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shall be examined by a committee of three individuals of the meating, appointed for this purpose, who shall on the following day declare their information thereon.

ART. 70. On this day, the parish electors being met, the inquiries on the certificates shall be read; and should there be any doubts on apy of them, or on the electors, by defect of any of the required qualifications, the meeting shall decree definitively, and at once, what it thinks fit, and its resolutions shall be carried into effect without appeal.

ART. 71. This business being over, the parish electors shall go to the chief church with their president, where a solemn mass of the Holy Ghost shall be chaunted by the Clergyman of the highest rank present, who shall deliver an appropriate sermon.

ART. 72. After this religions ceremony, they shall return to the council chambers, and the electors taking their seats, without any regard to precedence, the secretary shall read this chapter of the Constitution; and subsequently the president shall make the same enquiry as mentioned in the 49th Article, and the result thereof shali be strictly observed.

ART. 73. Immediately afterwards the appointment of the elector or electors of district shall be proceeded with, electing them one by one, and in secret scrutiny by means of tickets, in which the name of every one elected is written down.

ART. 74. The voting being over, the president, the secretary, and the examiners, shall see how many votes each candidate has; and he who has received at the least, one beyond the half thereof, shall be elected, the president publishing each election. If no one should have received the absolute plurality of votes, the two who shall have obtained the greatest number shall undergo a second scrutiny, and be that receives the greater number of votes shall remain elected. ļu cases of even numbers, decision shall be made by ballot.

ART. 75. To be an elector of district, it is necessary to be a citi zen, in exercise of his rights, 25 years of age, settied and resident in the district, either a layman, or of the secular clergy; the citizens who compose the meeting beiug eligible, or those not present thereat.

ART. 76. The secretary shall produce the record which the presi dent and the scrutineers shall sign; and a copy thereof, signed by the same, shall be delivered to the person or persons elected, as evidence of their appointment. The president of this meeting shall forward another copy, signed by himself and the secretary, to the president of the provincial meeting, who shall notify the election, in the public papers.


ART. 77. In the elective meetings of district, every particular shall be observed which is already ordained for the elective parish meetings in the 35h, 56th, 57th, and 58th Articles.

There is nothing in the whole of this chapter, that will bear commenting upon, its practibility must be exposed to the test of experience, and the same observations we have applied to the parochial meetings, will also apply to the district meetings and elections. We are not aware whether the mode of election has ever been yet practised in any part of Spain, as the French troops were not driven out at the time of the adoption of the Constitution by the Cortes assembled at Cadiz.

There is one circumstance which strikes very forcibly, and that is, the eligibility of priests to become deputies to the Cortes. This is not allowed in England. It is much to be lamented that it is tolerated in Spain; it is calculated to produce much mischief, because those men must be looked upon as composing an imperium in imperio in Spain and every other country. They will have too much influence at the parochial elections. A priest in Spain is locked upon as a subordinate deity, and, at present, the lower classes are ready to fall prostrate before them. Whilst those men are empowered to absolve sins by the Pope, and whilst the people have a belief in such an absurdity, the former will be sure to preserve an ascendancy over the latter. Perhaps a vote for a priest will procure an abolition of sins, more certain than money, and a neglect to vote for the priest, will be a certain damnation to the electors. This is not too much to conjceture, when we reflect on what superstition has done in those countries.What a pretty figure the Cortes will exhibit to the world, should the majority be composed of priests. This is certainly a strange and unfortunate inadvertance, and all we can do or say, is to hope that our probabilities may not be verified. It will require some years to throw down the superstition of Spain, therefore we must be content with what has been done, and pray for its improvement. Such an union of church and state as that of Spain, is much worse than exists in this country. The great mischief in Spain will be, that the Priests will get all the authorities of the country in their own hands, and it will be difficult to dislodge them without another convulsion, which is much to be deprecated if it can be well avoided.-Those men are ready to grasp at any thing that will procure them power, and the hint in the New Testament, that God and Mammon cannot be served by the same person at the same time, is less adhered to by them than any class of beings whatever. We regret this error in the Spanish constitution, and shall rejoice to see it corrected,

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In the tenth chapter we found a genealogical narrative of the families who first peopled the continents of Asia, Africa, and Europe, with the islands of the Mediterranean Sea :-in the eleventh chapter we are again brought back to the period when the whole earth contained but one tribe or horde: it commences thus:- "And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech." This is evidently an assertion of the imagination, because throughout the two continents of America, its adjacent islands, and the islands of the two Pacific Oceans, whose inhabitants were not known to the early inhabitants of Asia, Africa, and Europe, they have been found to possess a variety of idioms, similar to the inhabitants of what we term the Old World, but all different in the substance and expression. The compiler of Genesis, or the writers of the various 'tales in it, imagined that mankind must have sprung from one common stock, and that, in consequence, there must have been a time when they all spoke the same language. But we have not the slightest corroboration of such an idea; and from all present appearances of the dif ferent colours, features, and statures, of different societies, the probabilities are strong against such an imagination or as


"And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the East, "that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt "there. And they said one to another, Go to, let us make "brick, and burn them thoroughly. And they had brick for "stone, and slime had they for mortar. And they said, Go "to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach "unto Heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scat"tered abroad from the face of the whole earth. And the "Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the "children of men builded. And the Lord said, behold, the (C people is one; and they have all one language; and this "they begin to do; and now nothing will be restrained from "them, which they have imagined to do. Go to, let us go "down, and there confound their language, that they may not "understand one another's speech. So the Lord scattered "them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth; and

they left off to build the city. Therefore is the name of it "called Babel, because the Lord did there confound the lan"guage of all the earth: and from thence did the Lord scat66 ter them abroad from the face of all the earth." It is difficult here to offer any thing but dubious commentary on the above paragraph, therefore the reader must reason for himself.

It may be observed, that the city of Babel has been identified with Babylon; and, according to Bible history, the first built city after the deluge, as we are left to presume, that all previous cultivation and habitations were totally annihilated. Now, in another part of the Bible, we find that Babylon was a complete city and strongly fortified; but the advocate for the authenticity of the Bible will, of course, say, that it might have been subsequently finished. I shall say nothing about the tale of the Lord's coming down from some place, we are not told where, to view the building of the city and the tower; and his subsequent resolution of dispersing the people and distracting them by changing the uniformity of their language, further than I place it with the fictious part of the Bible. Many philosophers have been strongly of opinion, that an universal language would have the strongest tendency to produce and to preserve an universal peace. Although all nations have invoked their deity or deities to support them in carrying on a war, still he who wishes to believe the Supreme Being all merciful, must hold it as an opinion, that he cannot be pleased with bloody wars, often founded on the whim and caprice of an individual, and which have destroyed the fairest part of the animal creation; and its authors and propagators have blasphemously proclaimed, that they do it all for the glory of God. The conclusion of the eleventh chapter, after what I have quoted, contains nothing more than a genealogy from Shem, the son of Noah, to Abraham. I might here observe, that Abraham was a very familiar name among the eastern nations, and many eminent men have traced their genealogy up through Abraham to Adam. Among those, inde pendent of the Bible history, I might reckon Mahomet and the famous Zingis Khan, who established the present Ottoman empire. It has been the pride and ambition of some men to trace back their pedigree to a remote period, and in doing this, they will not scruple to lay hold of fiction and tradition; thus the Welshman has been facetiously represented as going back to such an extent, as in the midst of it to stop short and say, that about this time Adam was created. In the sixth chapter and the third verse, we find it said by the Lord, that

the days of man should be shortened to one hundred and twenty years; yet we are subsequently told, that Noah lived three hundred and fifty years after the Flood, and nine hundred and fifty years altogether. We are also told, that Shem lived six hundred years, Arphaxad four hundred and thirtyeight years, Salat four hundred and thirty-three years, Eber four hundred and sixty-eight years, Peleg two hundred and thirty-nine years, Reu two hundred and thirty-nine years, Serug two hundred and thirty years, Nahor one hundred and forty-eight years, and Terah, the father of Abraham, two hundred and five years. We have here a gradual decline in the age of the succeeding generations down to Abraham, of which, I must leave the reader to draw his own conclusions, and to form his own judgment of its veracity.

I now proceed with the twelfth chapter:-" Now the Lord "had said unto Abram, get thee out of thy country, and from "thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that "I will shew thee; and I will make of thee a great nation, " and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou "shalt be a blessing; and I will bless them that bless thee, "and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all the "families of the earth be blessed." I should have scarcely thought this promise of blessing and cursing worth notice, if the Christian priests had not distorted it into a promise of the Messiah, or Christ, and have had the assurance to notice it as such in the contents of the chapter. I cannot perceive the verity of the prediction, that all the families of the earth have been blessed in the seed of Abraham, but on the contrary, that the rigid superstition of that progeny, has proved a curse to themselves, and to all the nations infested by them. The language of the Bible is too simple to be misunderstood, if it be read as any other book is read; but we are told by the priests to read it continually, but to read it in a proper spirit, that is, to distort its meaning agreeable to their views and purposes. "So Abram departed, as the Lord had spoken unto him; and "Lot went with him; and Abram was seventy and five years "old when he departed out of Haran. And Abram took "Sarai his wife, and Lot, his brother's son, and all their sub"stance that they had gathered, and the souls that they had "gotten in Haran; and they went forth to go into the land "of Canaan; and into the land of Canaan they came. And "Abram passed through the land unto the place of Sichem, ໄດ້ unto the plain of Moreh. And the Cannanite was then in "the land. And the Lord appeared unto Abram, and said,

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