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able capacity for composition, both in | very large alms to the poor. In the prose and poetry. As a boy he attended year 1057 Malcolm Duncan, who had a private school kept by Mr. Preston, a fled to England after the murder of low church clergyman, and at the age of his father, returned to Scotland, and 18 entered Trinity College, Cambridge. marching a hostile force against MacHis university career was very brilliant, beth, defeated and killed him at the in spite of his dislike for mathematics. battle of Lumphanan, after which MalMacaulay was admitted to the bar soon colm was proclaimed king. after his graduation ; but his love of Maccabees ( mak'

ka - beez ), the literature was so great that he made name assumed by the patriotic Hebrew no effort to secure a legal practice. At Mattathias (and his descendants), who the age of 25 he published an essay on first resisted the persecutions inflicted Milton in the Edinburgh Review, which upon the Jewish people by the Syrian at once placed him in the highest rank king, Antiochus Epiphanes. Mattathias of literature, and for nearly twenty had retired with his five sons at the years afterward he continued one of beginning of these troubles to a small the principal writers for that magazine. place called Modiin, between Jerusalem In 1830 Macaulay entered parliament, and Joppa, to mourn over the desolawhere his powers as a debater and ora- tion of the city and the desecration of tor proved fully equal to his talent as a the temple. He was pursued to this writer. In 1834 he accepted the posi- point by the Syrians, and when one of tion of legal adviser to the supreme their captains tried to bribe him to council of India, at a salary of £10,000 abandon the Jewish faith, he answered ($50,000) a year. He remained in India by slaying with his own hand the first four years, during which, in addition to Jewish renegade who approached the the duties of his office, he gave consid- altar of idolatry. This bold act was the erable time and attention to the prepa- signal for a general outbreak. The five ration of a new India penal code, and sons of Mattathias, with a few faithful also wrote his essays on Bacon and followers, rose against the national foe, Sir James Mackintosh. Macaulay was destroyed all traces of heathen worship, elected to parliament from Edinburgh and then fled into the wilderness of the year after his return from India, Judea. Not long after they entered the and during the few years he continued adjacent cities and villages, circumcisin public life greatly increased the ing the children and restoring the fame he had previously won. In 1848 ancient religion of Jehovah. At the appeared the first two volumes of his death of Mattathias, 166 B. c., his son great work-History of England from the Judas took command of the patriots, Accession of James II. The popularity repulsed the enemy at Mizpah and of this book was perhaps greater than other places, reconquered Jerusalem, was ever secured by any history, and purified the temple, and restored the the interest and delight with which it worship of Jehovah. Having further was read were almost beyond descrip- concluded an alliance with the Romans tion. The third and fourth volumes he fell in battle with Bacchides. Judas appeared in 1855, and were received was succeeded by his brother Jonathan, with the greatest favor and enthusiasm, who also acquired the dignity of high both in England and America. In 1857 priest. Jonathan was treacherously Macaulay was made a peer of the realm murdered at Ptolemais, 141 B. C., and under the title of Baron Macaulay of was succeeded by his brother Simon, Rothley. In the same year he was the second of the five sons of Mattaelected a foreign associate of the French thias. The reign of Simon marked a Academy of moral and political sci- new era in Jewish history. His power

He died Dec. 28, 1859, and was was almost absolute, but it was exerburied in Westminster Abbey, Jan 9, cised with great moderation and “Ju1860. See Life and Letters by Trevelyan. dah prospered as of old." The reign

Macbeth, a Scottish king, whose of the Maccabean family continued unname has been immortalized by Shakes- til the time of Herod the Great. See peare in his matchless play, Macbeth. History of Israel, by Ewald ; History of În 1040 he slew Duncan, king of Scotia, the Jews, by Milman. and succeeded him on the throne. His McCarthy, Justin, Irish journalist seventeen years' reign is described in and novelist, was born in Cork, Nov. 22, the chronicles as a time of plenty. 1830. He joined the staff of the NorthAlone of Scottish kings he made a pil- ern Times, Liverpool, in 1853, and in grimage to Rome (1050), where he gave 1864 became chief editor of the London





Morning Star. He resigned this posi- | mand, and marching northward met tion in 1864 and devoted the next three the forces of General Lee at Antietam, years to a tour through the United Maryland, where there occurred one of States. He entered the house of com- | the bloodiest battles of the war; but mons in 1879 as member for Longford whatever advantage McClellan gained as a liberal member, but his literary by this fight he failed to follow up, and works have extended his name much General Lee was allowed to recross farther than his political triumphs. the Potomac without being molested. Among his best-known novels are Paul McClellan followed him into Virginia ; Massie (1866), The Waterdale Neighbors but all his subsequent movements were (1867), My Enemy's Daughter (1869), etc. so unsatisfactory to the president and His historical writings, on which his cabinet that in November he was refame mostly depends, are History of lieved of his command and General A. Our Own Times and History of the Four E. Burnside appointed in his place. In Georges.

1864 he was the democratic candidate McClellan, GEORGE BRINTON, an against Lincoln for the presidency, but American general, was born at Phila- received the electoral vote of only delphia Dec. 3, 1826. He graduated at three states, New Jersey, Kentucky the West Point Military Academy in and Delaware. In 1877 he was elected 1846, one of his classmates being the governor of New Jersey and filled that renowned “Stonewall” Jackson. He office for a term of years. He died served as an engineer during the Mex- | Oct. 29, 1885. ican war, winning a brevet-captaincy McClintock, Sir FRANCIS LEOby his skill and bravery. He continued POLD, was born at Dundalk, Ireland, in to serve as an officer in the regular the year 1819, and entered the navy army until 1857, when he resigned his when only 12 years old. He served commission to engage in railroad busi- in Austin's expedition in search of Sir ness. When the civil war broke out in John Franklin in 1850, and made a April, 1861, Governor Dennison of Ohio sledge journey of several hundred miles appointed him major-general of Ohio along the northern shore of Parry volunteers, and in May he was appoint Sound. In 1857, he took command of ed major-general of United States the expedition fitted out by Lady troops by President Lincoln. He was Franklin to search for her husband. immediately sent into West Virginia, For his success in ascertaining the fate and during the month of July con- of Franklin, in addition to many other ducted a short and very successful honors, he was knighted in 1860. Dur. campaign against the confederates in ing the same year he published a book that state. On account of this signal containing a full account of his voyage success of McClellan he was soon after in the Arctic seas in search of Franklin called to Washington to reorganize the and his companions. army of the Potomac and prepare it McCloskey (ma - klos' - ), JOHN, for another advance upon the enemy. was born in Brooklyn, New York, March On the retirement of General Winfield 10, 1810. After pursuing a collegiate and Scott in November following, McClel. theological course at St. Mary's College, lan was made commander in chief of Emmitsburg, Maryland, he was ordain. the army. As an organizer he showed ed a priest at St. Patrick's cathedral, marked ability and efficiency; but he New York, Jan. 9, 1834. He was consesorely tried the patience of both the crated bishop March 10, 1844; archbish. administration and the people by the op May 6, 1864, and in 1875 was created slowness of his movements-rather by cardinal,' being the first American his failure to move at all. At length, in raised to that princely dignity. He April, 1862, under the positive orders died Oct. 10, 1885. of the president he entered on his dis- McCook, GENERAL ALEXANDER astrous Peninsular campaign. He ad- McDowell, was born in Columbiana vanced within a few miles of Richmond, county, Ohio, April 22, 1831. He grad. but after fighting what is known as the uated at West Point in 1852, and after “seven days' battles” (June 25 to July several years' service in the army was 1), he was driven back and compelled to appointed instructor of infantry tactics abandon the peninsula. A large part in that institution. He was appointed of his army was now ordered to the re-colonel of the first Ohio regiment orlief of General Pope's troops; but soon ganized for service in 1861, which he after the second battle of Bull Run commanded at the battle of Bull Run, McClellan was again placed in com- July 21, 1861. He was afterwards pro





moted to the rank of major-general, | Scotland in 1835, but joined in the Free and as such commanded a division at Church movement in 1843.

He was the battles of Shiloh and Perryville. called to the chair of logic and metaWhen General Rosecrans was placed in physics in the Queen's College at Belcommand of the army of the Cumber- fast in 1851, and remained there until land, McCook was assigned to the com- 1868, when the College of New Jersey, mand of the 20th army corps, with at Princeton, elected him for its presiwhich he took part in the battles of dent. By this step the college gained Stone River and Chickamauga.

great benefit, for he imparted to it new McCook, GENERAL DAN, was born life and secured for it large donations at Carrollton, Ohio, July 22, 1834, and by his personal influence. The writgraduated at Florence College, Ala- ings of Dr. McCosh are marked by keen bama,1857. He entered the Union army insight as well as clearness of stateas colonel of the 51st Ohio volunteers in ment, and he belongs to the Scottish 1861, being afterwards promoted to the or common sense school of philosrank of brigadier-general. In addition ophy. The most important of his works to a number of minor engagements he are The Methods of Divine Government, participated in the battles of Perryville, Physical and Moral; Typical Forms and Chickamauga, Mission Ridge and Kene- Special Ends in Creation; Intuitions of saw Mountain, in the latter of which he Mind Inductively Investigated; An Examwas killed July 17, 1864.

ination of Mills' Philosophy; Laws of DisMcCook, GENERAL ROBERT Lati- cursive Thought; Logic; Christianity and MER, was born in Columbiana county, Positivism; À Work on Scottish Philosophy, Ohio, Dec. 28, 1827. He was commis- | besides papers on education and the sioned culonel of the 9th Ohio volunteers relation of science to religion. In 1888 on the outbreak of the civil war, and he resigned his office as president, to commanded a brigade in West Virginia give bis attention more closely to philunder General Rosecrans, in the sum- osophical writing, and has since pubmer of 1861, highly distinguishing him- lished First and Fundamental Truths and self in a number of engagements. He Religious Aspect of Evolution. was in command of a division in Gen- Macdonald (mäk-do- näl), Eti. eral Buell's army in August, 1862, when ENNE JACQUES JOSEPH ALEXANDRE, MARhe was shot by guerillas while lying SHAL OF FRANCE, was born Nov. 17, 1765, sick in an ambulance near Salem, Ala- at Sancerre. He entered the army in bama.

1784, and became a general in 1795, McCormick, Cyrus H., inventor after having distinguished himself at of the McCormick reaping machine, Jemappes and also by crossing the Waal was born at Walnut Grove, Virginia, on the ice under the fire of the enemy. Feb. 15, 1809. In the year 1847 he In 1800 and in 1801 he commanded the moved to Chicago, where he engaged in army of reserve in Switzerland, but in the manufacture of his machine, which 1805 he lost the favor of Napoleon by soon came into extensive use, both in his support of Moreau.

Four years the United States and other countries. later, however, Napoleon placed him in He amassed a large fortune and became command of the right wing of the noted for his great liberality. In 1859 army of Italy, and he so distinguished he endowed the Presbyterian Theolog- himself at the battle of Wagram that ical Seminary, at Chicago, which bears he was created marshal and also duke his name, and which is one of the best of Tarentum. In 1813 he was defeated equipped and most prosperous educa- by Blücher at the Katzbach, and at the tional institutions of the country. The battle of Leipsiche assisted to cover total amount contributed by Mr. Mc- the retreat of the French. He adhered Cormick and his heirs to this and other firmly to Napoleon until his abdication; institutions is over $1,000,000.

but during the “hundred days” refused McCosh, JAMES, a Scottish-Amer- to take any command under him. He ican educator and philosopher, was lived in honorable retirement at Courborn in 1811, at Ayrshire, Scotland. celles, near Guise, until his death, which He was educated in the universities of took place Sept. 24, 1840. See Consulate Glasgow and Edinburgh, and while there and the Empire, by Thiers. earned the honorary degree of M. A. Macdonald (mak-don'-ald), FLORA, by his paper on the Philosophy of the a Scottish heroine, was born in the Isle Stoics, through the influence of Sir Wil- of South Uist, one of the Hebrides, in liam Hamilton. He was ordained at the year 1722. She lost her father at Brechin a minister of the Church of the age of two years, and four years later McDONOUGH



her mother married Hugh Macdonald, during the second war with Great Britof Armadale, in the Island of Skye, ain, he commanded a squadron on Lake Flora, however, was left behind in Uist Champlain, and gained a decided vicfor a number of years, and obtained tory over a British squadron under three years' schooling at Edinburgh. command of Commodore George DowAfter the defeat of Prince Charles nie. For this service he was promoted Edward Stuart at Culloden, in the to the rank of captain and was presented spring of 1746, under the disguise of with a gold medal by congress. The Betty Burke, the Irishwoman,” he was legislature of Vermont also gave him conducted by Flora from Ormiclade, in an estate overlooking the scene of the Beubecula, to Monkstadt in Skye, and engagement. He died at sea Nov. 16, thence by way of Kingsburgh to Por- 1825. tree, wbere the prince was committed to McDowell,

Irvin, a United States the care of Macdonald of Kingsburgh. soldier, born in Franklin county, Ohio, They encountered great dangers, but Oct. 15, 1818. He graduated at West Flora's wit and courage saved the young Point Military Academy in 1838; and prince from capture and brought their during the Mexican war was brevetted voyage to a successful issue. She was captain for his gallant conduct at the soon after arrested by the government battle of Buena Vista. At the opening for her part in this affair, and held in of the civil war in 1861, he was commismild captivity for about a year, during sioned brigadier-general, and placed in which she received a great deal of command of the army organized for an honor and attention from leading Ja- advance upon Richmond. His plan of cobites. In 1750 she married the son of the battle of Bull Run was without Macdonald of Kingsburgh, and became fault, and his conduct all that could be the mother of several children. They desired in a general; but he was unable moved to North Carolina in 1774, and to arrest the retreat of his troops when when the revolutionary war broke out, they became panic-stricken in the afther husband was commissioned a brig- ernoon; and for some time after Mcadier-general in the British service- Dowell was made the object of severe her five sons were also British officers. and unjust criticism. He was afterFlora returned to Scotland in 1779 with wards placed in command of an army her younger daughter, and during the corps under McClellan and Pope, and voyage took part in an engagement be- was with the latter at the second battween the vessel in which she sailed tle of Bull Run, Aug. 29–30, 1862. He and a French privateer. Two years 1 died at San Francisco, May 5, 1885. later she was joined by her husband in Macduff, a Scottish nobleman, Scotland, where they lived until her and one of the leading characters death, which took place in a neighbor's in Shakespeare's immortal play of house at Peinduin, March 5, 1790. She Macbeth. was buried at Kilmuir in one of the McDuffie, GEORGE, a South sheets of the bed in which Prince Carolina statesman, born in Columbia Charles Edward slept the night he county, Georgia, in 1788. He began the passed at Kingsburgh. Dr. Johnson, practice of law in Edgefield, South Carwho was entertained by Flora in 1773, olina, in 1814, and four years later was describes her as a woman “of middle elected a member of the state legislastature, soft features, gentle manners ture. In 1821 he became a member of and elegant presence." He also says congress, and during the years he that “her name will be mentioned in served in that body distinguished himhistory, and if courage and fidelity are self as an opponent of the protective virtues, mentioned with honor.” See tariff and an advocate of state rights. Autobiography.

He retired from congress in 1834, after McDonough ( mak-don'.

o h), a bitter and vehement speech against Thomas, an American naval officer, the administration of President Jackborn in Delaware, Dec. 23, 1783. He be- son, and in the same year he was elected came a midshipman in the navy in Feb- governor of South Carolina. When his ruary, 1800, and belonged to the crew term of office expired he retired to priof the frigate Philadelphia, which was vate life, but in 1842 he was chosen one of the squadron employed against United States senator by the legislaTripoli in 1803. He afterward served ture of the state. Failing health comin the Enterprise, commanded by De- pelled him to resign this office in 1846. catur, and participated in the various which was the termination of his public attacks upon Tripoli in 1804. In 1814, career. He died March 11, 1851.





Mace, the aril or inner covering of which was followed by narratives of the nutmeg. It is blood-red, and some- canoe voyages on the Baltic and Zuyder what fleshy when fresh. It is prepared Zee. The profits of his lectures and for market by drying for some days in works, amounting to over £100,000, he the sun. Mace is used as a spice, and turned over to various philanthropic its flavor is very similar to that of the institutions. nutmeg. It is imported chiefly from Machiavelli (mük-e - ä- věl' - ee ), Penang and Singapore, where it is re- NiccoLO DI BERNARDO DEI, Italian statesceived from the Spice Islands.

man and diplomatist, was born in FlorMacedonia, originally the name ence, May 3, 1469, and died there June of a small country in Europe, lying 22, 1527. It was during the early years north of Thessaly and the Ægean Sea. of his life that the Medici fled from Perdiccas I., about 700 B. C., is reputed Florence, and the republic was estabto be the first king of Macedon, but it lished under the influence of the great was not until the accession of Philip, reformer Savonarola. In 1498 Machia359 B. C., that the power of Macedon velli was appointed secretary to the began to be felt by Greece and other body of ten men chosen to direct the nations. Philip applied himself very civil and military affairs of the govern. vigorously to developing the resources ment. This position, which was one of of his kingdom, and laid the foundations great importance, Machiavelli held for of the greatness it afterwards assumed. 14 years, during which he was sent on His son Alexander the Great a large number of foreign embassies. quered Persia and brought half the On the restoration of the Medici in 1512, known world under his sway; but a few he was arrested on a charge of conspiryears after his death the Macedonian acy, and put to the torture to induce a empire was divided into four kingdoms confession. He denied all knowledge under his principal generals. In 168 B.C., of the conspiracy charged against him, Macedonia was conquered by the Ro- but although released he was obliged mans, and twenty-five years later was for several years to withdraw from pubmade a Roman province. The country lic life and betake himself to literature. is now under the dominion of Tur- After the defeat of the French by key.

Charles V., at Pavia in 1525, MachiaMacfarren (m a k-făr-en), Sir velli was very active in arousing his GEORGE ALEXANDER, English musical countrymen to resist the advancing writer and composer, was born in Lon- army of the Spanish emperor. In May, don, March 2, 1813. He was educated 1527, the Florentines again drove out at the Royal Academy of Music, and be the Medici rulers and proclaimed the came a professor in that institution in republic; but Machiavelli was so dis1834. In 1875 he was appointed princi- trusted by them that he was allowed to pal of the academy, and also professor take no active part in the movement of music at CambridgeUniversity. He for liberty. This disappointment, added was knighted in 1883, and died Oct. 31, to his already feeble health, brought on 1887. Macfarren's musical works are an illness of which he soon died. Machi. quite numerous; but he stands higher avelli's writings comprised several vol. as a writer on the theory of music than umes, his most important work being as a musical composer-his aim being Del Principe, commonly, called “The to revive the old English music in Prince." T'he purpose of this book is modern opera,

to reveal the means by which princes Macgregor, John, English canoe- and rulers may maintain authority over ist and philanthropist, was born at their subjects; and the author boldly Gravesend, Jan. 24, 1825. He was edu- lays down the doctrine that in order to cated at Trinity College, Cambridge, sustain their power rulers may use all where he graduated with high honor possible means, including fraud and in 1847. His love of travel caused him treachery. The principles taught in to make a tour through Europe, Egypt this book may be traced in a large and Palestine in 1849-'50, and a few measure to the peculiar nature of Euyears later he also visited Canada and ropean politics in Machiavelli's time, the United States. The rise of canoe- but it nevertheless reveals a defect of ing in England since 1850 has been moral sense in the author that is all the largely due to his influence and ex- more to be deplored on account of his ample. In 1866 he published an account great talents and great services to the of a canoe journey under the title of state. See Life by Villari; Florentine A Thousand Miles in the Rob Roy Canoe, | History, by Napier.

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