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same.

Thus English children pronounce the name Julia as if written Zulia, and French children, as well as nine Italians out of ten, pronounce Julie as if written Zulie. Here I may be reminded, that it is not requisite to prove that j and z are naturally the same, but that i and s combined are equal to j. But this I do prove by showing that j and z are equal; for as I can produce very high authority to show that z is the same as is, it follows that it must be equal to j also, or two things equal to one another are not so with regard to a third. The very high authority to which I allude, is the wise man, whoever he was, that named the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet (5570); for this precious word tells us, when analysed, that is and z are equal, as we shall see when we come to it. But the analysis of a word or two in which there is a z, must on this matter remove all doubt. The word zone, when analysed, becomes iz-o-in, of which the primitive order must have been in-iz-o, which means it is o; that is, it is round.

By this instance we see that z is evidently for is; and as z is equal to j, so must is be equal to it also. Zero, which makes when analysed iz-er-o, and consequently means is the o, furnishes another proof that z is equal to is, and that j and is must for the same reason be equal. I seldom look into old books to confirm by quotations what thus appears too evident to admit of any doubt; but a friend to whom I am indebted for many proofs of the truth of my discovery, has just informed me by

letter that many instances of is being used instead of j, as I have stated, occur in a translation of St. Augustin's Confessions by the Jesuit Ceriers, and which work was published as late as the year

1657. Thus toujours is written tousiours, and deja, desia, as we may see in the following passages :-“ Vous voyez cela, seigneur, et vous vous taisez, patiens, tres misericordieux et veritable. Peutêtre que vous taisez tousiours."* “ J'estois desia en consideration

parmy les orateurs, cequi m'enfloit d'un orgeuil autant insupportable que vain.” †

There is great necessity for inquiring thus minutely into the nature of a letter, as this may

lead to the knowledge of many words. Thus, do we now want to analyse the French word deja, we know that thej may be a z or is, and we see that deja must become id-iz-ea, or id is ea, of which the meaning is, “it is that;” and this is, as if we were to say, “it is the thing,” “it is the affair;" in short, deja is, according to this analysis, a simple affirmative; and this is confirmed by the same word in Latin (jam), which, when analysed, makes im is ea (it is that). This word may be also analysed thus, is ea vie, as we shall see hereafter; and as the order of these words ought to be vie is ea, the meaning is, “it is that.” But jam may be even analysed thus, is am, which means is ay, for this am is another word for I, since it may be also thus analysed, oi-im, as the reader must know if he has profited by the several

* Livre i. chap. xviii. p. 32.
† Livre iii. chap. iii. p. 62.

indications I have given respecting the original form of a. This oi-im is literally I im (I am), and when we make im precede oi, we have imoi, which has been contracted to moi, the French pronoun. Lest it may be doubted that such a form as is ay has been ever used, I beg to remark that the affirmative

yes is a contraction of yea is, which must have first been is yea. In like manner, do we now want to account for the English word jealous, we must look to j, and consider it as is or as z, and by this we shall be surprised to discover what was never suspected — namely, that jealous and zealous make but one word, and that, consequently, to be jealous is to be zealous. Hence jealousy is a more praiseworthy feeling than has been supposed, since it is no more than to be zealous, even to suspicion. How happily this is confirmed by the Greek language, in which jealousy is translated by Graos (zelos), which, when analysed, becomes os-zel, the zeal ; from which it is evident that zeal and jealousy are equal. But how, the English scholar will ask, is zeal rendered in Greek? why by Shaos to be sure, that is, by the same word that names jealousy. Hence, though in French and English we make some difference, as to form, between zeal and jealousy, the Greeks made none. As the French word jalousie makes, when analysed, is-ea-il-os-i, it is clear that it ought to be now written jealousie, and not jalousie ; but this word is written so, from the e being not sounded. Nor should the ous in jalousie, any more than in the English word, be

preferred to os, as there is no necessity for it. Jealousy is to be thus analysed, zeal-os-i, and these words are then to take this order, os i zeal (the one zeal)—that is, “theone thing zeal,” “the thing zeal.” And then, if we wish to know what is meant by zeal, we are to analyse it thus, is ea il; in which instance ea serves as a qualifying word to il (another word for being), and it means, the first, from a being the first letter of the alphabet, and also from ea or the earth being the first of God's works. Then zeal will mean “is the first or chief being,” —that is, “it is the first of life, its soul, its most lively part." Zeal may be also analysed thus, il is ea ; but the meaning will be still the same, as this implies it is the first, the chiefest. But as the analysis ea gives e-0-1, and as this means “the round one,” which may refer to the sun or the earth, hence zeal may mean,“it is the sun” — that is, “it is to the sun,” “ belonging to the sun;" in other words, it is like him—all life, all animation. The French orthography for zeal (zele) is also very correct, and it is to be analysed thus, is-e-il, which means "the life life,” that is, “all life,” “all animation;" for here e is for life, as we shall see when we know what the name Hra, given to the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet means. even allow to the three words is-e-il this order (and such, too, they must have had), il is e, the meaning will still be, “the life life” – that is, “ all life," "all soul."

As the English word zeal may also with great propriety be analysed thus, e-al-is, (all being, all life,)

If we

it will be found to be literally as in French. We shall have thus often occasion to remark that the same word may be accounted for in various ways, whilst the meaning will be ever the same. This variety of form accounts for our having, to all appearance, many languages, though we have in reality but one; since all the words in the world are made out of the same few radical syllables, such as ib, ic, id, ea, is, &c., of which the meaning was in the beginning the same with all people. Hence these few radical syllables may be compared to the ten figures 1, 2, 3, &c., by means of which all numbers are formed.

These observations respecting the letter j have grown, the reader may remember, out of the account given of nos, of which the is (no-is) has the meaning of the word it or that. But I may add to the proofs just given on this head, that eg o, or eg io, is also for I that; and Ich, in German, which, analysed, makes ic vie, has not a different meaning.

The analysis of many words in the foregoing pages has been given rather superficially, as closer investigation could not, at those different times, be made without occasioning very considerable digressions. Of what I thus state I am now going to give an instance—and I hope an interesting oneby attempting an explanation of the first names man ever had for his own dwelling. It is observed in the note to the word Baron (vol. i. p. 389.) that the word barrack means, when analysed, a warhouse, the b being here, as it frequently is, the same as a v or

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