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Dumb is the world if we be deaf,
Flowerless and dull if we be blind,
No merciful enlivenings find.
In every wild some Joy there grows,
Sweet Powers of Revival knows.
* My soul doth wait, and in His word do I hope.'
WHILE waiting for the summer sun
The winter fire is warm and bright;
A lamp we kindle for to night.
Thy beam how friendly and how clear,
I travel on, and will not fear.
And feel the fire's kindly glow,
Still brightest when the dark storms blow.
For all thy Saviour said should come ;
The last and lasting light and bloom.
T. T. L.
Jotices of Books.
Philip Doddridge ; his Life and Labours. A Centenary Memorial. By
John Stoughton. London: Jackson and Walford. 12mo. Pp. 257. A WEEKLY contemporary, of high literary pretensions, and professing a great regard for works of a historical character, has flippantly dismissed this publication in a single sentence, as a historical rhapsody by Mr. John Stoughton. To the critic of the 'Athenæum' it may be nothing more than this; to ourselves, who can read works by Dissenters and of Dissenters, we hope with more disposition to impartial judgment than is displayed by our contemporary, it possesses an unusual interest and value.
Doddridge may be said to occupy a position midway between the great divines of the seventeenth century, and the earlier generation of our own day. His times and history carry us back to the date of the “Act of Toleration,” when South and Sacheverell were fulminating against Dissent, and when Baxter, Bates, Howe, and Calamy were living. He was contemporary with Wells and Warburton, Wesley and Whitefield, and with Stillingfleet, Butler, and Jonathan Edwards. These and a few others seem to have almost exhausted the parturitive power of the century. After their death the list of theologians is scanty enough. Dwight, Paley, Lardner, Price, Priestley, and Clarke, are the most conspicuous names ;-Fuller, • Darracott, Fawcett, and Lavington,' are the only illustrious ones in the roll of Evangelical Dissent,' and of these the last three are known only to the students of history. The next list in the order of time is adorned with the names of Chalmers, Gregory, Hall, Mason, Hill, Foster, Irving, Channing, Pye Smith, and others known to all our readers. Doddridge, however, occupies a peculiar position. He was not a great man, nor has his influence been extraordinary, yet he is, undoubtedly, one of the most conspicuous in the history of Evangelical Dissent. We ascribe the reverence which attaches to his memory solely to what we must reckon to be his beneficial influence on Christian literature. His writings are not greatly characterised by human genius, but they overflow with religious feeling. He was not remarkable as a poet, but he wrote, with many indifferent exceptions, some of our choicest hymns. That he was a man of cultivated mind, and of extensive learning, his Family Expositor indicates, but all his writings show that he was deficient in imagination. His works, therefore, are comparatively unattractive, but to those who may be drawn to them by their deep and earnest religious tone. His • Rise and Progress of Religion, one of the most useful, and, perhaps, the most remarkable of books on experimental Christianity that has ever been written, is a dull and heavy performance, and, in many respects, very inferior to the works of a similar character by Baxter, Bunyan, Flavel, and Guthrie, and in modern times has been greatly superseded by James's Anxious Enquirer.'
Mr. Stoughton, who is, perhaps, disposed to place a higher estimate on the talents and influence of Doddridge than we feel warranted in ascribing to him, charges him 'with exhibiting as a theological tutor an undue charity towards heretical and unorthodox opinions. The charge is founded on the statements of his biographers, Kippis and Orton, to the effect that the doctor in his lectures, with what we judge to be an admirable candour, laid before the students the arguments on both sides of the question under discussion, and then left them to judge for themselves. This, Mr. Stoughton says, is ‘not the way to teach 'either religion or theology,
' and that the doctor made a mistake in supposing that candour and love towards heterodox men required him to deal gently with heterodox principles—that intolerance in reference to persons is involved in the intolerance which has reference to things. Without asking Mr. Stoughton how he would propose to suppress heterodox opinions and principles without suppressing or silencing the men who hold them, we must express our firm conviction that Doddridge took the right, and the only right course in thus teaching. We cannot see, indeed, how any candid theologian can act otherwise. Is he to act as though his opinions were the only ones held upon the subject,-never to state and discuss objections, or when stating them, to colour and distort them after the fashion of most polemical writers ? Is theology, then, to be taught, because it is theology, with more dishonesty than the other sciences ? Should it not rather be taught with less ? It is, we conceive, to the glory of Doddridge that he had the scrupulous honesty, the courage, and the confidence boldly to particularize and explain the objections of opponents. To our mind it is an evidence of his confidence in the soundness of his own views-an evidence far more likely to weigh in their favour than if he had systematically concealed differing opinions. Heterodoxy, we are afraid, is more generally the result of the opposite course of instruction. Besides this, there is no evidence to show that Doddridge did not habitually sum up objections, and state precisely his own belief, so far at least as that the students were never left in doubt as to his views, or in ignorance of his reasons for holding them. His printed lectures, as Mr. Stoughton says, 'pronounce decisive judgment, noticing objections only to answer them, and the report of Kippis may, after all, only mean that he noticed them with characteristic candour and honesty. These qualities, we may add, never shone with greater lustre than in the person and character of the subject of this memorial.'
of the manner of life and general disposition of Doddridge, when at Northampton, Mr. Stoughton gives the following vivid picture, one of the many with which the book abounds :
DODDRIDGE AT NORTHAMPTON. Behold, then, his tall and slender form enrobed in academic costume, and his large features and good-humoured countenance encompassed by the curls of a flowing wig, and an ample supply of snow-white collar, turned down over the shoulders, as he meets his young men at six o'clock on a summer morning, to open the day with short and solemn prayer. Later, at family worship, they read a chapter in the Hebrew Bible, Orton and Kippis, and such promising lads, performing the exercise with commendable diligence, but some of the idler fellows slurring over the task by slily placing the English translation beside the original, which the professor, who is very short-sighted, is unable to detect. The reading, well or badly done, he goes on with his accustomed perspicuity to expound the paragraph, and to aid the young linguists by the light of his own ever-ready critical learning. After breakfast comes the grand business of lecturing, and forth with he unfolds a formidable string of “propositions, scholias” and “leinmas,” bearing on some branch of ethics or divinity, which he illustrates by references without number to learned works, and erudite opinions :-all of these are at his finger ends, and as he reads or talks, the listening alumni jot down in Rich's shorthand the substance of what they hear. Civil law, hieroglyphics, mythology, English history, and Nonconformist principles, logic, rhetoric, mathematics, anatomy, and the rudiments of other sciences, together with antiquities, Jewish and ecclesiastical, we are told all came in for luminous treatment by this man of large intelligence. Critical lectures, containing the germs of his “Expositor," are delivered weekly; and polite literature, heretofore but little regarded among Nonconformists, but for which Doddridge, through mental predilection, and the training of Mr. Jennings, had acquired a decided taste, is not neglected in this wonderful hive of intellectual industry. Pastoral theology and the composition of sermons have a course of lectures devoted to them; and never does the warm-hearted professor appear more in his element than when, with vehement energy, he inculcates upon his students the necessity of "preaching Christ.” One day is set apart for reading and examining themes, homilies, outlines, analyses, and translations; and on the Saturday previous to the communion day, he spends much time with his young men in devotional engagements, delivering some solemn discourse on the evil and danger of neglecting the souls of men; and never does his heart appear more strongly
affected than at these seasons. Another of his engagements above all we like, and think it worth a good many of his lectures. Entering his well-stored library, we see him surrounded by groups of listeners, going from shelf to shelf, and giving a vivá voce catalogue, which displays a surprising extent of knowledge, and recommending at what period of their course, and with what special views, particular books should be read, and which of them it is desirable they should be most familiarly acquainted with, when settled in the world. And now, in he comes, with a merry laugh and a ludicrous anecdote. A little girl has just been playing with a dog and nursing it in her lap, as he sat on the old-fashioned window.seat. And “do you know,” she gravely asked, “who made you?” A look of blank wonder from the questioned animal was of course all that followed. “Shame on you," proceeded the young interrogator, with grave reproof; you Dr. Doddridge's dog, and not know who made you ? " " And if,' after relating the comical story, he adds, "so much is expected from my dog, what may be expected from my students !” We drop into his study, and find that there the youths have access, and come with filial confidence to state a difficulty, and ask advice. The family meal is improved and enlivened by his intelligent conversation, and his searching yet considerate questions. Like the surgeon, who, not content with the theoretical instructions of the lecture-room, takies his pupils to walk the hospital, so he invites his ministerial students to accompany of Peace, Philanthropy, and Social Advancement. London: A. Cockshaw. Pp. 374, This volume of the “Library for the Times” is likely to be one of the most useful of the whole series of works contemplated by the projectors of this scheme. Its design, which we cannot better state than in the words of the editor, ‘is to bring before the minds of the young the highest literature of our country, engaged in the cause of truth and reason, of virtue, philanthropy, and religion. It has been compiled with the hope of attaching them to those principles which every good and wise parent would desire that his children should imbibe ; and, at the same time, of making them acquainted with those writers whose works may constitute the staple intellectual and moral aliment of their future life,' The selection of the extracts is made with great judgment and taste; indeed we know of no other single volume which may be said so faithfully to illustrate the true genius and eloquence of modern British prose writings. It has struck us, however, that as a school-book, and a work for the young, it might have been made more attractive by the insertion of a greater number of extracts of a lighter character, such as that on 'Rebecca and Rowena,' &c. &c. Greatly to impress the minds of the young, it is absolutely necessary to excite their interest, generally to touch the finer chord. of their feelings. Comparatively few of the extracts in this volume are adapted to effect this. This is a deficiency, and one which we should be glad to see remedied in future editions of the work.
him to the houses of his people, when he visits the sick or performs a private baptism. He brings them acquainted with the poor of his flock, that they may learn how to address those of a lowly condition-ever cautioning them not to despise the common people, nor think condescension unworthy of a scholar. On a Sunday night, when, if at any time, a Christian heart should be more than usually tender, he takes them separately into his study, converses with them concerning the state of religion in their soul, and gives them suitable counsel and encouragement. Though by no means a strict disciplinarian at home-indeed a little at fault in this respect-yet it is his custom, when some grave offender has been detected, solemnly to arraign him at family worship, and publicly pronounce the sentence of expulsion. Lamentations steeped in tears form that day's diary. But over others how joyous are the boundings of his heart! He has just been to hear a promising young pupil.
. . . . And now another who has gone through his whole curriculum with honour, is to leave the institution for some pastoral charge, and on the occasion a religious service is held; the elders take part in the exercise, and brethren from the neighbourhood are invited to share in the tutor's satisfaction. And yet another-having for a year or two tasted the anxieties of the ministerial life, and panting for the sympathy and counsel of the wise-wends his way to Northampton, and calls at Sheep-street, and there a greeting of no common sort awaits him; Doddridge's house is to him as a father's house, and the young visitor, timid and modest, feels himself at home.
• Well might Job Orton say, "After this account of his behaviour to his pupils, and concern for their usefulness and happiness, the reader who knows anything of human nature, and the attractive influence of love, will not wonder to be told, that they in general loved him as a father, and that his paternal advices and entreaties weighed more with them than the commands of rigid authority, or the arguments of a cooler mind, when the affection of the heart was not felt, or not tenderly expressed."'Pp. 93–99.
Mr. Stoughton has prefixed to this work a valuable chapter on · Dissent in the Reign of William III.,' and in a ' postscript there are interesting memorials of the three colleges now united in New College-Doddridge being the originator of the first of these-known as Coward College. The author's task in compiling these and the memorials of the life of this eminent man is very ably and faithfully executed, and the work forms a valuable and almost necessary companion volume to Mr. Stoughton's previous book of «Spiritual Heroes,' and to Mr. Miall's · Footsteps of our Forefathers.'
Classical Selections from British Prose Writers ; chiefly Illustrative of the Principles of Intellectual, Civil, and Religious Liberty;
The Congregational Year-Book for 1851. London: Published for the Congre
gational Union of England and Wales, by Jackson and Walford. In addition to the list of ministers, societies, &c., which make this volume valuable as a manual of the Congregational denomination, it contains the addresses of the chairmen of the meetings of the Congregational Union, and the papers read thereat by Mr. Corbin, on the • Employment of Lay Agents as Preachers, by the Congregational Churches '-a paper, full of useful suggestions, by Professor Godwin, on The Best Means of calling forth the Talent of the Church for the Work of the Ministry-by Mr. Baldwin Brown, on The Renewing of Spiritual Life the great Need of our Churches '—by Mr. Galloway, on
Chapel Extension, and the very able paper by Mr. Reynolds on 'Scepticism and its Counteraction. These papers should secure for the work a sale out of the mere limits of the denomination.-We notice, by the bye, that in the list of periodicals at the end, the Monthly Christian Spectator' is omitted.
The Sidereal Heavens, and other Subjects connected with Astronomy, as Illustrative
of the Character of the Deity and an Infinity of Worlds. By Thomas Dick,
LL.D. Fourth Thousand. Ward and Co. Celestial Scenery, and the Wonders of the Planetary System Displayed Illustrating
the Perfections of the Deity and a Plurality of Worlds. By the same Author.
Eighth Thousand. Ward and Co. THESE are new editions of works which we hope are already well known to the majority of our readers. Should there be any not acquainted with them, we take this opportunity, late though it be, of adding our testimony to their value. As popular compendiums of astronomical science, they are altogether unsurpassed, and they breathe throughout the spirit of the finest Christian philosophy. The unwearied labour, the searching investigation and patient thought, which the writer has bestowed on this, the greatest of the physical sciences, merit a better reward from the Christian world than he has yet received.
WORKS FOR THE YOUNG. The Christmas season is usually prolific in works for young readers, of which we have on our table a small accumulation. As we have made the instruction of this class in the Christian household a somewhat prominent feature in the pages of the Monthly Christian Spectator, we think it not amiss to give this month one page to a notice of the efforts of others in the same direction.
The first book that we reach is, Little Henry's Holiday at the Great Exhibition (Houlston and Stoneman), by the editor of Pleasant Pages.'—It is the only book for young people on the Crystal Palace' that we have seen. The author divides it into three parts-I.. Going there;' II. Walking through ;' III. «Going Home;' the walk there being occupied with a conversation on the origin and history of the undertaking, in which many facts of science and history are told in familiar conversational style. The contents are explained and commented upon after the same simple and attractive manner in the second part ; and the third is occupied with a desultory conversation on the general characteristics and productions of the countries contributing to the 'Fair,' on London, and on · Peace and Brotherhood.' The work is very happily designed and executed, and our young readers generally would rejoice to be possessed of it.
Stories of Scotland and its Adjacent Islands (A. Hall and Co.), by Mrs. Thomas Geldart, is the work of a lady who, we hope, has contributed largely to the profitable entertainment of our young friends. The aim of the authoress is to communicate the principal facts of Scottish History, legendary and other, in 'plain and simple prose, The novel, but to the young attractive, plan of connecting these facts with places, rather than with dates, has been adopted, and we think with great success. The geographical order is followed ; and the map is traversed from south to north without the omission of a place remarkable for any event in