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Bring to us rich food, a blessing to cattle, to children, and to the ox. 6. With other verbs, such as pů, vâ, and others, where

it is clearly used as an adverb: ix. 11, 3. sáh nah pavasva sám gáve sám gánaya sám árvate, sám râgan óshadhîbhyah.

Do thou, king Soma, stream upon us, a blessing for the ox, a blessing for man, a blessing for the horse, a blessing for the plants. Cf. ix. 11, 7; 60, 4; 61, 15; 109, 5.

vii. 35, 4. sám nah ishiráh abhí vậtu vấtah.

May the brisk wind blow kindly upon us, or blow a blessing upon us. vii

. 35, 6. sám nah tváshtâ gnabhih ihá srinotu. May Tvashtar with the goddesses hear us here well, i. e. auspiciously!

vii. 35, 8. sátu nah suryah—út etu.
May the sun rise auspiciously for us !
viii. 18, 9. sám nah tapatu süryah.
May the sun warm us well!
iii. 13, 6. sám nah soka —ágne.
Shine well for us, O Agni !

Sám also occurs in a phrase that has puzzled the interpreters of the Veda very much, viz. sám yoh. These are two words, and must both be taken as substantives, though originally they may have been adverbs. Their meaning seems to have been much the same, and in English they may safely be rendered by health and wealth, in the old acceptation of these words:

i. 93, 7. dhattam yagamânâya sám yóh.

Give, Agni and Soma, to the sacrificer health and wealth.

i. 106, 5. sám yoh yát te mánuh-hitam tát îmahe.

Brihaspati, we ask for health and wealth which thou gavest to Manu.

i. 114, 2. yát sám ka yoh ka mánuh â-yegé pitã tát asyâma táva rudra prá-nîtishu.

Rudra, the health and wealth which Manu, the father, obtained, may we reach it under thy guidance.

ii. 33, 13. yâni mánuh ávrinîta pitã nah tã sám ka yoh ka rudrásya vasmi.

The medicines which our father Manu chose, those I desire, the health and wealth of Rudra.

i. 189, 2. bháva tokấya tánayâya sám yóh.
Be to our offspring health and wealth !
iv. 12, 5. yákkha tokấya tánayâya sám yóh.
Give to our offspring health and wealth !
v. 69, 3. ile tokấya tánayâya sám yóh.
I ask for our offspring health and wealth.
vi. 50, 7. dhấta tokấya tánayâya sám yóh.
Give to our offspring health and wealth !
X. 182, 1, átha karat yagamânâya sám yóh.

May he then produce for the sacrificer health and wealth.

vii, 69, 5. téna nah sám yóh-ní asvinâ vahatam. On that chariot bring to us, Asvins, health and wealth. iii. 17, 3. átha bhava yágamânâya sám yóh. Then, Agni, be health and wealth to the sacrificer.

iii. 18, 4. brihát váyah sasamânéshu dhehi, revát agne visvấmitreshu sám yóh.

Give, Agni, much food to those who praise thee, give to the Visvâmitras richly health and wealth.

X. 15, 4. átha nah sám yóh arapáh dadhâta.
And give us health and wealth without a flaw! Cf. x. 59, 8.
x. 37, 11. tát asmé sám yóh arapáh dadhâtana.
And give to us health and wealth without a flaw!

v. 47, 7. tát astu mitra-varunâ tát agne sám yóh asmábhyam idám astu sastám.

Let this, O Mitra-Varuna, let this, O Agni, be health and wealth to us; may this be auspicious !

V. 53, 14. vrishtví sám yóh ấpah usrí bheshagám syẩma marutah sahá.

Let us be together, O Maruts, after health, wealth, water, and medicine have been showered down in the morning.

viii. 39, 4. sám ka yoh ka máyah dadhe.
He gave health, wealth, and happiness.
viïi. 71, 15. agním sám yoh ka dấtave.
We ask Agni to give us health and wealth.
X. 9, 4. sám yóh abhí sravantu nah.

May the waters bring to us health and wealth, or may they run towards us auspiciously.

Verse 4, note 3 If we retain the reading of the MSS. súshmah iyarti, we must take it as an independent phrase, and translate it by 'my strength rises.' For súshma, though in this and other places it is frequently explained as an adjective, meaning powerful, is, as far as I can see, always a substantive, and means power, strength. There may be a few passages in which, as there occur several words for strength, it might be possible to translate súshma by strong. But even there it is better to keep to the general meaning of súshma, and translate it as a substantive.

Iyarti means to rise and to raise. It is particularly applied to prayers raised by the poet in honour of the gods, and the similes used in connection with this, show clearly what the action implied by iyarti really is. For instance,

i. 116, 1. stómân iyarmi abhríyâ-iva vấtah.
I stir up hymns as the wind stirs the clouds.

X, 116, 9. su-vakasyẩm iyarmi síndhau-iva prá îrayam navam.

I stir up sweet praise, as if rowing a ship on the river. In the sense of rising it occurs,

x. 140, 2. pâvaká-varkâh sukrá-varkâh ánûna-varkâh út iyarshi bhânúna.

Thou risest up with splendour, Agni, thou of bright, resplendent, undiminished majesty.

We might therefore safely translate in our verse 'my strength rises, although it is true that such a phrase does not occur again, and that in other passages where iyarti and súshma occur together, the former governs the latter in the accusative. Cf. iv. 17, 12; x. 75, 3.

Verse 5, note 1. If, as we can hardly avoid, we ascribe this verse to the Maruts, we must recognize in it the usual offer of help to Indra on the part of the Maruts. The question then only is, who are the strong friends in whose company they appear? It would be well if one could render antamébhih by horses, as Sâyana does, but there is no authority for it. Svá-kshatra is an adjective, meaning endowed with independent strength, synonymous with svá-tavas, i. 166, 2. It is applied to the mind of Indra, i. 54, 3; v. 35, 4; to the Maruts, v. 48, 1, but never to

horses. As it stands, we can only suppose that a distinction is made between the Maruts and their followers, and that after calling together their followers, and adorning themselves for battle, they proceed to harness their chariots. Cf. i. 107, 2.

In this passage

Verse 5, note ? Étân, in all MSS. which I consulted, has here the accent on the first syllable, and Professor Aufrecht ought not to have altered the word into etấn. If the accent had not been preserved by the tradition of the schools, the later interpreters would certainly have taken etân for the demonstrative pronoun. As it is, in spite of accent and termination, Sâyana in i. 166, 10, seems to take étâh for eté. In other passages, however, Sâyana, too, has perceived the difference, and in i. 169, 6, he explains the word very fully as prishadvarnâ gantâro vâ asvâ vâ. the Etas are clearly the deer of the Maruts, the Prishatîs :

i. 169, 6. ádha yát eshâm prithu-budhnấsah étâh.

In the next verse, however, éta seems applied to the Maruts themselves :

i. 169, 7. práti ghorãnâm étânâm ayâsâm marútâm srinve â-yatấm upabdíh.

The shout of the terrible, speckled, indefatigable Maruts is heard, as they approach; unless we translate :

The noise of the terrible deer of the indefatigable Maruts is heard, as they approach.

In i. 166, 10, ámseshu étâh, I adopt Professor Roth's conjecture, that étâh means the skins of the fallow deer, so that we should have to translate : On their shoulders are the deer-skins.

In the other passages where éta occurs, it is used as a simile only, and therefore throws no light on the relation of the Etas to the Maruts. In both passages, however (v. 54, 5; x. 77, 2), the simile refers to the Maruts, though to their speed only, and not to their colour.

Verse 5, note 3. Máhah-bhih, which I have translated with all our might,' seems to be used almost as an adverb, mightily or quickly (makshu), although the original meaning, with our powers, through our might, is likewise applicable. The original meaning is quite perceptible in passages like

v. 62, 3. ádhârayatam prithivim utá dyấm mítra-râgânâ varunâ máhah-bhih.

Kings Mitra and Varuna, you have supported heaven and earth by your powers.

vii. 3, 7. tébhih nah agne ámitaih máhah-bhih satám pûrbhíh ấyasîbhih ní pâhi.

With those immeasurable powers, O Agni, protect us, with a hundred iron strongholds.

i. 90, 2. té- máhah-bhih, vratã rakshante visvaha.
They always protect the laws by their powers.
vii. 71, 1. tvám nah agne máhah-bhih pâhí.
Protect us, Agni, with thy power.

In other passages, however, we see máhah-bhih used of the light or of the flames of Agni and of the dawn :

iv. 14, 1. deváh rókamânah máhah-bbih.
Agni, the god, brilliant with his powers.
vi. 64, 2. devi rókamânâ máhah-bhih.
O goddess, brilliant with thy powers.
The

powers of the Maruts are referred to by the same name in the following passages :

v. 58, 5. prá-pra gâyante - máhah-bhih. The Maruts are born with their powers. vii. 58, 2. prá yé máhah-bhih ógasâ utá sánti. The Maruts who excel in power and strength. Cf. iii

.

4, 6.

Verse 6, note!. Indra in this dialogue is evidently represented as claiming everything for himself alone. He affects contempt for the help proffered by the Maruts, and seems to deny that he was at any time beholden to their assistance. By asking, Where was that custom of yours that you should join me in battle? he implies that it never was their custom before, and that he can dispense with their succour now. He wants to be alone in his battle with Ahi, and does not wish that they should join him : (cf. i. 33, 4.) Professor Roth takes sam-ádhatta in the sense of implicating, but it can hardly be said that the Maruts ever implicated Indra in his fight against Ahi. Certainly this is not in keeping with the general tenor of this dialogue, where, on the contrary, Indra shuns the company of the Maruts. But while on

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