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yet for them any new command, he replied, ' A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love one another.

And now they were left alone, and they fervently resolved to obey their father's word. Their zeal at first even seemed to carry them beyond it. They parted with all their private property (which each had received from his father, over and above the common estate), and threw the proceeds into a common fund, out of which distribution was made, as every man had need. This mutual love led to co-operation. Each rejoiced in the labours of all, and none regretted the superior success of another, and this reminded them of another word of their father's—Love envieth not.' The poor of the neighbourhood, too, basked in the sunshine of the selfsame charity. The blessings of many who were ready to perish came upon the brothers,-yea, with many, as soon as the eye saw them, it blessed them. “The spirit of the father,' the villagers said, “rests upon his children. How much they remind us of him!' And the best was—the spirit was contagious, and the example spread. The three benefactors could not stand alone.

But, alas for human nature ! A question arose in the happy family itself. Its spirit was-Who shall be greatest ? and the specific form into which it was thrown-Who shall sit at the head of the table ? Degenerate sons! For the first month of their father's absence they had not recollected the table had either head or foot. But they had discovered it now. • More's the pity. The eldest thought the post of honour his, by right of birth. The second partly admitted the claim, but thought it should be shared between those two who, unlike the third, had passed the boundary between youth and manhood; while the youngest was content with claiming .equal rights' for the three brothers, irrespective of the claims of primogeniture at all. The debate grew warm, and drew largely on time and energy. The briers and thistles disgraced the lately cultivated land, while the poor cried, but in vain, · Forget your differences, and come and help us.' The lion-like oppressor laughed at the confusion; nor did he forget secretly to stimulate the strife, by instigating his friends to espouse the cause of each in turn.

Not to dwell on painful details, suffice it to say, the one family became three. Each was lord of his own house, but the brotherhood'

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was no more.

But what would the father say, when he heard of divisions among them: This remained to be seen. Each wrote to him forthwitheach to the same effect. • He lamented division-he hated it but it was a hard necessity—to be deplored certainly, but he could not hinder it-it was forced upon him—and he quoted his father's maxims, ' First PURE,

then peaceable ;' • Contend earnestly for the faith ;' • Let no one take thy crown.' The answer was waited for anxiously and long. It camebut how? To the astonishment of the brothers, in the shape of a handsome present to Each, as a proof of paternal love-presents so equal and similar, that none could claim a · Benjamin's mess.' In the letter accompanying there was not a sentence about their late divisions, not a word on their rival claims, but only an intimation that

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their father was furnishing a noble mansion, in which he looked soon to see them finally gathered around his board.

The brethren met and compared notes. This is very strange,' said one; "he does not notice our zeal for his ordinances.' . He treats us all alike,' said the second. But the eldest quickly added, · Brethren, we are all wrong. There was a pause, and the brothers looked in each other's faces, for the bell was tolling for one of the poor of the neighbourhood, dead of starvation, and his ragged children were heard complaining that no man cared for their souls. We are all wrong,' repeated the speaker, and the silence of the others gave consent.

• What shall we do?' was then asked ; and an easy plan was soon arranged.

The brothers agreed to dine together at the house of a common friend. They did so, and many of the neighbourhood were invited to the scene.

Some called it a farce, but others came with pleasure, glad to welcome the first instalment of reconciliation. After dinner, by a preconcerted arrangement, the three shook hands, and professed their

, mutual love in the presence of all the spectators. There was a general murmur of applause, but one man, celebrated for his honesty and straightforwardness, remained comparatively silent. He was, as before said, faithful and plain-spoken, but somewhat rough withal. Pressed for his opinion, at length he gave it. My opinion is, that the brothers are either three great hypocrites, or three great fools.'

Considerable confusion ensued, but the brothers allayed it, and sought their neighbour's reasons. He gave them with equal readiness and plainness. •Either you do love one another as much as you profess, or you do not. If you do not, your conduct is hypocritical ; if you do, what on earth prevents your living all together?'

Whether any satisfactory reply was returned, to the present hour remains unknown.

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For the Young.


The winter of the North was setting in sharply at the close of the year, about three centuries ago, as a king lay dying. Few relations or friends were about him. He was young and brave, but unfortunate. He had just been betrayed by his own nobles and subjects, in a battle with the English troops which had invaded his kingdom. Wishing to humble him and weaken his power, instead of fighting valiantly for their sovereign and country, they fled at the very beginning of the engagement. This ignominious defeat, together with the deadly enmity of the nobles, broke the monarch's heart. He retired to the castle of Falkland, where his dejection and anguish brought on a fever, which terminated fatally on the 14th of December, 1542. A few days before his death, a messenger arrived from the royal palace at Linlithgow, to announce the birth of a daughter; but foreseeing the perils and troubles in store for her, the news gave him more sorrow than joy. He believed that the extinction of the sovereignty of his race was at hand; and referring to the fact that a granddaughter of Robert Bruce had by marriage brought the crown of Scotland into the Stuart family, he uttered the mournful prediction, that as 'it came by a woman, so it would go by one.'

That dying king was James V. of Scotland; and that orphaned infant was Mary Stuart, afterwards the beautiful but unfortunate Queen of Scots.

Mary being her father's only child, became, almost from her birth, Queen of Scotland. In such cases, it is customary to appoint some eminent person to govern in the name of the young sovereigr, until he or she is of sufficient age to undertake the public cares of the kingdom; such a person is called a regent. Sharp contests at once took place between several individuals, representing different parties in the state, in order to secure this post of influence, but the Scottish people espoused the cause of the Earl of Arran, who was a Protestant, and the next heir to the crown. This nobleman was not long after entrusted by the Parliament with the guardianship of the young queen. As soon as this arrangement was made, the coronation of Mary Stuart took place, with great pomp, at Stirling Castle, where it was customary to crown the Scottish kings. This ceremony was celebrated on the 9th of September, 1543. Great interest was excited by the event. The different courts and monarchs of Europe sent ambassadors to be present on the happy occasion, so that Stirling became for a time the centre of universal attraction and the scene of festivity and joy.

No sooner was this regal inauguration over, than a fierce struggle commenced between the two contending parties that divided the country, to see which should possess the power, the person, and the royal inheritance of the young queen. One of these factions--the Catholic -sought the support of France in its contests; while the other—the Protestant-looked to England for sympathy and help. Henry the Eighth, the head of the Reformed Church, was at that time king: Previously to the birth of Mary Stuart, this arrogant monarch had waged war with Scotland for the purpose of annexing it to England, and forcing the Protestant religion upon its people ; and it was through the disasters and defeats experienced in that war that her father had lost his life. It is a curious circumstance, however, that her birth caused a cessation of hostilities. The wily king suddenly changed his policy. What he could not gain by force, he hoped to be able to secure by scheming. He had a son, named Edward, who was heir to the throne on his death; and he thought it would be best for him to conclude a peace with Scotland, solicit the hand of Mary in marriage with Edward, and in this way peaceably to unite the two kingdoms. This politic plan he proposed and attempted to carry out, but in such

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a headstrong and overbearing manner, that he roused the opposition of the Catholics and frustrated his object. He demanded that the bride-elect should be given up to him, and educated in England under his care and oversight. To this proposal the Scotch Parliament would not consent; but they did agree to surrender her to Henry's charge when she should reach the age of ten. While these important negotiations were pending, the happy Mary, unconscious of what was in store for her, was passing her time alternately at the castles of Linlithgow and Stirling

After the lapse of five months from the conclusion of the treaty with Henry, it was annulled; and in order to protect itself from the vengeance of the disappointed monarch, the Scottish government entered into a close alliance with France. Henry VIII., as was anticipated, was furiously incensed, and sent a tleet and an army to ravage the land ; and even after his death, which occurred within a short time from this event, the war was continued with unabated vigour by the Duke of Somerset, the Protector of England during the minority of Edward VI. In one fatal battle, fought near Edinburgh, the Scotch lost more than ten thousand men. Dreading, after these reverses, lest the princess should be seized and borne away by the invaders, she was removed from Stirling fortress to the monastery of Inchmahome, situated in a lonely island in the lake of Menteith, on the borders of the Highlands.

The attempts of the English to enforce this double union only served to alienate the Scottish nobles and people still more from them and their scheme. Many who were not originally opposed to the alliance resented this strange mode of wooing. The regent and Mary's mother then conceived the twofold plan of sending her to the continent and affiancing her to the young Dauphin* of France, who was about the same age as herself. The overtures made to the French court were eagerly embraced, as it afforded an opportunity for keeping the encroaching power of England in check. In fulfilment of the terms of this compact, the young princess at once embarked from Dumbarton for Brest, on the 7th of August, attended, among other friends, by four female companions, belonging to noble families. The latter are known in history as the four Marys, each of them having borne that

After a boisterous voyage, the youthful exiles arrived in safety in the harbour of Brest, on the 13th of August.

The King of France, Henry II., had made great preparations for receiving the royal foreigner. Splendid equipages were provided to convey her and her suite, by easy journeys, to Paris. Among the marks of respect showed to her, one was very singular: every prison which she passed in her route was ordered to be thrown open, and the prisoners released a custom which, however popular it might have


* “Dauphin' is the name given to the eldest son of the King of France, and is derived from the following circumstance :- About 1450, a nobleman of high rank, and large estates in the province of Dauphiny, losing his son and heir, bequeathed all his possessions to the king and his successors, on condition that the oldest son should bear the title of Dauphin. It is needless to add, the grant was gladly accepted on such easy terms.

been in those days, would not be tolerated now. Mary was conducted to the palace of St. Germain, situated about twelve miles from Paris, where the court was then residing. At this abode of magnificence, such as she had never before witnessed, she was received with great pomp, and many spectacles and costly festivities were got up for her amusement. After remaining in this exciting scene of gaiety for a short time, it was decided that she should retire to a convent to be educated. Here there happened to be several nuns of great amiability and sweetness of disposition, to whom Mary became strongly attached; which, together with the life of peaceful seclusion that she there enjoyed, led her to entertain the idea of becoming a nun herself. On learning this, both the French king and the Scottish guardians became alarmed, and immediately took her away; not, however, without regret and tears on her part. In order to quench in her mind all longings for a conventual life, she was introduced to incessant scenes of gaiety and dissipation, which were shared by the four Marys and the daughters of the French monarch. They were accustomed to have balls, pic-nics in the extensive palace-grounds, illuminations, water-parties on the little lakes, and hunting-parties through the parks and forests.

As Mary grew older, however, she was subjected to greater restraint, and was obliged to conform to the strict etiquette of the royal household. She occupied a considerable portion of every day in her various studies, in which she soon became remarkably proficient. Part of her time, also, was spent in the apartments, and under the eye, of the imperious Catharine de Medici, the wife of the King of France, and mother of her destined husband, by whom she was treated in a somewhat harsh and stern manner. This ill-will has been generally ascribed to the queen's jealousy of Mary, who was almost universally admired and loved on account of her beauty and accomplishments. She certainly did nothing to justify the display of such unkindness; for she was diligent in her studies, tractable in disposition, and courteous in man

She was enthusiastically devoted to the pursuits of music, drawing, and poetry; and, as she grew up, composed some beautiful pieces of her own. At ten years of age, such was the maturity of her powers, that she wrote to her mother about the affairs of Scotland with remarkable tact and judgment, and when thirteen years old, she recited a Latin speech of her own composition in the presence of the court. Her personal attractions were equal to the gifts of her mind. She was tall, and very beautiful. Her eyes beamed with intelligence, and sparkled with animation. Her voice was sweet, her appearance noble and graceful, and her conversation brilliant. She early displayed those rare charms which were destined to make her an object of general admiration, and which rendered even her childhood seductive. In spite of the unusual array of beauty and talent then collected in the royal palaces of France, she was regarded as at once the ornament and the darling of the court.' But this court was bad as well as brilliant-evil as well as elegant; and the influence it exerted upon Mary Stuart's character and after-life was very hurtful. The wickedness which she saw in her childhood, she learned to imitate in her womanhood.




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