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tions, 'done into choice English. Besides this, it has a sensible introduction, and a close analysis. The translations of the interspersed hexameters are cleverly rendered in the corresponding metre.
Archdeacon Wilberforce's Charge, ' The Appeal to Convocation,' (Mozleys,) —we have previously alluded to its reference to Convocation and the question of Synods-contains some reflections on practical matters wbich are important. On Church-rates he takes, we think, a sensible
None of us, probably, will deny, however strange it may appear to our. selves, that there may be persons who are sincerely opposed to the Church ' to which reason and habit has attached us. But whatever sentiments may have prevailed at other times, or in other countries, it is to be hoped that there are few Englishmen in the nineteenth century who would wish i to coerce the consciences of others. It follows that, whatever be the reli
gious opinions of our fellow-countrymen, they must be allowed to enjoy • the protection of those equal laws which secure our persons and property. • Now, it may be questioned how far this is consistent with the practice of *calling upon men to take an active part in maintenance of a faith which they believe to be erroneous. It is true, of course, that those who purchase a property have no right to complain of the deductions to which they • know it to be incident: if a man buys only 9-10ths of an estate, he has only 9-10ths of it. But this merely implies that the Church has a right to such payments as depend upon the active support of former benefactors; . it does not fully meet the question of church-rates, as levied in the present • day. The ancient law requires all persons who occupy houses or lands * to assemble and to tax themselves for the maintenance of their parish 'church, and for the expenses of public worship. Now, it is one thing that these objects should be defrayed at the public expense; and another, that every individual should be called upon, by his own vote, to affirm their propriety. Even dissenters might think it desirable that a church should • be provided for the poor, though they do not themselves frequent it, and Churchmen, on the other hand, might claim to retain rights which had been once conceded to them, without choosing to appeal to the liberality of • Separatists. But the peculiarity of a church-rate is this—that, though imposed by the general law of the land, it yet requires the personal cooperation of every individual. Various members of Parliament have . lately declared that they will give no vote for bestowing any additional «grant on the Roman Catholic College at Maynooth, but that they feel
reluctant to touch existing endowments. Here you see the principle out ' of which the cry against church-rates bas arisen. If churches were endowed • with a certain sum for their sustentation, or if they had in any way a
claim upon the public purse, there would be no appearance of an indivi• dual grievance; but you call all dwellers in the parish together, you
require them to levy a tax upon themselves for the maintenance of the fabric, • and the supply of the sacramental elements, though they are allowed 'to deny the utility of public worship, and the validity of sacraments. • And if it be asked how this anomaly has arisen, the answer is the as before.
The objector can hardly wonder that the eccle• siastical laws make no allowance for his opinions, since they take no note of his existence. To make rates, and to be eligible as Church(wardens, are correlative facts; the same circumstance which entitles a
man to the last exposes him to the former. If the one be a grievance to • the Dissenter, so is the other to the Clergy. Both arise from the fact
that the ecclesiastical laws assume that no one is allowed to live in this ? country who is not a member of the National Church ; so that they can • neither make allowance for the difficulties of the Dissenter, nor guard
against his intrusion. And are not all persous interested in getting rid of • such a system of fictions as this? If it is inconvenient to the Dissenter, * is it not ten times more prejudicial to the Church, which an antiquated
system of law obstructs at every turn? Are our spiritual courts to go on • for ever, like the seven sleepers, assuming that the coinage of James I. is * still the current money of the realm?'-Pp. 17–19.
His observations on the vexed question of the lay element are also of value:
. A third point of delicacy and importance will have to be considered—the 'expediency of reinforcing Convocation by a house of lay representatives. • That such a thing will be done can hardly be doubted, nor will I deny that it
ought to be done. But it will be of paramount moment not to forget the • great truth that the Church is a divine, not a human institution—that its • principle of guidance is not natural reason, but divine grace: and, there• fore, that it makes its appeal not to the common sense of mankind, but to • the constituted depositories of the faith. The Church was founded by our • Lord himself in His holy apostles; it discharges its trust through the ministration of those offices which are dependent upon the gift of orders, so that the custody of doctrine was of necessity lodged in the same hands • to which the function of government was committed. The guardianship
of the ancient faith was always understood, therefore, to lie in the College • of Apostles and in the collective body of their successors the Bishops, to ' whom was committed the awful function of representing the Divine • Founder of the Church. Such was the necessary effect of entrusting the
gift of orders, and, therefore, the administration of sacraments, to their • keeping; and such was the rule which was practically observed in the • ancient Church. The admission of the second order of ministers to a part
of this responsibility has resulted, not wholly without precedent, from the circumstances in which the bishops of our two provinces have been placed by their isolation from the rest of Christendom. But it can never be
ble to reverse the principles of a divine institution, and to substitute • the law of nature for that of grace, It must not be forgotten, therefore, • that the custody of doctrine lies in those who have a spiritual commission •—that it pertains to them by virtue of that original character, which the • Divine Head impressed upon his Church-that His promise of guidance * belongs, in its plenitude, not to individuals, but to the collective body' that it pertains to individuals, only while they retain their place in that ' whole, in which they are members; and, therefore, that no change can be • admissible, which would break in upon the fundamental law, that Christ's • Church is a spiritual kingdom founded in His holy Apostles.
• If this principle can only be maintained inviolate, great advantages may follow from associating the lay representatives of our communicants ' with the Convocation of the clergy. It is obvious how great would be its • effect in the attainment of practical reforms. But that which is of the • highest importance, is that nothing would so surely disabuse the public mind of the erroneous impression that Parliament represents the English
• Church. The error is not an unnatural one, considering that the changes • in the aspect of our political heavens have been as gradual as they have 'complete. At present, however, Parliament expresses the minds of nearly ' 30 millions of our fellow-countrymen, of whom not above a third are * nominally members of our Church. How, then, can it stand in the same * relation to us as when none could be a voter or a legislator who was not • a communicant? But this will never be practically felt till a body exists ' which occupies the same place which was once occupied by Parliament. • Neither can it be any sacrifice of principle that the lay representatives of
our communicants should concur in public measures so long as they are 'ready to admit—as Parliament formerly did—that if “any cause of the • law divine happened to come in question," or of spiritual learning, it 'ought to be “declared interpreted, and showed, by that part of the body * politic called the spirituality, now being usually called the English • Church.”—Pp. 21-23.
And also on the general subject of our changing relations to Parliament:
It is obvious enough how this has happened, and how injurious is its effect, both to the clergy and the Church. We have two sets of laws'one civil, the other ecclesiastical; one created by Parliament, the other by
Convocation. The principle of our civil laws has been entirely changed during the last two centuries. First came the Toleration Act, in 1688; " then the Union with Scotland, in 1706; lastly, the repeal of the Test Act, . in 1828, and that of Roman Catholic Disabilities, in 1829, The effect of 'these alterations has been not only to give the most perfect legal toleration 'to men of all opinions, but to cut asunder the relations by which the • Church was formerly bound to the ruling power of this realm. This is the 'necessary result, whether good or evil, of giving power to the mass of the people, while the people are divided in religious opinions. But, while this change has been going on in our civil laws, our ecclesiastical laws have * remained wholly unaltered. They continue to take it for granted that the
constitution of this country does not allow any person to be an Englishman who is not also a Churchman. They make no provision for any other case. They deal with the clergy as though this were truly the state of things. And hence results a mass of fictions and anomalies, injurious in * many ways to all parties; but by which the Church herself is incomparably *the greatest sufferer. Her own formularies declare the due use of eccle• siastical discipline to be a criterion of a true Church. And why, then, is it abandoned? Because to acknowledge changes which it was impossible
to avoid, is thought a greater evil than to retain laws, which it is impos(sible to execute. The Court, at which we are at present assembled, is
held for the professed purpose of enforcing ecclesiastical discipline. Now, there are two principles on which it might be grounded. When the State . and the Church are identical, as they were in England in the reign of
1. Should a house of lay-representatives ever be united to Convocation, there are two rules which must be laid down as fundamental principles of their incorporation, unless we are prepared to give up our claim to be a part of the ancient Church Catholic: first, that all questions which involve doctrine should be decided by the Spirituality; secondly, that it should belong to the Spirituality to determine what questions do, and what do not, involve doctrine. This would leave to the laity that secular part of ecclesiastical affairs, which our ancient constitution assigned to Parliament.'
Elizabeth, Church discipline can be enforced by temporal penalties. When • the State and the Church are not identical, as before the time of Constan.
tine, it can only be maintained by allowing the Church to act as an inde"pendent corporation, and to exercise authority over her own voluntary * members. But the Church of England can neither adopt the one principle . nor the other. She cannot act as a voluntary corporation, because her • laws assume that she is identical with the State. She cannot employ the ‘principle of coercion, because she is not really identical with it. So that she has the incumbrances of State succour without its benefits; her • responsibilities are measured by one rule, her jurisdiction by another.
• That the evil referred to is not a visionary one is shown by the wide • dissatisfaction recently manifested among the clergy. In a Letter of the • 13th February, 1852, the Archbishop of Canterbury says that he has lately communicated “ to a large assembly of bishops, the memorial respecting the burial service, signed by 4,000 clergy. The bishops," he adds, “ 'gene• rally sympathise with the memorialists in the difficulties to which they * sometimes find themselves exposed with reference to the terms of that • service. But I am sorry to report further," he concludes, “that the • obstacles in the way of remedying those difficulties, appear to them, as at present advised, to be insuperable.” Now, it is obvious, as his Grace says, that the difficulty cannot be remedied by any act of their lordships, • however deeply they may feel the bardships which it frequently inflicts. • And cases have occurred in this Riding, as well as elsewhere, which would
sufficiently exbibit it. For there can be no cure so long as we keep up a law which is adapted, like the 68th canon, to a state of circumstances ' which no longer exists. This canon was passed two centuries and a half
ago, when no such thing as dissent was tolerated in England. The state • of our civil law at that period may be understood from the fact, that four * years after it had been enacted, Whiteman was burned at Lichfield, and • Legate at Smithfield, for denying the Trinity. Can we wonder that the
rules which had their origin in such a system of law, are inapplicable to our 'present position? Would our militia fight with advantage if they were • restricted from the employment of every weapon which has come into use • since the invention of gunpowder? Yet this rule was passed by Convo* cation, and by Convocation only can it be amended. It touches upon • spiritual questions, with which no other body in the country is competent • to deal. For it can hardly be thought decent that the internal affairs • of the Church should be discussed by the Roman Catholic or dissenting
members of Parliament. So that either we must appeal to the Church's ' assembly, or we must continue under the grievances and anomalies from • which it has power to relieve us.'-Pp. 14–16.
Of Sermons we have to put on record, 1. 'The Temptation of our Blessed Lord; a series of Lectures by Mr. T. Tunstall Smith,' (Hatchard.) 2. Life and Death ;' some affecting Discourses by Mr. C. C. Spencer, (Cleaver.) 3. “Sermons, addressed to a Country Congregation;' carefully prepared for their specialties by Mr. E. T. Codd, (Masters.) 4. “The Revelations of Astronomy; by Mr. Steel, preached at Harrow School,' (J. W. Parker.) 5. “Our Founder's Claim; preached on S. Barnabas' Day, at S. Barnabas, Pimlico, by Mr. Skinner,' (Hayes,) which contains a recognition, neither tardy nor grudging, of Mr. Bennett's zeal and successes.
Art. I.-1. A Voyage to Iceland. By MADAME Ida PFEIFFER.
London: Bentley. 2. A Woman's Journey Round the World. Illustrated London
Library. It is not possible to read many books of travels, without falling into a course of reflection on the various qualities necessary to make a good traveller, which mankind in general are without, or possess in a very limited degree; and if our cogitations are pursued far enough, arriving at the conclusion, that many of these qualities are of an order and strength so different from what are needed by stayers at home, that we must consider travelling a providential calling, inasmuch as these gifts would be nothing short of a hindrance and a snare if not allowed their appropriate exercise. The powers and faculties which constitute an efficient traveller might, from misdirection, be wearying, or even repelling in our home friends and intimate acquaintance. There is so manifest a fitness between the man and his work, that we can wish him no other destiny, nor ourselves a closer familiarity. The more he is suited for his vocation, the less we desire to see him in any other. In fact, the man whose home is the world, has no other home, either in visible space, or in the heart of man.
To review some of these qualities. Unflagging, energy is noble, but often a snare to its possessor without a wide enough field for its exertions; ceaseless curiosity, a praiseworthy instinct so long as there are objects worthy to engage it; health, courage and endurance are excellent gifts if not brought into ostentatious comparison with feebler powers; indifference to personal ease and the conveniences of life, respectable, unless they make some domestic hearth uncomfortable. Again; toleration of the world's variety of habits and customs is amiable if it does not jar with the stricter rules of an organized society, and an expansive feeling of