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lations, either, “When the Maruts harness the clouds, or, “When the Maruts harness their chariots, for the bright rain-water.' Now the idea that the Maruts harness their chariots in order to make the clouds yield their rain, can hardly be expressed by the simple word subhé, i. e. for brightness' sake. As the Maruts are frequently praised for their glittering ornaments, their splendour might be intended in this passage as it certainly is in others.

Thus : i. 85, 3. yát subháyante angi-bhih tanüshu subhrah dadhire virúkmatah.

When the Maruts adorn themselves with glittering ornaments, the brilliant ones put bright weapons on their bodies.

vii. 56, 6. subhã sóbhishthâh, sriyã sám-mislâh, ógah-bhih ugrần.

The most brilliant by their brilliancy, united with splendour, terrible by strength.

In i. 64, 4, I have translated vákshah-su rukmân adhi yetire subhé by 'they fix gold (chains) on their chests for beauty. And the same meaning is applicable to i. 117, 5, subhé rukmám ná darsatám ní-khâtam, and other passages : iv. 51, 6; vi. 63, 6.

But in our verse and others which we shall examine, beauty and brilliancy would be very weak renderings for subhé. 'When they harnessed their chariots or their deer for the sake of beauty,' means nothing, or, at least, very little. I take, therefore, subhé in this and similar phrases in the sense of triumph or glory or victory. When they harness their chariots for to conquer, implies brilliancy, glory, victory, but it conveys at the same time a tangible meaning. Let us now see whether the same meaning is appropriate in other passages :

i. 23, 11. gáyatâm-iva tanyatúh marútâm eti dhrishnu-ya yát súbham yâthána narah.

The thundering voice of the Maruts comes fiercely, like that of conquerors, when you go to conquer, O men!

Sâyana : 'When you go to the brilliant place of sacrifice.' Wilson : "When you accept the auspicious (offering).' Benfey: 'Wenn ihr euren Schmuck nehmt.'

v. 57, 2. yâthana súbham, you go to conquer. Cf. v. 55, 1. Sâyana : 'For the sake of water, or, in a chariot.'

v. 52, 8. sárdhah mấrutam út samsa—utá sma té subhé nárah prá syandrấh yugata tmánâ.

Praise the host of the Maruts, and they, the men, the quickly moving, will harness by themselves (the chariots) for conquest.

Sâyana : 'For the sake of water.' Cf. x. 105, 3.
v. 57, 3, şubhé yát ugrâh príshatîh áyugdhvam.
When you have harnessed the deer for conquest.
Sâyana : ‘For the sake of water.'

v, 63, 5. rátham yuigate marútah subhe su-khám stral nágó-ishtishu.

The Maruts harness the chariot meet for conquest, like a hero in battles.

Sâyana : ‘For the sake of water.'
i. 88, 2. subhé kám yânti-ásvaih.
The Maruts go on their horses towards conquest.

Sâyana: 'In order to brighten the worshipper, or, for the sake of water.'

i. 119, 3. sám yát mitháh paspridhânâsah ágmata subhé makhấh ámitâh gâyávah ráne.

When striving with each other they came together, for the sake of glory, the brisk (Maruts), immeasurable in strength), panting for victory in the fight.

Sâyana : ‘For the sake of brilliant wealth.' vii. 82, 5. marút-bhih ugráh súbham anyáh îyate. The other, the fearful (Indra), goes with the Maruts to glory. Sâyana : He takes brilliant decoration.' iii. 26, 4. subhé- príshatîh ayukshata. They had harnessed the deer for victory.

Sâyana: 'They had harnessed in the water the deer together (with the fires).'

i. 167, 6. ã asthâpayanta yuvatím yúvânah subhé nímislâm.

The Maruts, the youths, placed the maid (lightning on their chariot), their companion for victory, (subhé nímislâm).

Sâyana : 'For the sake of water, or, on the brilliant chariot.' Cf. i. 127, 6; 165, 1.

vi. 62, 4. súbham príksham ísham úrgam váhantâ. The Asvins bringing glory, wealth, drink, and food.

viii. 26, 13. subhé kakrâte, you bring him to glory.

Subham-yấvan is an epithet of the Maruts, i. 89, 7; v. 61, 13. Cf. subhra-yâvânâ, viii. 26, 19 (Asvinau).

Subham-yä, of the wind, iv. 3, 6.
Subham-yú, of the rays of the dawn, x. 78, 7.

Verse 4, note? Sâyana : “With spotted deer for their horses.' See i. 37, 2, note?, page 59.

Verse 4, note ?. Ayã is a word of very rare occurrence in the Rig-veda. It is the instrum. sing. of the feminine pronominal base â or î, and as a pronoun followed by a noun it is frequently to be met with ; v. 45, 11. ayã dhiya, &c. But in our verse it is irregular in form as not entering into Sandhi with îsânáh. This irregularity, however, which might have led us to suppose an original ayah, indefatigable, corresponding with the following ási, is vouched for by the Pada text, in such matters a better authority than the Sanhitâ text, and certainly in this case fully borne out by the Prâtisâkhya, i. 163, 10. We must therefore take ayã as an adverb, in the sense of thus or hence. In some passages where ayã seems thus to be used as an adverb, it would be better to supply a noun from the preceding verse.

Thus in ii. 6, 2, ayã refers to samídham in č. 6, 1.

In vi. 17, 15, a similar noun, samídhâ or girã, should be supplied. But there are other passages where, unless we suppose that the verse was meant to illustrate a ceremonial act, such as the placing of a samídh, and that ayã pointed to it, we must take it as a simple adverb, like the Greek TỘ: Rv. iii. 12, 2; ix. 53, 2; 106, 14. In x. 116, 9, the Pada reads áyâh-iva, not áyâ, as given by Roth; in vi. 66, 4, áyâ nú, the accent is likewise on the first.

Verse 4, note 3. Rina-yấvan is well explained by B. and R. as going after debt, searching out sin. Sâyana, though he explains rina-yấvan by removing sin, derives it nevertheless correctly from rina and yâ, and not from yu. The same formation is found in subham-yấvan, &c.; and as there is rina-yű besides rina-yấvan, so we find subham-ya besides subham-yấvan.

Verse 5, note ?. The Soma-juice inspires the poet with eloquence.

Verse 5, note? Sámi occurs again in ii. 31, 6; iii. 55, 3; viii. 45, 27; X. 40, 1. In our passage it must be taken as a locative of sám, meaning work, but with special reference to the toil of the battle-field. It is used in the same sense in

viii. 45, 27. ví ânat turváne sámi.

He (Indra) was able to overcome in battle, lit. he reached to, or he arrived at the overcoming or the victory in battle.

But, like other words which have the general meaning of working or toiling, sám is likewise used in the sense of sacrifice. This meaning seems more applicable in

x. 40, 1. vástoh-vastoh váhamânam dhiyã sámi.

Your chariot, O Asvins, which through prayer comes every morning to the sacrifice.

ii. 31, 6. apấm nápât âsu-hémâ dhiyã sámi.

Apâm napât (Agni) who through prayer comes quickly to the sacrifice.

In these two passages one feels inclined, with a slight alteration of the accent, to read dhiyâ-sámi as one word. Dhiyâ-sám would mean the sacrificer who is engaged in prayer; cf. dhiyâ-gúr, v. 43, 15. Thus we read :

vi. 2, 4. yah te su-dấnave dhiyã mártah sasámate.

The mortal who toils for thee, the liberal god, with prayer.

There is no necessity, however, for such a change, and the authority of the MSS. is certainly against it.

In iii. 55, 3, sámi is an acc. plur, neut. : sámi ákkha dîdye pûrvyấni. I glance back at the former sacrifices. See B. R. s.v. dî.

From the same root we have the feminine sámî, meaning work, sacrificial work, but, as far as we can see, not simply sacrifice. Thus the Ribhus and others are said to have acquired immortality by their work or works, sámî or sámîbhih, i, 20, 2; 110, 4; iïi. 60, 3; iv. 33, 4. Cf. iv, 22, 8; 17, 18; v. 42, 10; -77, 4; vi. 52, 1; viii. 75; 14; ix. 74, 7; x, 28, 12. In vi. 3, 2, we read :

îgé yagñébhih sasamé sámîbhih.

I have sacrificed with sacrifices, I have worked with pious works.

Here the verb sam must be taken in the sense of working, or performing ceremonial worship, while in other places (iii. 29, 16; V. 2, 7) it takes the more special sense of singing songs of praise. The Greek káu-vw, to work, to labour, to tire (Sanskrit sâmyati), the Greek kouidý and kouiw, to labour for or take care of a person, and possibly even the Greek kwuos, a song or a festival (not a village song), may all find their explanation in the Sanskrit root


The idea that the Maruts did not originally enjoy divine honours will occur again and again : cf. i. 6, 4; 72, 3. A similar expression is used of the Ribhus, i. 20, 8, &c. . Yagñíya, properly 'worthy of sacrifice, has the meaning of divine or sacred. The Greek åylos has been compared with yâgya, sacrificio colendus, not a Vedic word.

Verse 6, note 1. Sriyáse kám seems to be the same as the more frequent sriyé kám. Sriyáse only occurs twice more, v. 59, 3. The chief irregularity consists in the absence of Guna, which is provided for by Pânini's kasen (iii

. 4, 9). Similar infinitives, if they may so be called, are bhiyáse, v. 29, 4; vridháse, v. 64, 5; dhruváse, vii. 70, 1; tugáse, iv. 23, 7; riñgáse, viii. 4, 17; vriñgáse, viii. 76, 1; rikáse, vii. 61, 6. In vi. 39, 5, rikáse may be a dat. sing. of the masculine, to the praiser.

Verse 6, note? Mimikshire from myaksh, to be united with. Rasmí, rays, after bhânú, splendour, may seem weak, but it is impossible to assign to rasmí any other meaning, such as reins, or strings of a musical instrument. In v. 79, 8, rasmí is used in juxta-position with arkí.

Verse 6, note : The bearing of this concluding verse is not quite clear, unless we take it as a continuation of the preceding verse. It was there said that the Maruts (the ríkvânah) obtained their sacrificial honours, after having joined Indra in his work. Having thus obtained a place

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