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the People, Lev. xxiii. 27. and xvi. 29, and Numb. xxix.
105 Q. What was to be done on that Day?
A. This was the Day when the High Prieft, dreffed in his richeft Garments, was to enter into the moft Holy Place with the Blood of a peculiar Sacrifice, and sprinkle it upon the Mercy-feat before the Lord, to make Atonement for the Sins of the whole Nation, and to offer Incense on the golden Cenfer. [See feveral more Ceremonies belonging to this Day, Lev. xvi.] Let it be obferved also, that in the Year of Jubilee, on this great Day of Atonement, the Trumpet of Jubilee was to be founded through the Land, to proclaim Liberty to all the Inhabitants, Lev. xxv. 8-10.
106 Q. What was the Feaft of Tabernacles?
A. On the fifteenth Day of the feventh Month, at the End of all their Harvest, they begun this Feaft, and dwelt feven Days in Booths made of the Boughs of Trees, Deut. xvi. 13.
107 Q. What was the Defign of this Ceremony? A. To keep in Memory their dwelling in Booths in the Wilderness, when they went out of the Land of Egypt, Lev. xxiii. 39–44.
108 Q. How was this Feaft obferved?
A. By peculiar Sacrifices every Day of the Feaft, and a holy Affembly on the first Day, and on the eighth Day, Numb, xxix. 12.
109 Q. At what Hour did their Sabbaths, and all their Feafts begin and end?
A. The Jews counted their Days, and particularly their Holy-Days, from the Evening at Sunset to the next Evening, Gen. i. 5. Lev xxiii. 5, 32.
110Q. At what Place were the Feafts to be kept? A. At the Place which God fhould choose for the Refidence of the Ark and Tabernacle; which
was first at Shiloh, afterwards at Jerusalem; though the blowing of Trumpets to proclaim the Beginning of the Year was practifed in all the Cities of Ifrael. See Deut. xvi. 16. and Pool's Annotat, on Lev. xxiii. 24. 2 Kings xxi. 4.
IIIQ. How then could allIfrael keep thefe Feasts? A. At the three chief Feafts, namely, the Passover, Pentecoft, and the Feast of Tabernacles, all the Males were to appear before God in one Place with fome Offering, Exod. xxiii. 14-17. Deut.
112 Q. What was the Offering they were to bring unto God, when they appeared before him at these folemn Feasts?
A The Tithe, or tenth Part of their Corn, Wine, and Oil, and the First-born of their Cattle; but they themselves were to partake in eating of it, Deut. xiv. 22, 23. though the Bulk of it was to be given to the Priefts and Levites. See Chap. VI. Quest. 15, 16.
113Q Was it not dangerous for them to leave their ownDwellings, in Towns and Villages which bordered on their Enemy's Country?
A. God promised them, that when they should go up to appear before him thrice in the Year, no Man fhould defire their Land, Exod. xxxiv. 23, 24. which was a ftanding Miracle during that Difpenfation.
114 Q. Having heard this Account of Holy Perfons and Places, Things and Times, let us now inquire what were the holy Actions?
A. All thofe Actions may be called Holy, which were appointed to be a Part of this Ceremonial Worship; but the Actions relating to the Natural Worship of God, fuch as Prayer and Praife, are in themselves holy and religious.
SECT. VI. The Use of the Jewish Ceremonies, 115 QWHAT were the chief Ufes of all
thefe ceremonial Commands?
A. Thefe three; (1.) To distinguish the Jews from all other People, as a holy People, and God's peculiar vifible Church, who eminently bore up his Name and Honour in the World, Lev. xx. 22--26.
(2.) To employ that People, who were fo much given to Idolatry, in many Varieties of outward Forms and Rites of Religion, left they should be tempted to follow the Superftition and Idolatry of the Nations round about them, Deut. vi. 1, 2, 14, 17. Deut xxix. 1, 9-18.
(3.) To reprefent by Types, Figures and Emblems, many of the Offices of Christ, and the Glories and Bleffings of his Gofpel.
116 Q. How doth it appear that any of these Jewish Ceremonies are Emblems or Types of Chrift and his Gospel ?
A. 1. This appears from many Places in the New Teftament, where Jefus Chrift and the Blefsings of the Gospel are called by the fame Names. So Chrift is called our High Priest, Heb. iii. 1. and iv. 14. He is the Lamb that was flain, Rev. v. 6. 1 Pet. i. 19, 20. Our Pass-over, 1 Cor. v. 7. and Sacrifice to take away Sin, Heb. ix. 26. The Atonement or Propitiation for Sin, Rom. iii. 25. 1 John ii. 2. His Body is called the Temple, becaufe God dwelt in it as in the Jewish Temple, John ii. 19, 21. Col. ii. 9.
2. This appears yet further from the evident and intended Refemblance which the Scripture reprefents between feveral of the Jewish Ceremonies, and the Things of the Gofpel. The Blood of Christ obtained eternal Redemption for us, as the Blood
Blood of Bulls and Goats cleanfed and freed the Jews from ceremonial Defilements, Heb. ix. 12,
c. His Blood is called the Blood of Sprinkling, Heb. xii. 24. to fprinkle or cleanfe us from a guilty Confcience, as the fprinkling of the Blood of the Jewish Sacrifices purified the People, Heb. ix. 20. and ch. x. 22. The most holy Place, where God dwelt of old on the Mercy-feat, is the Figure of the true Heaven, where God dwells on a Throne of Grace, Heb. ix. 8, 24. and iv. 16. The High Prieft's Entrance with the Blood of the Sacrifice, and with the Names of the Tribes on his Breast, into the most holy Place, to appear before God there for the Jews, is a plain Figure of Chrift's Entrance into Heaven with his own Blood, to appear before God for us, Heb. ix. 12, 25. The Jewish Incense was a Type or Figure of Prayer, Rev. v. 8. and viii. 3. The Jewish Sabbath or Day of Reft, as well as the Land of Canaan, was a Type of the Rest and Release of Believers from Sin and Guilt, and from an uneafy Confcience, under the Gospel, and the final Rest of the Saints in Heaven, Heb iv. 3, 4, 9, 10.
This might be proved more at large by fome other Scriptures, where the Jewish Rites in general are called Figures or Shadows of the good Things of the Gospel, Col. ii. 16, 17. Heb. viii. 5. and ix. 1-14, 23, 24.
117 Q. Did the Jews themselves underftand the fpiritual Meaning of thefe Ceremonies?
A. Perhaps a few of them, who were more enlightened, might understand the Meaning of fome of the chiefeft and most confiderable Types; but the Bulk of the People can hardly be fuppofed to have understood the fpiritual Meaning of them; at leaft, the Bible gives us no Intimation of it.
118 Q. How
118 Q. How could they be appointed as Types and Figures of fpiritual Things, if the People who were required to use them in their Worship, did not understand the spiritual Meaning of them?
4. 1. The Jewish Difpenfation was the Childish or Infant State of the Church of God, as it is defcribed, Gal. iv. 1, 2, 3, &c. Now, Children are fometimes employed in feveral Things by their wifer Parents, the chief Defign and Meaning whereof they underftand not till riper Years.
2. If these Ceremonies were not understood by the ancient Jews, to whom they were given, yet they might be defigned as Types and Figures of Chrift, and the Bleffings of the Gospel, in order to confirm the Religion of Chrift and the Gofpel, when it should be afterward publifhed to the World, by feeing how happily it anfwers these ancient Types.
119 Q. Wherein doth this appear?
A. St Paul doth actually confirm Christianity this Way, especially in his Epiftle to the Hebrews, by fhewing how thefe ancient Types and Ceremonies are fulfilled in the Gofpel of Chrift.
Note, As a Prophecy is the Foretelling of Things to come, in Words, fo a Type is the Foretelling of fomething to come, in fome real Emblem or Figure or Resemblance of it: Now as there are many ancient Prophecies which were not understood by the Perfons to whom they were first spoken, nor by the Perfons who spoke them, 1 Pet. i. 11, 12. yet when they are fulfilled they come to be better understood, and bear Witness to the Hand of God, both in the Prophecy and in the Accomplishment. So though Types may be obfcure when they are first appointed, yet when they are accomplished or fulfilled, they are better understood, and fhew the Hand of God, both in appointing the Sign, and bringing to pafs the Thing fignified.