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Maruts, or that possibly it was acted by two parties, one representing Indra, the other the Maruts and their followers, then the two verses in the beginning and the three at the end ought to be placed in the mouth of the actual sacrificer, whoever he was. He begins by asking, who has attracted the Maruts to his sacrifice, and by what act of praise and worship they can be delighted. Then follows the dialogue in honour of the Maruts, and after it the sacrificer asks again, 'Who has magnified the Maruts, i.e. have not we magnified them ?' and he implores them to grant him their friendship in recognition of his acts of worship. If then we suppose that the dialogue was the work of Mândârya Mânya, the fourteenth verse, too, would lose something of its obscurity. Coming from the mouth of the actual sacrificer, it would mean, 'the wisdom, or the poetical genius, of Mânya has brought us to this, has induced us to do this, i.e. to perform this dialogue of Mânya, so that he, Mânya, should assist, as a poet assists the priest at a sacrifice.'

If Mânya himself was present, the words ó sú varta, bring hither quickly,' would have to be taken as addressed to him by the sacrificer; the next, · Maruts, on to the sage !' would be addressed to the Maruts, the sage (vípra) being meant for Mânya; and in the last words, too, 'these prayers the singer has recited for you,' the singer (garitâ) might again be Mânya, the powerful poet whose services the sacrificer had engaged, and whose famous dialogue between Indra and the Maruts was considered a safe means of winning their favour. It would be in keeping with all this, if in the last verse the sacrificer once more informed the Maruts that this hymn of praise was the work of the famous poet Mândârya, the son of Mâna, and if he then concluded with the usual prayer for safety, food, and progeny.

Verse 1, note ? As samânî occurs in the Veda as the feminine of samâna (cf. iv. 51, 9; X. 191, 3 ; 4), samânya might, no doubt, be taken as an instrumental, belonging to subhã. We should then have to translate : With what equal splendour are the Maruts endowed ?' Sâyana adopts the same explanation, while Wilson, who seems to have


read samânyâh, translates 'of one dignity.' Professor Roth, s. v. myaksh, would seem to take samânyã as some kind of substantive, and he refers to another passage, i. 167, 4, sâdharanya-iva marútah mimikshuh, without, however, detailing his interpretation of these passages."

It cannot be said that Sâyana's explanation is objectionable, yet there is something awkward in qualifying by an adjective, however indefinite, what forms the subject of an interrogative sentence, and it would be possible to avoid this, by taking samânyã as an adverb. It is clearly used as an iii. 54, 7; viii. 83, 8.

Verse 1, note? Mimikshuh is the perfect of myaksh, in the sense of to be firmly joined with something. It has therefore a more definite meaning than the Latin miscere and the Greek uioryell, which come from the same source, i. e. from a root mik or mig, in Sanskrit also mis in mis-ra; (see Curtius, Grundzüge, p. 300.) There may be indeed one or two passages in the Veda where myaksh seems to have the simple meaning of mixing, but it will be seen that they constitute a small minority compared with those where myaksh has the meaning of holding to, sticking to; I mean

X. 104, 2. mimikshúh yám ádrayah indra túbhyam.
The Soma which the stones have mixed for thee.

This form cannot be derived from mimiksh, but is the 3rd pers. plur. perf. Parasm. of myaksh. It may, however, be translated, “This Soma which the stones have grasped or squeezed for thee,' as may be seen from passages quoted hereafter, in which myaksh is construed with an accusative.

ii. 3, 11. ghritám mimikshe. The butter has been mixed.

This form cannot be derived from mimiksh, but is the 3rd pers. sing. perf. Âtm. of myaksh. If the meaning of mixing should be considered inadmissible, we might in this verse translate, “The butter has become fixed, solid, or coagulated.'

Leaving out of consideration for the present the forms which are derived from mimiksh, we find the following passages in which myaksh occurs. Its original meaning

must have been to be mixed with, to be joined to, and in many passages that original sense is still to be recognized, only with the additional idea of being firmly joined, of sticking to, or, in an active sense, laying hold of, grasping firmly.

1. Without any case: i. 169, 3. ámyak sã te indra rishtih asmé (íti).

This thy spear, O Indra, sits firm for us.

This would mean that Indra held his weapon well, as a soldier ought to hold his spear. A'myak is the 3rd pers. sing. of a second aor. Parasm., ámyaksham, ámyak(sht); (Sây: prâpnoti.) Cf. viii. ỐI, 18.

2. With locative: X. 44, 2. mimyáksha vágrah nri-pate gabhástau. In thy fist, О king, the thunderbolt rests firmly. i. 167, 3. mimyáksha yéshu sú-dhitâ—rishtih.

With whom the spear (lightning) rests well placed (gut eingelegt), i. e. the Maruts who hold the spear firmly, so that it seems to stick fast to them. (Sây. samgatâbhût.)

vi. 50, 5. mimyaksha yéshu rodasť nú devî. To whom the goddess Rodasî clings. (Sây. samgakkhate.) vi. II, 5. ámyakshi sádma sádane prithivyấh.

The seat was firmly set on the seat of the earth. (Sây. gamyate, parigrihyate). It is the 3rd pers. sing. aor. pass.

vi. 29, 2. â yasmin háste náryâh mimikshúh ã ráthe hiranyáye rathe-sthấh, â rasmáyah gabhastyoh sthûráyoh ấ ádhyan ásvâsah vríshanah yugânäh.

To whose hand men cling, in whose golden chariot the drivers stand firm, in whose strong fists the reins are well held, on whose path the harnessed stallions hold together. (Sây. asikyante, aparyante ; or asiikanti, parayanti.)

X. 96, 3. indre ní rûpã háritâ mimikshire.

Bright colours stuck or clung or settled on Indra. (Sây. nishiktâni babhûvuh; miheh sanantât karmani rûpam.)

3. With instrumental:
i. 165, 1. káyâ subhã marútah sám mimikshuh.

To what splendour do the Maruts cling; or, what splendour clings to them?

v. 58, 5. sváyâ matyã marútah sám mimikshuh. (See also i. 165, 1.)

The Maruts cling to their own thought or will. (Sây. vrishtyâ samyak sinkanti.)

i. 167, 4. yavyã (i. e. yavîya) sâdhâranyâ-iva marútah mimikshuh.

A difficult passage which receives little light from i. 173, 12; vii. 98, 8; or vi, 27, 6.

i. 87, 6. bhânú-bhih sám mimikshire.

The Maruts were joined with splendour. (Sây. medhum ikkanti.)

4. With accusative : viï. 61, 18. ní yã vágram mimikshátuh.

Thy two arms which have firmly grasped the thunderbolt. (Sây. parigrihnitah.)

Here I should also prefer to place vii. 20, 4, if we might explain mímikshan as a participle present of myaksh in the Hu-class :

ní vágram indrah mímikshan.

Grasping firmly the thunderbolt. (Sây. satrushu prâpayan.)

vi. 29, 3. sriyé te pâdâ dúvah ã mimikshuh.

Thy servants embrace thy feet for their happiness. (Sây. âsiñkanti, samarpayanti.)

Like other verbs which mean to join, myaksh, if accompanied by prepositions expressive of separation, means to separate. (Cf. vi-yukta, se-junctus.)

ii. 28, 6. ápo (íti) sú myaksha varuna bhiyásam mát.

Remove well from me, O Varuna, terror. (Sây. apagamaya.)

Quite distinct from this is the desiderative or inchoative verb mimiksh, from mih, in the sense of to sprinkle, or to shower, chiefly used with reference to the gods who are. asked to sprinkle the sacrifice with rain. Thus we read :

i. 142, 3. madhvâ yagñám mimikshati.
(Narâsamsa) sprinkles the sacrifice with rain.
ix. 107, 6. mádhvâ yagñám mimiksha nah.
Sprinkle (О Soma) our sacrifice with rain.
?1, 3. tríh adya yagñám mádhunâ mimikshatam.

vins, sprinkle the sacrifice with rain thrice to-day!
4. mádhvâ yagñám mimikshatam.
vins, sprinkle the sacrifice with rain !

5. Without mádhu : i. 22, 13. mahỉ dyaúh prithivî ka nah imám yagñám mimikshatâm. May the great heaven and earth sprinkle this our sacrifice.

6. With madhu in the accusative : vi. 70, 5. mádhu nah dyâvâprithivi (íti) mimikshatâm. May heaven and earth shower down rain for us.

Very frequently the Asvins are asked to sprinkle the sacrifice with their whip. This whip seems originally, like the whip of the Maruts, to have been intended for the cracking noise of the storm, preceding the rain.

Then as whips had probably some similarity to the instruments used for sprinkling butter on the sacrificial viands, the Asyins are asked to sprinkle the sacrifice with their whip, i. e. to give rain :

i. 157, 4. madhu-matyâ nah kásayâ mimikshatam.
O Asvins, sprinkle us with your rain-giving whip.
i. 22, 3. táyâ yagñám mimikshatam.
O Asvins, sprinkle the sacrifice with it (your whip).

7. Lastly, we find such phrases as, i. 48, 16. sám nah râya — mimikshya. Sprinkle us with wealth, i. e, shower wealth down upon

Here mih is really treated as a Hu-verb in the Âtmanepada.

As an adjective, mimikshú is applied to Indra (ii. 50, 3), and mimikshá to Soma (vi. 34, 4).


come near.

Verse 1, note 3. I do not see how étâsah can here be taken in any sense but that suggested by the Pada, ã-itâsah,

Professor Roth thinks it not impossible that it may be meant for étâh, the fallow deer, the usual team of the Maruts. These Etas are mentioned in verse 5, but there the Pada gives quite correctly étân, not â-itân, and Sâyana explains it accordingly by gantûn.

Verse 1, note 4. The idea that the Maruts proclaim their own strength occurred before, i. 87, 3. It is a perfectly natural conception, for the louder the voice of the wind, the greater its strength. VOL. I.


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