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Aguh might be the aorist of gai, to sing, or of gâ,

to go :

i I74, 8, sánu ta te indra navyah a aguh.
New poets, O Indra, sang these thy old deeds.
iii. 56, 2. gấvah ã aguh.
The cows approached.

If then the sense of the first line is, ‘Days went and came back to you,' the next question is whether we are to extend the construction to the next words, imấm dhiyam vârkâryâm ka devím, or whether these words are to be joined to krinvántah, like brahma. The meaning of vârkâryâ is, of course, unknown. Sâyana's interpretation as 'what is to be made by means of water' is merely etymological, and does not help us much. It is true that the object of the hymn, which is addressed to the Maruts, is rain, and that literally vârkâryã might be explained as 'that the effect of which is rain.' But this is far too artificial a word for Vedic poets. Possibly there was some other word that had become unintelligible and which, by a slight change, was turned into vârkâryâ, in order to give the meaning of rain-producing. It might have been karkârya, glorious, or the song of a poet called Vârkara. The most likely supposition is that vârkâryã was the name given to some famous hymn, some pæan or song of triumph belonging to the Gotamas, possibly to some verses of the very hymn before us. In this case the epithet devs would be quite appropriate, for it is frequently used for a sacred or sacrificial song: iv. 43, 1. devím su-stutím; iï. 18, 3. imấm dhíyam sata-séyâya devím. See, however, the note to verse 6.

The purport of the whole line would then be that many days have gone for the Maruts as well as for the famous hymn once addressed to them by Gotama, or, in other words, that the Gotamas have long been devoted to the

an idea frequently recurring in the hymns of the Veda, and, in our case, carried on in the next verse, where it is said that the present hymn is like one that Gotama composed when he saw the Maruts or spoke of them as wild boars with iron tusks. The pushing up the lid of the well for to drink, means that they obtained rain from the


cloud, which is here, as before, represented as a covered well.

See another explanation in Haug, Über die ursprüngliche Bedeutung des Wortes Brahma, 1868, p. 5.

Verse 5, note ?. Yógana commonly means a chariot :
vi. 62, 6. arenú-bhih yóganebhih bhugántâ.
You who possess dustless chariots.
viii. 72, 6. ásva-vat yóganam brihát.
The great chariot with horses.

It then became the name for a distance to be accomplished without unharnessing the horses, just as the Latin jugum, a yoke, then a juger of land, ' quod uno jugo boum uno die exarari posset,' Pliny xviii. 3, 3, 9.

In our passage, however, yógana means a hymn, lit. a composition, which is clearly its meaning in

viii. 90, 3. bráhma te indra girvanah kriyánte ánatidbhutâ, imã gushasva hari-asva yoganâ indra yã te ámanmahi.

Unequalled prayers are made for thee, praiseworthy Indra ; accept these hymns which we have devised for thee, O Indra with bright horses !

Verse 5, note ?. Varahu has here the same meaning as varâhá, wild boar, (viii. 77, 10; X. 28, 4.) It occurs once more, i. 121, 11, as applied to Vritra, who is also called varâhá, i. 61, 7 ; x. 99, 6. In x. 67, 7, vrísha-bhih varahaih (with the accent on the penultimate) is intended for the Maruts *. Except in this passage, varâha has the accent on the last syllable: ix. 97, 7, varâhá is applied to Soma.

Verse 6. This last verse is almost unintelligible to me. I give, however, the various attempts that have been made to explain it.

Wilson : This is that praise, Maruts, which, suited (to your merits), glorifies every one of you. The speech of the

* See Genthe, Die Windgottheiten, 1861, p. 14; Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, p. 689. Grimm mentions eburðrung (boar-throng) as a name of Orion, the star that betokens storm.

priest has now glorified you, without difficulty, with sacred verses, since (you have placed) food in our hands.'

Benfey: 'Dies Lied — Maruts!— das hinter euch emporstrebt, es klingt zurück gleich eines Beters Stimme Mühlos schuf solche Lieder er, entsprechend eurer Arme Kraft. (Note: Der zum Himmel schallende Lobgesang findet seinen Widerhall (wirklich, “bebt zurück”) in dem Sturmgeheul der Maruts, welches mit dem Geheul des Betenden verglichen wird.)'

Langlois : "O Marouts, la voix qui s'élève aujourd'hui vers vous, vous chante avec non moins de raison


celle qui vous célébra (jadis). Oui, c'est avec justice que nous vous exaltons dans ces (vers), tenant en nos mains les mets sacrés.'

My own translation is to a great extent conjectural. It seems to me from verse 3, that the poet offers both a hymn of praise and a libation of Soma. Possibly vârkâryâ in verse 4 might be taken in the sense of Soma-juice, and be derived from valkala, which in later Sanskrit means the bark of trees. In that case verse 5 would again refer to the hymn of Gotama, and verse 6 to the libation which is to accompany it. Anu-bhartrî does not occur again, but it can only mean what supports or refreshes, and therefore would be applicable to a libation of Soma which supports the gods. The verb stobhati would well express the rushing sound of the Soma, as in i. 168, 8, it expresses the rushing noise of the waters against the fellies of the chariots. The next line adds little beyond stating that this libation of Soma rushes forth freely from the hands, the gabhastîs being specially mentioned in other passages where the crushing of the Soma-plant is described :

ix. 71, 3. ádri-bhih sutáh pavate gábhastyoh.
The Soma squeezed by the stones runs from the hands.
On svadhã see p. 19.

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1. Káyâ subhã sá-vayasah sá-nîlâh samânyå marútah sám mimikshuh, káyâ mati kútah &-itâsah eté árkanti súshmam vríshanah vasu-yå.


2. Kásya bráhmâni gugushuh yúvânah káh adhvaré marútah á vavarta, syenan-iva dhrágatah antárikshe kéna mahả mánasâ rîramâma.


3. Kútal tvám indra mẩhinah sán ékah yasi satpate kím te itthå, sám prikkhase sam-arânáh subhânaíh vokéh tát nah hari-vah yát te asmé (íti).

1. Wilson : (Indra speaks): With what auspicious fortune have the Maruts, who are of one age, one residence, one dignity, watered (the earth) together : with what intention : whence have they come: Showerers of rain, they venerate, through desire of wealth, the energy (that is generated in the world by rain)?

LANGLOIS : Quel éclat ces Marouts qui parcourent, qui habitent ensemble (les espaces de l'air) répandent par tout (le monde)! Que veulent-ils? d'où viennent-ils, généreux et riches, chercher les offrandes ?

2. WILSON : Of whose oblations do the youthful (Maruts) approve: who attracts them to his (own) sacrifice (from the


The Prologue.
The sacrificer speaks :

1. With what splendour are the Maruts all equally! endowed, they who are of the same age, and dwell in the same house? With what thoughts ? From whence are they come ?: Do these heroes sing forth their (own) strength because they wish for wealth?

2. Whose prayers have the youths accepted? Who has turned the Maruts to his own sacrifice ? By what strong devotion ? may we delight them, they who float through the air like hawks ?

The Dialogue.
The Maruts speak :

3. From whence, O Indra, dost thou come alone, thou who art mighty ? O lord of men, what has thus happened to thee? Thou greetest (us) when thou comest together with (us), the bright (Maruts).* Tell us then, thou with thy bay horses, what thou hast against us!

rites of others): with what powerful praise may we propitiate (them), wandering like kites in the mid-air ?

LANGLOIS: Quel est celui qui, par ses hommages, plaît à ces jeunes (divinités)? qui, par son sacrifice, attire les Marouts ? Par quelle prière parviendrons-nous à retenir ces (dieux qui) comme des éperviers, parcourent les airs ?

3. WILSON: (The Maruts): Indra, lord of the good, whither dost thou, who art entitled to honour, proceed alone : what means this (absence of attendance): when followed (by us), thou requirest (what is right). Lord of fleet horses, say to us, with pleasant words, that which thou (hast to say) to us.

LANGLOIS : (Les Marouts parlent): Indra, maître des

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