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fon, pleaded their Caufe before Pompey, the General of the Romans, who was now at Damascus: While, at the fame Time, the People declared against both; for they pretended they were not to be governed by Kings, but by the Priests of God.
42 Q. How was the Controversy decided?
A. Pompey not giving a speedy Determination, and Aristobulus fufpecting the Event, he retired and prepared for War: Whereupon Pompey feized Ariftobulus in one of his Caftles, and confined him in Prison, and laid Siege to Jerufalem; and being received into the City by Hyrcanus's Party, befieged alfo the Temple and the Castle Baris, and took it in three Months Time.
43 Q How came the Romans to take fo ftrong a Place fo foon?
A. Though the Jews had learnt from the Beginning of the Maccabean Wars, to defend themfelves when attacked on the Sabbath; yet being not actually affaulted, they permitted the Romans to build up their Works and Engines on the Sabbath, without difturbing them; whereby the Tower or Caftle, and with it the Temple, were taken.
44Q On what Day was the Temple taken? A. On the very Day which the Jews kept as a folemn Faft, for the taking of Jerufalem and the Temple by Nebuchadnezzar: And it is remarkable, that the Priefts who were at the Altar continued their Devotions, and their Rites of Worship, till they perified by the Hands of the Enemy.
45 Q. What Blood and Plunder enfued in the Temple?
A. Twelve thousand Jews were flain on this Occafion, partly by Pompey's Army, and partly by their own Brethren, of the Party of Hyrcanus. But when Pompey entered the Sanctuary, he forbore
to touch any of the facred Veffels thereof, or the two thousand Talents which were laid up there for facred Ufes; he ordered the Temple to be cleansed, and Sacrifices to be offered there according to their own Laws.
Note, Though Pompey was fo moderate in his Victory, yet in a little Time after, Craffus, another Roman General, in his March through the Country, feized and took away thofe two thoufand Talents, and the golden Veffels of the Temple, and rich Hangings of ineftimable Worth. But the Vengeance of Heaven feemed to follow him: His Counsels in his Wars, from this Time forward, were under perpetual Difappointment; he was flain in a War with the Parthians: His Head was cut off, and melted Gold was poured down his Throat, by way of Infult over his infatiable Covetousnefs, 46Q What was the final Effect of this Victory of the Romans?
A. Pompey demolished the Walls of Jerufalem, put to Death fome of the chief Supporters of Ariftobulus, restored Hyrcanus to the High Priesthood, and made him alfo Governor, but under Tribute to the Romans, and reduced his Dominions to narrower Bounds: Then he carried Ariftobulus, with his Children Prifoners to Rome; except his eldeft Son, who escaped.
Note, From this Quarrel between Hyrcanus the fe
cond and Ariftobulus, the Ruin of Judea and Jerufalem must be dated; the final Lofs of the Liberty of the Jews, and the Tranflation of the fo vereign Authority to the Romans; which had till then defcended with the Priesthood, and been poffeffed by the Jews, though often under fome Tribute to Heathen Princes.
47 Q: Did Ariftobulus or his Sons ever attempt the Recovery of their Power and Government?
A. Being escaped from Prison, they made feveral vigorous Attempts, but without Succefs.
84 Q. What Changes did Jerusalem pass under through thefe Times?
A.Gabinius,aRomanGeneral,marchingthrough Judea, in a little Time made a great Change in the Government, leffened the Power of Hyrcanus yet further, altered the Conftitution of the Sanhedrim, or Jewish Senate; but all was restored again fhortly after by Julius Cæfar: For, as Hyrcanus's Requeft, he gave him Leave to rebuild the Walls of Jerufalem, and by a Decree from the Senate of Rome, the ancient Friendship with the Jews was renewed.
49 Q. Where was Antipater all this while, who had excited Hyrcanus to recover the Government of Judea?
A. He did many Services for Cæfar in his Wars in the neighbouring Countries; whereupon he was made his Lieutenant in Judea, under Hyrcanus, who was confirmed by Cæfar in the Government and High Priesthood. And, at the fame Time, Antipater procured Phafael, his eldest Son, to be made Governor of the City of Jerufalem; and Herod, his fecond Son, Governor of Judea. Note, This Herod grew up to high Power afterward; he was called Herod the Great, and was King of Judea, when our Saviour was born.
50 Q What became of Antipater at laft? A. He was poifoned by one Malichus, a Rival, who envied his Greatness and Power in Judea : But his Death was revenged by his Son Herod, who was permitted by the Roman General to procure Malichus to be murdered.
51 Q. What further Troubles did the Jews meet with about this Time?
A. Some Part or other of their Nation were continually subject to Plunderers, fometimes from the Roman
Roman Generals, for not paying the Tribute demanded, or on fome other Pretences; sometimes by the Parthians, who affifted Antigonus, Son of the late King Ariftobulus, to recover Jerufalem and Judea, in Oppofition to the united Forces of Phafael, and Herod, and Hyrcanus.
52 Q. Did Antigonus ever recover this Government?
A. The Parthian General, Pacorus, who was at War with the Romans, did by meer Treachery get into his Cuftody both Hyrcanus and Phafael, feized Jerufalem, and rifled it, made Antigonus Governor of Judea, and delivered up Hyrcanus and Phafael to him in Chains; but Herod made his Escape.
53 Q. What became of Phafael and Hyrcanus ? A Phafael beat out his own Brains in Prifon; Hyrcanus's Ears were cut off, that being maimed, he might be no longer High Prieft, Lev. xxi. 17. and he was fent far off among the Parthians, that he might raife no Difturbances against Antigonus.
54 Q. Whither did Herod take his Flight? A. After a little Time he went to Rome, to reprefent all these Transactions, and he made his Complaints with great and unexpected Succefs; for Julius Cæfar being flain in the Roman Senate, Mark Anthony and Octavius (who was afterwards Auguftus Cæfar) governed all Things there, and they agreed to make Herod King of Judea, with the Confent of the Senate, hoping it would be for their Intereft in the Parthian War.
SECT. VIII. Of the Government of HEROD the Great, and his Pofterity, over the Jews.
HAT did Herod do on his receiving this new Dignity?
A. He returning to Judea, firft relieved his Mother, who was put in Prifon by Antigonus; he made himself Mafter of Galilee; he deftroyed fome large Bands of Robbers which infefted the Country thereabout, fheltering themfelves in Mountains, and the Caves of fteep and craggy Rocks.
2 Q. What Artifice did he use in order to attack them?
A. By reafon of their dwelling in fuch hollow Caves in Precipices, there was no fcaling them from below; and therefore to ferret them out of their Dens, he made large open Chefts, and filled them with Soldiers, which he let down into the Entrance of those Caves by Chains from Engines which he had fixed above, and thus he deftroyed great Numbers of them.
Note, This Country was often annoyed with the Remains of these Plunderers in the Reign of Herod; but he treated them without Mercy, and all the Country that sheltered them with great Rigour, till he restored Peace to Galilee.
3 Q. Where was his next March?
A. Into Judea against Antigonus; and after fe veral Battles, with various Succefs on both Sides, at laft, by the Affiftance of the Roman Legions, he beficged Antigonus in Jerufalem.
4 Q. Did not Herod himself attend this Siege? A. Yes, but while the Preparations were making for it he went to Samaria, and there he married Mariamne; a Lady of the Family of the Macca