it is gradually enlarged in all its divisions of History, Geography, Explanations, Preceding History, Preceding Parallels, Geographical Exercises in the delineation of the History, and the Practical Lessons ; the quantity and quality of the instruction is varied, according
to the mental power and attainment of the scholars in the different Grades.'-(P. 187.)
SUGGESTIONS.—(P. 198.) "The teacher does not call upon one of the eldest scholars this morning; he reads the passage from the New Testament himself ; and his occasional
comments do not lessen, but for all that hear and try to connect their versions with what he is reading, supply much of the life likeness, which can always be seen by those who study with their hearts that most wondrous history.'
THE MIMPRISS SYSTEM.-(P. 190.) COMPARE, The above fairly answers to Mimpriss's Fourth Grade :
Order of Instruction, 'In this Grade the Authorized Version of the Gospel narratives, without alteration or omission, as given in a “ Harmonized Continuous History,” is the reading book ; having the History corroborated and illustrated, by reference to the Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles. The additional exercises for this Grade are
'1. Read the “ Continuous History, or Harmony of the Gospel Narratives."
• 2. Teacher to give an analysis of the harmony, and catechize the class in the same.
*3. Class to read in the New Testament the harmony of the several accounts.
• 4. Refer other portions of the Gospels for parallels in event and doctrine.
. 5. Refer to the Acts for obedience of the apostles to the instructions of their Lord, and corroboration of the miracles and doctrines of Christ.
6. Refer to the Epistles for doctrines illustrative of the Redeemer's words and works, as recorded in the Gospel narratives.'
At the same time that the youthful follower of the Cross is thus provided with the best defensive armour in the honest exhibition of the truth, a habit of mind is acquired for successful study of other portions of holy writ -historical, prophetical, doctrinal, or practical; in all which the exercise of comparing, and of realizing a whole, from the harmonious junction of the several parts, is of essential service.'-P. 192, Note.
SUGGESTIONS.-(P. 198.) •The reading books are now opened again, and the teacher begins to speak about the lesson. It is a remarkable address, if address it can be called; for it is interspersed with questions (which are answered, too), and seems now to be descriptive, and now didactic; now hortatory, and now persuasive; information of many kinds is afforded, but not aside from the general line of remark; anecdotes, parables, and such metaphors as obserration supplies, abound; there are tears and smiles, also, testifying to the earnestness and sympathy of the teacher and the taught; and when the address is ended, you cannot tell whether it has been a long or a short one, nor do the scholars seem more to perceive its length.'
THE MIMPRISS SYSTEM.-(P. 187.) COMPARE. By such as are familiar with «The Mimpriss System,' the above will be readily recognised as the character and result of the general examination of all the grades, every Sabbath day.
• By uniformity of subject, and the suitable adaptation of the lesson to the scholar, sympathy is induced; the scholar in the highest grade feels an interest in the progress of the scholar in the lowest; and the scholar in the lowest grade anticipates promotion in due time, it may be, to where he sees his brother or his sister has been raised.
• The highest and the lowest grades have mutual benefit in the General Examination, when all are brought into one place, after the graduated instruction has been given in the classes, and the progress of the scholars, and the diligence of both scholars and teachers, are catechetically tested by the superintendent or minister. The same sympathy which is felt throughout the classes by the scholars is shared by the teachers; a healthy stimulation, by comparison, being promoted-uniform success is earnestly desired by all.'
SUGGESTIONS.—(P. 198.) 'In the afternoon you return: after the opening hymn and prayer, the lesson for the following Sunday morning is studied. The sub-teachers are at work, each surrounded by a section of the scholars. First come the reading and literal understanding of the passage; then the geography, the manners, customs, and all that throws light upon it, as far as they know, are communicated : the sections going, in turn, to those parts of the room where the illustrative maps and diagrams are hung.' This may be assumed to be as the Fifth Grade in
THE MIMPRISS SYSTEM.-(P. 191.) COMPARE.
Order of Instruction. * In this grade all the preceding is to be adopted, and a further development of the reflective faculties attempted, by a searching of the whole of the Old Testament Scriptures, as well as those of the New, in connexion with the Gospel narratives of the life of Christ, and as illustrative of THE TRUTH of all Divine Revelation. Whatever the abilities or previous acquirements of either the teachers or the taught, here is provided milk for babes, and strong meat for those that are of full age.'
SUGGESTIONS.—(P. 199.) And the little ones, we may add, learning to read from large printed tablets, by the “look and say" method-a method for teaching reading, infallible, and free from the drudgery of the old-fashioned plan, which was so disheartening to both teachers and learncrs. Infant classes would be unnecessary.'
THE MIMPRISS SYSTEM.-(P. 187.) COMPARE.
Apparatus for the Classes. • The Lessons for the First, Second, and Third Grades are in the "Tablet" form printed in very large and bold type, so as to be conveniently read at ten feet distance.* They are not paraphrastic, but condensed Scripture narrative; and for the Fourth and Fifth Grades there is a “Continuous History,” or “Harmony of the Gospel Narratives,” in the words of the Authorized Version, without alteration or omission ; that by precept and example the rising generation may, under the Divine blessing, learn to follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth; and for the scholars and teachers of the Fourth and Fifth Grades, we have “Class Papers for Home Study" issued every month. (See below.)
SUGGESTIONS.-(P. 197.) 'there is the Home Study of these things, too much neglected, in general, but without which it would be impossible to teach on the system we have sketched.'
* Besides these, there are ‘Gallery Reading Lessons,' in larger and bolder type, legible at thirty feet distance, both in the Gospels,' and the 'Acts of the Apostles.' Nero Translation, Exposition, and Chronological Arrangement of the Book of Psalms ;
THE MIMPRISS SYSTEM.--(P. 188.) COMPARE.
. For the Teachers.' Manuals are prepared for the teachers of the Second and Third Grades, having the several divisions of the Lessons conveniently arranged, and a Class Chart, delineating in chronological order and geographical locality every event in the Gospel history.
• For use in the three lower Grades, there is a series of fifty designs, pictorially defining the history, and for eliciting by recapitulation the explanations, geography, and practical lessons.
• For the teachers of the Fourth and Fifth Grades, the “Treasury Harmony of the Four Evangelists" is adapted, and
• For the superintendent—to facilitate the General Examination of all the Grades a large school-room chart, size 5 feet 6 inches by 4 feet 8 inches, is provided. (See • Suggestions.')
—(P. 200.) We have followed the plan of the Scriptures herein; and it was by "preaching Christ,” i. e., the personal, vital embodiment of the truth in his life, words, works, and death, that the first, which were also the most pure and brilliant triumphs of his kingdom, were achieved. And we may further say, that memory, intellect, affection, all are exercised by such teaching, and all in truest connexion with, and subservience to, the great aim of the Sunday-school- the leading of the young into the way of eternal life.'
THE MIMPRISS SYSTEM,-(P. 185.) COMPARE. "Christ, as he is in himself, so is he in the Divine records, the Alpha and Omega, the altogether lovely, the chief among ten thousand. Let Christ be set forth vividly, as he is in the Gospel narratives, and our youth will have such an example of love and obedience, that, following him in their life and conversation, they will be seen to grow up in favour with God and man.'
The foregoing is a glance at the likeness of 'Suggestions regarding Sundayschools' and 'The Mimpriss System of Graduated Simultaneous Instruction.' That improvement may be stimulated, perhaps your first correspondent will kindly communicate if "The Mimpriss System ’ had any influence on his mind when writing his excellent 'Suggestions,' &c. London, 12th May, 1852.
I am, Sir, yours, &c.,
Plotices of Books.
with Critical Notes on the Hebrero Text. By Benjamin Weiss, Missionary to
the Jews at Algiers, &c. Edinburgh; W. Oliphant and Sons. Pp. 539. MR. Weiss's qualifications for the office of a Biblical translator and expositor consist in the possession of a deep and earnest spirituality, and a thorough and critical knowledge of the Hebrew language. These are doubtless valuable and necessary qualifications, but their possession alone will not constitute a critic, We miss from this volume all the signs of that accurate acquaintance with the various Hebrew readings, that profound and recondite learning, that spirit of patient investigation and comparison, and that shrewd common sense, without
which an expositor can neither speak with authority, nor expect to be heard with deference.
The chief design, however, of the author in this work is only twofold-to present a new translation of the Book of Psalms, and to restore, as far as possible, every psalm to its proper place. The translation, we are bound to say, is an elegant one, but, as a whole, is hardly superior to, though in some instances more critically accurate than, our common version. Mr. Weiss is fond of greatsounding words, and, where the meaning will at all bear it, makes a point of choosing the least simple of two or three synonymous terms. Instances of this abound in every page. The waters saw thee, O God, the waters saw thee,' Mr. Weiss must render, and half spoil in the reading, “The waters perceived thee, O God, the waters perceived thee.' 'Let me remember the works of God,' must be changed to . Let me remember the operations of God.' "Thine enemies shall be rooted out,' says our Anglo-Saxon version ; Thine enemies shall be extirpated,' says our Hebrew. Latin scholar; and so on throughout the book, What Hebrew MSS. Mr. Weiss has consulted in his translation we do not know. In one or two places we find a reference to certain ancient manuscripts' in the possession of a Hebrew family of the author's acquaintance, and these appear to be all that he has seen. Of the age, and consequent value, of these copies of the ancient Scriptures we know nothing ; nor, we presume, does Mr. Weiss. Whether they are older than the oldest of those consulted by Kennicot and De Rossi, or what other reason our author has for preferring their readings to those of any other copies, are subjects on which we are left equally in the dark,
Mr. Weiss's acquaintance with the works of modern critics appears to be extremely limited. Bishops Horne and Horsley, and Dr. Hengstenberg, are the only writers to whom we can find any reference in this book. Considering that our special attention and calm judgment is begged in the preface for the note in which German rationalism is attacked, exposed, and condemned,' we think this is rather too bad. If our author places Hengstenberg among the German Rationalists,' it only shows how incorrect and superficial is his acquaintance with German theological literature. Happily, the day is nearly past when the indiscriminate application of the epithet of rationalist' will do much harm. Hengstenberg is a rationalist in our author's view, simply because he differs very widely from him on many subjects not of essential importance. He, therefore, loses no opportunity of abusing his neology,' and exposing his .ignorance. In some instances, it must be confessed, Hengstenberg appears at considerable disadvantage, as, indeed, he does in his whole work on the Psalms -by far the most superficial of any of his critical performances. An instance in which this learned scholar has committed himself is given in the translation of verse 4 of the fifty-sixth Psalm-a passage confessed to be difficult even by Mr. Weiss. Our common translation is, 'In God will I praise his word.' Hengstenberg renders it, God, boast I, his word.' Of which our author says, *He has disposed of the ? (Davor) in such a way as to leave it unexpressed ; and as his sentences stand, he has committed himself neither to one meaning nor another, for they serve none; and one must think long, and suggest much, on and for the mystery into which he plunges the two sublime sentences, before the judgment “it is absurd,” can be pronounced.' If Hengstenberg's translation of this mysterious passage is absurd,' our author's version is arbitrary. Mr. Weiss renders it, .In the Godhead do I boast of His word,' and explains the passage to mean that David here refers to nothing else than to his antitype -Messiah. Maybe it is so, but we need other authority than our author's sole 'must be' to believe it; and his knack of twisting everything otherwise inexplicable into a prophetical reference to the Messiah, cautions us that his judgment in these matters is one of the last to be relied upon.
Mr. Weiss's Chronological Arrangement' of the Psalms is very happily executed, and
throws much light on many otherwise obscure references. Their place in the Jewish history he has ascertained as well as can be · by diligently and carefully tracing, from the internal evidence of the Hebrew text, as well as from the application of David's history to the contents of the psalm, the exact time and occasion of its composition. In this he has exercised considerable
judgment and discretion, especially considering that the time of the composition of some cannot possibly be ascertained from any historical or biographical reference. On the whole, therefore, this work, though defective, is valuable, and, to readers unacquainted with the original language of the Psalms, will prove of much interest and service.
Account of the Public Prison of Valencia, &c. With Observations by Captain
Maconochie, R.N., K.H. London: C. Gilpin. Pp. 12. THERE can be no question, we think, that if reform is anywhere needed, it is in our mode of prison discipline. Without adopting any of the numerous conflicting theories on this subject, we certainly agree with Captain Maconochie in thinking that, as a nation, we are gravely delinquent in our duty to societyinnocent and criminal—in the apathy with which we treat this question. Captain Maconochie's own theory we do not altogether subscribe to. We have no notion of prison discipline being made either comfortable to the person, or profitable to the pocket, of the Fagans and Artful Dodgers, the cut-throats and pickpockets of society. We have no notion of lodging criminals better than honest people-giving a burglar comfortable accommodation, fixed rations, and fair wages, while we starve with cold and hunger, and miserably lodge, the pauper who has lived and wrought in all honesty and integrity through a long life, and only asks of us that he may be allowed to live in health and strength the short remainder of his days. We would not, as is practically done by some well-intentioned people, look upon poverty as the great crime, and take an interest in a poor man only when he signalizes himself by becoming a dishonest
Nor do we believe in building palaces for rogues while we build prisons for paupers. If we must spend money on architectural display, let us spend it more wisely, consistently, and profitably, than in erecting gigantic and splendid monuments to Crime, or else cease to rail at the ancients for their immorality in building temples to Venus and Bacchus. This might we leave undone, and yet pay much greater attention to the reform of prison discipline.
The object of the writer of this pamphlet is to call attention to the success of the system of discipline pursued in the public prison at Valencia, to which, for the last three years, there has not been one re-committal, while for the previous ten years, the re-committals were at the rate of only one per cent. Considering, that in our own country, notwithstanding that we export almost a seventh of our worst criminals, and that of the remainder more than thirty-three per cent. are re-committed within the year, this is certainly a remarkable statement. Captain Maconochie explains the anomaly, by a reference to the system of treatment pursued at Valencia. This is explained by an English traveller, Mr. Hoskins, as well as by Colonel Montesino, the Governor of the prison, as consisting in a system of paid labour at trades, combined with the advantages of a general education, • The great principle here,' says Mr. Hoskins, 'is to afford an inducement to the criminals to work, to teach industrious habits, to inculcate honourable and virtuous principles, and to send them into the world better men, educated, and able to work at some trade ; and with money in their pockets to start with, instead of being obliged to have recourse to their old habits of subsistence.' And,' he adds, the success is really a miracle.' Colonel Montesino explains, that workshops of all kinds are in the prison, in full operation, and so admirably has the system been carried out, that neither for their introduction, nor for the rebuilding or repair of the prison, has he ever asked the Government for a single farthing, or called in the assistance of any out-of-door mechanics. Add to this, that the most perfect order is maintained, without harshness or difficulty, in every part of the establishment (which generally contains no less than a thousand prisoners), and we may well hold up this prison as a miracle and model of successful discipline.-- From his known principles on this subject, as well as from his celebrated, though, on the whole, unfor. tunate experiment on Norfolk Island, Captain Maconochie, as may be supposed, points, with triumphant finger, to the results of the Valencia treatment. It does not formally recognise his peculiar 'mark system,' but it is founded on sub