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periods! The first, characteristic of all history,-of war and rapine, misery and crime; the second, of great national growth, violent political agitation, and legislative change; the third, of social, political, and commercial progress, and all the finer arts of peace.' Passing in review these eventful periods, we see how Europe became subjugated to the despotism of the second Cæsar, and the world for fifteen years stood like an armed man prepared for the battle ; we fight over again the wars of the Peninsula and the Indies, revolting as much at our own atrocities here, as at similar but not greater deeds of violence and crime on other and nearer shores. We hear again of the invasion of Egypt, and the passage of the Alps, and read with fresh awakened interest of the trial and defence of the press against Napoleon, in the case of the Frenchman Peltier. Contests at home for Catholic emancipation; for the abolition of commercial restrictions; for criminal-law, the currency and parliamentary reform; for the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts; for negro emancipation; for the abolition of the corn-laws; remind us that a generation has passed away since many of these events, and that we are living now in the clothes of the dead. And the dead themselves as they shadow past, and each one holds the lesson of his life to view-shall we read the scroll of their names ? Tippo iltan and D'Enghein; Emmett, Russell, and Despard; Flood, Grattan, and Sheridan ; Cobbett, Horne Tooke, and Burdett; Pitt, Fox, Burke, Mackintosh, Grenville, Perceval, Castlereagh, Liverpool, Huskisson, Romilly, and Canning; the Queen Caroline, the Princess Charlotte, George III., George IV., and William IV.; Clarkson, Wilberforce, Buxton, and Zachary Macaulay; Nelson and Napoleon ; Erskine and Eldon; Ricardo and Rafaelle; Hall, Chalmers, Irving, and Arnold; Shelley, Byron, Wordsworth, and Southey ; last of all, Sir Robert Peel. These are the patriots and poets, mighty men and men of valour, monarchs and statesmen; preachers and philanthropists; who have 'flourished' in, and given character to, the last half century.
In dealing with these events and persons, Mr. Wilks has shown himself to be possessed, if not of that judicious discrimination, careful analysis, and spirit of patient investigation, so necessary to writer of history, at least of a graphic pen, and of warm and earnest sympathies with religion and humanity, while it is evident that he holds the most advanced principles of the most advanced section of Dissent. His work is written in a bold and picturesque style, and exhibits great power of generalization, with a command of language, and sometimes of poetical diction, that give promise of future renown. whole, however, it is very unequally written, and there are about it marks of haste, which, though perhaps unavoidable, are greatly to be regretted. As a history, it is essentially defective in containing scarcely an allusion to the scientific discoveries and inventions that have given perhaps the greatest lustre to the age passed in review; and it might have been made much more complete and useful by the addition of marginal dates, and an alphabetical index of contents. The latter, however, are minor defects, and do not of themselves detract from its value as a truthful, faithful, and powerfully-written sketch of this most eventful period of English history.
Sermons. By Daniel Katterns. London : Snow. 8vo. Pp. 462. The publication of a volume of miscellaneous sermons is an event now-a-days so rare, as to create an unusual expectation of the powers of the preacher who would thus reproduce and perpetuate his work. It was, therefore, with no slight degree of curiosity that we took up this handsome and portly volume. We have given to it a careful and attentive examination. Perhaps, we may confess
greeable sur rise, at finding it honourably free from the rhetorical affectations of the modern pulpit-affectations, however, we are glad to say, more fashionable in the ministrations of the Clergy,' than in those of Dissenting
pastors. The volume consists of twenty-two discourses, on the ordinary topics of theoretical and practical Christianity. These are treated not profoundly, not
strikingly,' not even 'eloquently,' but in the calm and earnest spirit of a preacher of living truths to living men. There is no aiming at artificial effect; no confusion of meaning by false attempts at originality; no darkening of counsel' by words without knowledge. The purpose of the preacher is obviously to impress rather than to inform. He would address neither the ear nor the understanding, but strike on the most tender and powerful chords of human feeling. As peculiarly characteristic of this style of preaching, we would mention the sermons on Providence,' on Temptation, on ‘Secret Prayer,' on .Contentment,' on Meditation,' &c. We rise from the perusal of these, not excited by an assumed and artificial eloquence, but thoughtful and serious, with inward searchings of heart and deep humility.
Mr. Katterns's style is full and flowing. The divisions of his sermons are simple rather than logical, but sometimes much more numerous than occasion required. •Fifthly' and 'Sixthly' should have been buried with the Commonwealth preachers. We have only to add our regret that the price at which the work is published, will necessarily exclude it from the very large class of readers who cannot afford to pay twelve shillings for a single volume.
Homøopathy and its Principles explained. By John Epps, M.D. London:
Sherwood and Co.
don : Sherwood and Piper.
U.S. Revised, and supplied with Explanatory Notes, by John Epps, M.D.
M.R.C.S.E. London: James Epps. Pp. 590.
Calvin's Commentaries on the Epistle of Paul to the Romans. Translated and
Edited by the Rev. John Owen, Vicar of Thrussington, for the Calvin Trans
lation Society, 9, Northumberland-street, Edinburgh. It would be superfluous at this time to commend to theological students Calvin's Commentary on the Romans. While it has been to a great extent and for general purposes superseded by the more learned works of modern writers, it will ever be valuable as one of the ablest performances of the most distinguished theologian of the Christian Church. From some of its principles we unhesitatingly express our dissent, but it solves with wonderful ease many of the peculiar difficulties of this Epistle, and it is very free from the intolerant spirit characteristic of some of his other writings. . Of Calvin, generally, as commentator, Mr. Owen well and justly says, "As a concise and lucid commentator he certainly excels. He is not so much an expounder of words as of principles. He carries on an unbroken chain of reasoning throughout in a brief and clear manner. Having well considered the main drift of a passage, he sets before us what it contains, by a brief statement or by a clear process of reasoning; and often by a single sentence he throws light over a whole passage; and though his mind possessed more vigour of intellect and sound good sense than what is called imagination, yet there are some fine thoughts occasionally occurring, beautifully expressed, to which that faculty must have given birth. There is also a noble grandeur and dignity in his sentiments rarely to be found in other writers.' The present translation is executed with very high ability, and its value is materially increased by the addition of copious critical annotations by the editor, in which the expositions suggested by posterior critics and commentators are lucidly stated. A very full analytical index is added.
Calmet's Dictionary of the Bible. Abridged, Modernized, and Re-edited according to
the most recent Biblical Researches. By Theodore Alois Buckley, B.A.,
of Christ Church. London: G. Routledge and Co. Pp. 712. In this work Mr. Buckley, whose name is known to the literary world as the editor and translator of most of the works recently published in the valuable
Classical Library' of Mr. Bohn, has considerably added to his reputation as judicious and able scholar. The original work of the learned Calmet, on which this is founded, has been long superseded by the elaborate Cyclopædias of Dr. Kitto and others : before the publication of these, however, it had grown rusty with age, and of little use to modern scholars. Mr. Buckley, while greatly curtailing, has thoroughly revised and modernized it—so much so, as to leave very little of Calmet, and nothing, at any rate, that is now obsolete or wom out, With a few exceptions, the most recent writers have evidently been consulted for the information necessary to be embodied in the geographical and archæological articles. One of these exceptions we notice in the article • Ararat,' where Sir R. K. Porter's description of that mountain and district is quoted, the editor not appearing to be aware that Ararat has been ascended since the date of Porter's visit; viz., by the learned geographer, Dr. Parrot, of Russia. The work is adapted to the times by a constant endeavour on the part of the editor to meet the modern Rationalistic objections to the truth and character of the Bible, and further by its publication at a price that outvies any precedent with which we are acquainted.
The Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England. Adapted for General Use
in other Protestant Churches. London : Pickering. We have very carefully, but not with any great amount of interest, done what the author of this work has requested of its readers-compared it with the Book of Common Prayer' now in use in the Established and other Episcopal Churches. We have not now compared both with the Book of Life,' having done that with one of them many years ago. The editor of this improved book has, it would appear, been waiting some time to see a revised edition issued under the auspices of the dignitaries' of the Church, but has come to the conclusion that there is now no reasonable hope of expecting such a work from such a quarter. He has, therefore, undertaken the task himself, and, in one sense, has certainly not laboured in vain.' All the passages, more or less offensive to Evangelical sentiment, he has carefully expunged, in some instances substituting others. If a Book of Prayer must be used at all, by our Episcopalian friends, we say, by all means, use this in preference to the other. But does the editor expect that it will ever be adopted by the Church?'
Daily Bible Illustrations ; being Original Readings for a Year, on Subjects from
Sacred History, Biography, Geography, Antiquities, and Theology. By John
burgh: Oliphant and Sons. Pp. 487.
The Perverter in High Life. London: Partridge and Oakey. Pp. 226. This is a narrative of a case of Jesuitical intrigue, and attempted proselytism. The author vouches for the truth of the tale, the chief characters in the intrigue being drawn from life,' and personally known to him. The object of his publishing this 'narrative,' is to expose the character, design, and artifices of the Order of Jesuits. This, to a certain extent, is accomplished; but as a tale, it is vapid and uninteresting. We might add, that in works of this character, it is very desirable that authors should give their names as some guarantee to the public of the truth of what is told.
The Religion of Mankind. Christianity adapted to Man in all the Aspects of his
Being. By James Spence, M.A. London: J. Snow. Pp. 271. Much has lately been written on the subject of this work ; and much more needs to be written. The present production, however, will hardly add to its attractiveness. Faultless enough in logical arrangement, it could scarcely be more dull and heavy. It is one of the works that Canon Wordsworth would select as a proof of his assertion that .bald and jejune' is the style of Dissenting writings.
The Infant Class in the Sunday School. An Essay, to which the Committee of the
Sunday School Union adjudged the First Prize. By Charles Reed. Sunday
School Union. Pp. 136. We can say of this, what we are cautious to say of any book, that it is decidedly the best on its subject. Practical, suggestive, and interesting-based not on abstract theory, but on personal observation, it will be a valuable handbook to teachers and superintendents, and should be placed in every Sunday-school library.
The Island World of the Pacific. Being the personal Narrative and Results of
Travel through the Sandwich or Hawaiian Islands. By Rev. Henry T. Cheever.
London: W. Collins. Pp. 304. This is partly a book of travel, partly a history, and partly a missionary report ; or, perhaps, it would be more correct to say it is neither of these, for what it is intended to be we defy any one to discover. It contains some very melancholy sketches of Hawaiian society; and, considering that the islands have altogether only 80,000 inhabitants, a prodigious amount of information on their history, manners, and customs. We should think Mr. Cheever has said nearly all that could be said on the subject. The work is interestingly, and, in some respects, cleverly written, but very disjointedly constructed. As is usual with American travellers, the author has profusely besprinkled it with scraps of the poetry of all the lands that have ever given birth to a verse-writer.
A MINISTERIAL crisis has become of late the regular sequence to the reassembling of Parliament. As the March number of the first volume of the • Christian Spectator' passed from our hands into those of our readers, the reins of office were hanging idly over the State chariot-Lord John Russell had dropped, and Lord Stanley did not care, or dare, to seize them; so after dangling for awhile between the two, the former resumed the place of the man wot drives the Sovereign ;' as the caricaturists pictured the Duke of Wellington two-and-twenty years ago. Then, as now, a Reform Bill was in suspense, and Lord John Russell was its author. There begins and ends the parallel of the men and the times. The man has outlived his capacity of fitting action-or the times have ceased to demand bold and creative statesmen.—But we must not forget that the order of occurrence is the proper order of narration.
The fifth session of Queen Victoria's third Parliament was opened by her Majesty on the 3rd of February. The Speech from the Throne was remarkable for nothing but the emphatic assurance that England is on the most friendly terms with other nations; and an intimation that an increase would be proposed in the military and naval estimates. The Premier's speech in the evening reiterated the assertion, and extended the intimation into the announcement that the re-establishments of the militia, and other measures of national defence, were down in the programme of the session. The eagerly-expected explanations of Lord Palmerston's ejection from the Cabinet were made in the debate on the Address. It came out, that ever since the return of the Whigs to office (in 1846), the Foreign Secretary has embarrassed his colleagues by his propensity to independent activity--that, in 1850, a minute, drawn up by (or for) the Queen, was placed in Lord Palmerston's hands for his restraint—that on the subject of the French coup d'état he had expressed to the French ambassador, in conversation, sentiments which, at the bidding of the Cabinet, he had instructed our representative in Paris not to express ---that he had treated the Premier's complaints on this matter with dis