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confront a missionary of the ordinary Society'-stamp with a great religion, which professes the loftiest doctrines and the purest principles of abstract morality—which preaches the beauty and holiness of self-sacrifice—which inculcates the necessity of prayer without ceasing, and the deepest meditation upon spiritual mysteries — which is ascetic and charitablewhich commands self-examination and the most minute watchfulness over every thought, and deed, and word, and work; and all that we can say is, that he requires a very different training from what among ourselves he receives. The foundation of S. Augustine's College has led to some expectations of an improved state of things. We believe that these expectations will not be disappointed; but beyond this admirable institution we have a right to scrutinise every quarter where aid can be legitimately demanded. There is a Sanscrit professorship, and there are Sanscrit scholarships at Oxford. It is not unfair to inquire, what assistance the Church has derived from these endowments, in coping with Buddhism in the strongholds of its influence and successes ? We say it without bitterness or contempt; but what can be expected from a divine of the calibre of Bishop Smith, of Victoria, who has only si nalised himself by squabbling with the American missionary bishop, Dr. Boone, about precedence and jurisdiction? What we want—and to supply the want we can never begin too early—is a body of men of the highest education, who shall be able to grapple with refined infidelity of the most specious forms in Benares, Canton, and Jeddo.
A story is told somewhere of a resolution, which some wellmeaning persons came to for converting Southern India by a liberal distribution of Butler's Analogy in the vernacular, having failed by the preliminary difficulty of universal ignorance as to what was the Tamil for analogy. It is a fact, that after some years of Anglo-Saxon missions at Hong Kong, the American and English missionaries cannot settle, either for themselves or each other, the Chinese word for God, in its Christian sense. Such difficulties are not confined to a single theological term. The instance is adduced only to show that the very highest education, and the greatest intellectual powers of Europe, will be taxed, when they enter into controversy with the higher forms of Oriental religion.
Neither will it help the Missionary cause if the way to Jeddo is opened by British or American steamers and cannon.
The Japanese, as a people, we believe, regret the policy which shuts their ports to European civilization and European trade. Much, however, as in their hearts they might welcome the downfall of the moribund political system, which estranges Japan; we question whether the propagation of the Gospel would be benefited by its connexion with bloodshed and revolution. It is a misfortune that the English Church must be in Chinese eyes connected with the opium war; not a misfortune that the Bishopric of Victoria was founded as soon as we settled at Hong Kong; but a deep and abiding misfortune, that the first which was heard in so many Chinese provinces of England, was in connexion with the Nemesis, and the devil's ships. The Gospel of Peace and a British broadside are hard things for the Chinese intellect to reconcile.
However, we are venturing on subjects perplexing, if not painful; we will therefore turn to a more promising aspect of the Japanese character, and, as it is connected with our last observations, some account of Japanese learning, and of the general diffusion of education, will not be out of place:--only premising that the Japanese language is monosyllabic,' that paper made of bark is said to have been used as early as the seventh century, and that the art of printing from engraved wooden blocks is some centuries older than its European invention or introduction.
• From the moment the Japanese acquired a written language, their literature advanced rapidly, and it appears to have improved from age to age. Unfortunately, in Europe, it is scarcely known; but from the few Japanese books that have fallen into the hands of learned foreigners, and from the accounts left us by the Missionaries and other travellers, it is evident that these people possess works of all kinds,-historical compositions, geographical and other scientific treatises, books on natural history, voyages and travels, moral philosophy, cyclopædias, dramas, romances, poems, and every component part of a very polite literature.
The wide diffusion of education, which has been more than once mentioned, is of no recent date. The first of all the Missionaries who visited the country found schools established wherever they went. The sainted Xavier mentions the existence of four “ Academies” in the vicinity of Miako, at each of which education was afforded to between three and four thousand pupils; adding, that considerable as these numbers were, they were quite insignificant in comparison with the numbers instructed at an institution near the city of Bandone; and that such institutions were universal throughout the empire.
Nor does it appear that these institutions have decreased in modern days. Speaking of the early part of the present century, M. Meylan states that children of both sexes and of all ranks are invariably sent to rudimentary schools, where they learn to read and write, and are initiated into some knowledge of the history of their own country. To this extent, at least, it is considered necessary that the meanest peasant should be
1 A Jesuit once said of it, that it must have been invented, and invested with the utmost difficulty by Satan himself, in order to drive poor Missionaries mad, and hinder the progress of the faith.
educated. Our officers, who visited the country as late as the year 1815, ascertained that there existed at Nagasaki a college, in which, additionally to the routine of native acquirements, foreign languages were taught. Among the visitors on board our ship, many spoke Dutch. Some understood a little French. One young student understood English slightly, could pronounce a few English words, caught readily at every English expression that struck him, and wrote it down in his note-book. They all seemed to be tolerably well acquainted with geography, and some of them appeared to have some acquaintance with guns, and the science of gunnery. The engerness of all of them to acquire information greatly delighted our officers.
• The Japanese printers keep the market well supplied with cheap, easy books, intended for the instruction of children, or people of the poorer classes. The editions or impressions of books of a higher order appear to be uncommonly numerous. Most of these books are illustrated and explained with frequent woodcuts, which are engraved on the same woodblocks with the type. Like the Chinese, they only print on one side of their thin paper. An imperial cyclopædia, printed at Miako, in the spiritual emperor's palace, is most copiously embellished with cuts.
· All are agreed that reading is a favourite resource and recreation with both sexes, and that the Dairi, or court of the Mikado, is eminently a bookish, literary court.
• It is said that few sights are more common in Japan, during the sunny seasons of the year, than that of a group of ladies and gentlemen seated by a cool running stream, or in a shady grove, each with a book in hand. Whatever their literature may be, it is evident that it delights them, and that it has polished their manners.'— Mac Farlane's Japan, pp. 372–375.
It is added, also, that every Japanese, of whatever rank, is sent to school. It is said that there are more schools in Japan than in any other country in the world; and that even the peasants and poorest persons can read ;-—that, contrary to oriental practice, the minds of the women are equally cultivated with those of the men. Many of their authors are female; and travellers are enthusiastic in praise of their courtly manners and refinement. The national vice, among the men, is incontinence; but female chastity is in universal esteem. We conclude with an account of the national amusements, which presents very pleasing elements of a high and almost incredible civilization :
• In the great world the young ladies find delight, at their social meetings, in every description of fine work, the fabrication of pretty boxes, artificial flowers, painting of fans, birds, and animals, pocket-books, purses, plaiting thread for the head-dress, all for the favourite use of giving as presents. Such employments serve to while away the long winter evenings. In the spring, on the other hand, they participate with eagerness in all kinds of out-door and rural amusements. Of these the choicest are afforded by the pleasure-boats, which, adorned with the utmost cost and beauty, cover their lakes and rivers. In the enjoyment of society and music, they glide in these vessels from noon till late in the night.
* This is an enjoyment which can only be shared under the advantages of such a climate and scenery ; viz. the climate of Nice and the scenery of
Lugano. Their lakes and rivers are, after sunset, one blaze or illumination, as it were, with the brightly-coloured paper lanterns displayed in their vessels. They play meanwhile that game with the fingers, which has been perpetuated from classic times in Italy. A floating figure is also placed in a vase of water; as the water is stirred by the motion of the boat, the figure moves. The guests sing to the guitar the strain “Anataya modamada, _"He floats, he is not still," till at last the puppet rests opposite some one of the party, whom it sentences to drain the sackee bowl, as the pleasing forfeit of the game. All this stands out in cheerful contrast to the dull debaucheries of the men, and the childish diversions of the women, among other oriental nations. The female sex, at least, have greatly the advantage over the scandal of the Turkish bath; and the man has, equally with the Turk, the resource of his pipe, in the intervals of those better enjoyments which the admission of the female sex into society affords him, and which are prohibited to the Mussulman.
• Assuredly, these are captivating, delicious pictures of life and manners.'-Ibid. pp. 329-331.
NOTICES. MR. MASTERS has projected a new series-generally speaking, a new series is not much in favour with us-of which we augur well. It is to be devoted to biography: not, as it seems, so much in the way of a Hagio. graphy, but in a more practical and simple form. Dismissing legend, the lives proposed are to be rather those of practical persons, living in historical times, and illustrating by their virtues the religious life. The notion is good, and it is one the value of which, very early in the revival, was pointed out by one concerned in it, and which has been very inadequately and partially fulfilled by Mr. Newman's 'Lives of the English Saints.' We presume that the present collection will be partly original and partly selected. The volume, well-known and valued, “The Life of James Bonnell, Esq.,' appears as the first volume of the series. We could have wished another inauguration, as the book is rather dull, and is already on the S. P. C, K.'s list.
The able-unusually able-writer of the • Restoration of Belief,' (Macmillan,) will not expect any judgment of ours in the present stage of his argument. By the way, we should, as a mere matter of literary moment, regret were this author's practice of fragmentary publication followed ; and it is one which in previous works he has adopted: we mean that a theological argument ought not to be delivered to the public in instalments, like Mr. Dickens' stories. It is unjust both to reader and writer.
A vigorous · Sermon on Church Music,' (Masters) by Mr. Gresley, has caught our attention. The preacher dves not talk at random: and when he says from experience, that the choral service is one of the most effectual instruments for the conversion of sinners as well as for the perfection of saints,' (p. 10,) some prejudices ought to be arrested if not removed.
Mr. Bennett's Second Letter to Lord John Russell, in which some Debates in the last Parliament are considered,' (Cleaver,) most persons will think out of time. Mr. Bennett might either have met Mr. Horsman's attacks simultaneously with their appearance, or have left him where the session left him-in ignominy. To review the matter now is, we think, superfluous. We speak only of the time, not of the substance, of the publication, with most of which we are in general accord. To abridge the right of English Churchmen to attend foreign services is a purism as hypocritical as mischievous. But when Mr. Bennett goes on to say that it is absolutely unlawful to attend the worship of the so-called English chaplains in cities and towns where the Catholic Church in another branch is legally settled and has jurisdiction, many will part company with his argument. Admitting, for a moment, that the letter of the ancient Canons is with Mr. Bennett, yet it is obvious to observe that they were constructed during the entirety of a state of things which has ceased. As a fact, the gift of unity, external unity, has been withdrawn: as a fact, Mr. Bennett at least admits, the grace of sacraments survives in the fragments