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A. He cried with a loud Voice through the City, "Whosoever is zealous of the Law, let him follow "me." So he and his Sons fled to the Mountains, and a great Number of Jews fled with them, and hid themfelves in the Wilderness.
4Q. Did not the King's Army pursue them? A. Yes, and camped against them, and attacked a confiderableNumber of them on the Sabbath-day. 5 Q. And did the Jews make no Resistance? A. None at all, because it was the Sabbath; but they faid, "Let us all die in our Innocency:" Whereupon a thousand People were slain.
6 Q. Did Mattathias and his Friends approve of this Conduct?
A. It feems as if their Zeal at first approved of it; but upon better Confideration they decreed, it was lawful and neceffary for them to defend themselves, if they were attacked again on the Sabbathday.
Note This Decree was ratified by the Consent of all the Priefts and Elders amongst them; and it was fent to all others through the Land, and was made a Rule in their following Wars.
7 Q. What did King Antiochus do, when he heard of this bold and public Refiftance made to his Commands and his Government?
A. He executed very great Cruelties on all the Jews that fell into his Hands, who would not forfake the Law of Mofes ; fince the mere Terrors of Death did not affright them.
8 Q. What very remarkable Inftances do we find in Hiftory of this Cruelty?
A. Seven Brethren with their Mother were terribly tormented, to conftrain them to eatSwine's Flefh, which the Law of Mofes forbids.
9 Q. How did they endure their Torments? K
A. With great Courage, one after another, in a long Succeffion, they bore the various Tortures that were inflicted on them, and declared they were ready to fuffer rather than transgrefs the Laws of their Fathers.
10 Q. What Tortures were those which the King executed upon them?
A. A great Variety of exquifite and bloody Cru -elties: Their Limbs were cut off, their Tongues were cut out, they were fried in Frying-pans, the Skin of the Head was torn off with the Hair, and they died under the Anguifh and Violence of these Torments; while their Mother at the fame Time looked on, and encouraged them all to suffer boldly in Oppofition to the Intreaties, Threatnings, and Commands of the King.
11 Q. In what Manner did the encourage her Sons in their Sufferings?
A. By the tendereft Speeches of an affectionate Mother to her Sons, the befeeched them to fear God, and not Man; and to endure, in hope of a happy Refurrection, when the fhould receive them all again in Mercy.
12Q Did fhe herself alfo fuffer the Torment?
A. When the had seen all her Sõns die like Martyrs before her, the finished that fad Spectacle, and died alfo for her Religion, 2 Macc. vii.
13Q. What did Mattathias do all this while in the Mountains?
A. He ftill encouraged the Jews to join with him, and among others, there were many of the Affideans, who were zealous for the Law, reforted to him. -LL
14 Q. Who were thefe Affideans, or Chafideans, as it ought to be written?
4. A Sect among the Jews, who were called
Chafidim, or the Piaus; who were not only zea'lous of the Law, but of many other Conftitutions and Traditions, and Forms of Mortification, beyond what the Law required; whereas those who contented themfelves with what was written in the Law, were called Zadikim, or the Righteous.
15 Q. What Exploits did Mattathias and his Friends perform?
A. They went round about the Towns and Villages, pulled down the Heathen Altars, and circumcifed the Children; they flew and put to flight many of their Enemies, and recovered feveral Copies of the Jewish Law.
16 Q. When Mattathias died, who fucceeded him?
A. Juft before his Death he made a noble Speech to his five Sons, to encourage them in the Defence of their Religion and their Country: he recommended his Son Simon, as a Man of Counfel, but he made his Son Judas, furnamed Maccabeus, their Captain.
17 How came he to be called Maccabeus? The Motto of his Standard was the firft Let
ters of that Hebrew Sentence, Exod. xv. 11. Mi
CAMOKA, BAELIM JEHOVAH; that is, Who is like to thee among the Gods, O Lord? Which Letters were formed into the artificial Word Maccabi, and all that fought under bis Standard were called Maccabees.
Note, This has been a common. Practice among the Jews, to frame Words in this Manner. So Rabbi Mofes Ben Maimon, that is, the Son of Maimon, is called Rambam, Rabbi Solomon Farchi, is called Rafi. Nor is the Ufe of the firft Letters of Words for fuch kind of Purposes unknown among Heathens or Chriftians. The Letters S. P.Q.R. were written on the Roman Standard, for Senatus: Populus Que Romanus;
Romanus; that is "The Roman Senate and Peo· ple." Jesus Christ our Saviour hath been called a Fish, in Greek IXOTE, by the Fathers, because these are the first Letters of those Greek Words, Jefus Chrift, God's Son, the Saviour.
SECT. VI. Of the Jewish Government under the MACCABEES or ASMONEANS: And first, of the three Brothers, JUDAS, JONATHAN, and SIMON.
JQ.WHAT valiant Actions did Judas and
his Brethren do, in Defence of the Law, and against their Perfecutors.
A. He won many Battles against King Antiochus and his Generals, and encouraged himself and his Soldiers in the Name of God, whenfoever they began to faint.
2 Q. Where are thefe Acts of Judas and his Brethren recorded?
A. The earliest Account of them is found in the first and fecond Book of Maccabees.
Here note, That the firft Book of Maccabees is a very accurate and excellent History, and comes nearest to the Stile and Manner of the facred Writings; and is fuppofed to be written a little after these Perfecutions and Wars were ended. But the second Book confifts of feveral Pieces of much less Value: It begins with two Epiftles from the Jews of Jerufalem; but both are fuppofed to be fabulous Stories, and in fome Parts impoffible to be true. The following Parts of it pretend to be an Abridgement of the Hiftory of one Jafon; it relates fome of the Perfecutions of Antiochus, and the Acts of Judas, amplified with particular Circumftances; but it is not of equal Efteem with the first Book, for it feems to affect Miracles and proaigious Events, beyond reasonable Credibility.
3 Q. How
3 Q. How did King Antiochus refent thefe At-· tempts of Judas, and his Succeffes against him?
A. When he went into Perfia to gather the Tribute of the Countries there, he left Lyfias with half his Army, and with exprefs Orders to destroy and root the Jews out of their Land.
4 Q. Did Lyfias purfue the King's Orders? A. Yes, with great Diligence he fought to execute these cruel Orders: His Army, of forty thou~ fand Foot and seven thousand Horfe, encamped at Emmaus, near Jerufalem; and another Army of a thousandMerchants, flocked thither upon Prefumption of their Victory, with great Quantities of Sil-ver and Gold to buy the Captives for Slaves.
5 Q. How did their wicked Counsel to destroys Ifrael fucceed?
A. When they were thus fecure, and confident of Succefs, Judas and his Brethren affembled at Mizpah, fafted, put on Sackcloth, laid open the Book of the Law before God, where the Heathens had painted their Images, cried mightily unto God for Help, founded the Trumpets, brought the Army / into Order, and prepared for Battle and for Death, unless God pleafed to make them Conquerors.
6 Q. What was the Event of fo much piousZeal and Courage?
A. Judas and his Army put to flight and deftroyed feveral large Parties that Lyfias had fent against him; they drove the Enemy out of Jerufalem, and almoft out of the Land of Judea, nd took a very large Booty both from the Army and the Merchants.
7 Q. What was the firft Work that Judas and his, People applied themselves to upon this great Success?
A. They went up into Mount Sion, and when they faw the Sanctuary defolate, the Altar pro