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his whole conduct. Many of them dipped their handkerchiefs in his blood, and were eager to obtain locks of his hair. The chair in which he sat whilst he suffered decapitation, was purchased at the price of six louis d'ors. Sandt played the mar tyr in the firmest manner, and declared that in the deed which had brought him on the scaffold to die, he had no other motive than the welfare of his country. If he had never said this, the world would have given him credit for it: for he had no knowledge of the individual whom he slew, further than from his writings, which he considered to be inimical to the true interest of Germany. It was commonly known that Kotzebue was an hired agent of the despots of Europe, to endeavour to stem the torrent of knowledge that had gone abroad, and turn the dispositions of the people into the old channel of brutality and slavery. A body of students, of whom Sandt was one, had had frequent consultations on the writings of this man, and the enthusiasm of Sandt led him to the deed for which he suffered. There was no proof whatever of the idle story which was circulated, that they cast lots which should put him to death. Such an act would have made them all accomplices. Sandt took the only sure and effectual way of accomplishing his desires, by doing it with his own hand, and without letting the left hand know what he intended the right hand should do. He regretted the attempt on his own life, after considering it, and declared that he should think it more noble and fitting to make his exit on a scaffold. We cannot express any abhorrence at this transaction, such lessons are of the first importance both to tyrants and their slavish instruments. We, like others, feel a deep impression from the first narrative of such a circumstance, but it soon subsides into an historical feeling, and we are instinctively compelled to applaud the motive and the deed, as if it happened a thousand years hence. But it unfortunately happens, that tyrants are the last men to take lessons from example and history: their ambition impels them to go on; they are actuated by feelings similar to the common robber, who has often felt himself enriched by his booty, and doubts not but that he shall be equally successful in the next attempt. He thus goes on from time to time until the hand of justice and oppressed innocence arrests his course, and he is only convinced of former misconduct by the near and certain approach of death. The name of Sandt will in future be expressed in Germany with a sigh, and the name of Kotzebue with disgust. The history of passing events will be sure to be impartial to the future reader; the capability of writing VOL. IV. No. 7.

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history is not now as formerly confined to one individual in an age, almost every man now records his opinions on the events of the day.




Since the liberty of the press is extant in Spain, we shall have an opportunity now and then of ascertaining what is going on in the different cabinets of Europe, and guessing at the tempers and dispositions of those who preside in them, by their vague and ambiguous correspondences with each other. The late revolution in Spain must have been a death blow to all the measures of the Holy Alliance. That very country, from whom an acquiescence in its measures was scarcely asked, because, it appeared certain, that Ferdinand would rather anticipate and go before them, than wait for instructions how to proceed that very country from whom the most cordial co-operation was expected, has, by the blind rashness of the despot who presided over it, GAINED ITS LIBERTY. The thread of this Holy Alliance is now broke, and the best portion of Europe is rescued from its grasp. Its object, no doubt, was to put down that spirit of liberty and independence which has shewn itself in the French nation, and had began to make rapid strides in the English nation, and its sister provinces; and to endeavour to bring the whole of Europe back to that state of ignorance and priestly dominion, which swayed it for so many centuries after the establishment of the Christian religion. But no, the fatal thread is severed at a part, and a crisis, that was not calculated upon; and the whole of the wickedness of this Holy Alliance is exhibited to our view, whilst its projects are blasted for ever. Spain, France, and England, are about to breathe the spirit of liberty, its seeds are scattered, and bearing an hundred fold throughout Germany and Italy; and the Tartar hordes of the North are no longer to be feared, either from their ignorance, numbers, or rapacity. The genial spirit of liberty shall glide into every bosom, and, like the electric fluid, pervade all matter. The present administration of the government are about to add another foul blot on this country by the continuation of the Alien Bill, an offspring of the Holy Alliance, obtaining for themselves the power of expelling whatever foreigner they please from our shores. Such conduct is scandalous and disgraceful among societies of civilized beings, and

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the only apology which Castlereagh had to make for again bringing forward the measure was, that it was possible, that foreigners might concert with the disaffected of this country and assist them in their projects. His lordship, in the course of his speech, is made by the "Old Times," to use the following words :-" He believed there were traitors in this day who were ready, in the accomplishment of their schemes, to set at defiance every principle of humanity, every sentiment that was worthy of man in civilized society, or that was consonant with the characters of beings in a human shape." We perfectly agree with his lordship in the general terms of his expression, and are inclined to go further than his lordship, and say who they are. Such men are Castlereagh, Sidmouth, and Canning. If his lordship means to say that there are such persons out of the cabinet, we would ask him, how it comes to pass, that he still lives, amidst the innumerable beings who have been mangled under his brutal administration in this country and in Ireland? To hear a man like Lord Castlereagh talk about the lack of humanity in this country, is just like a worn out and diseased prostitute complaining of the general lack of virtue in the fair sex. Has his lordship forgot so soon, and does he think that his countrymen in Ireland have forgot the pitch caps, the floggings to death, the half-hangings, and all the modes of torture, which were practised under his administration, and at his instigation in Ireland? Are there not hundreds in our English prisons, and thousands out of them, groaning under the effects of his administration at this moment? The unblushing impudence of this man is certainly a phenomena in nature. For Lord Castlereagh to talk about the danger of the interference of foreigners with the ill-disposed of this country is strange indeed! For what has his lordship made so many trips to the continent to meet the allied despots? for what, but to crush the bud and to destroy the very seed of liberty in this country? But liberty shall thrive in spite of the enmity, the malignity, or the brutality of Lord Castlereagh, in spite of that majority in parliament, to whom Mr. Brougham lately applied the facetious epithet,oF A PACK OF HOUNDS WITH HIS LORDSHIP AS A WHIPPER IN. Let us be of good cheer, the allied despots now look at Spain as past all recovery. The Spanish nation appears to possess both wisdom and energy for the great work which has commenced there. The sullen disposition which is felt towards Ferdinand by his brother despots is visible in the following letter:

"Sir, my Brother,

"I have read the letter which your majesty has addressed to me, for the purpose of notifying to me, that, in pursuance of the wishes manifested by your people, you had thought proper to acknowledge and swear the political constitution promulgated at Cadiz in the year 1812. I receive this communication of your ma, jesty as a testimony of your friendship, and I pray your majesty to be assured of the sincere interest I feel, on all occasions, in the well

being and prosperity of the Spanish nation, as well as in the stability and honour of your crown. 1 seize this occasion to renew to your majesty the assurances of the real esteem and perfect friendship with which I am, Sir, my brother,

"Your majesty's good brother,


"At Carlton Palace, April 21, 1820.".

The Spanish paper, which published this letter, mentioned, that similar letters had been received from the different sovereigns of Europe, but that the father-in-law of Ferdinand, the Elector of Saxony, had expressed much satisfaction at the recent change in Spain, and that he had complimented his son-in-law on his future prospects of teigning in the bosons and good wishes of his people. The above letter is the most cool and unfeeling that can be imagined: if we leave out the hypocritical word "brother," it has hardly any preténtions to civility. There was evidently a very different feeling in the writer of this letter to what was expressed towards Ferdinand by the Elector of Saxony, and when we are told that similar letters have been received from other sovereigns, we may judge of the sovereign feeling towards the new state of things in Spain. We suppose that it is the fashion among kings to call each other brother: brethren they certainly are in one respect, they unite as a fraternity to fetter and enslave the human race. But there is certainly a little egotism in the above letter, when king George calls himself the good brother of king Ferdinand: the word good should have been at the head of the letter, as my good brother, instead of ending with your good brother. It is an insult to Ferdinand and an egotism in George, and its stile is about as ridiculous as the stile of the late proclamation for the coronation, addressed to "Our right trusty, faithfully, and entirely wel! beloved cousins."



This chapter sets out with a menace from a revengeful Deity, of what he will do to Pharaoh his brother Deity. God is made to give himself a new name, JEHOVAH; but this even is a name borrowed from the Heathen world, and corresponds with JOVE, Jo, and many other names by which their res pective deities were addressed. Moses again goes to the children of Israel, and they refused to listen to him, in consequence of what he had brought on them before. He returns to the Lord who bids him go to Pharaoh, Moses endeavours to excuse himself, on the ground, that he is of uncircumcised lips. What this last phrase means I cannot say, neither can any one tell me, but to me it appears that Moses had not gone through the rite of circumcision, which he feared might be objected to him by Pharaoh, for the Egyptians as well as the Israelites practiced this rite, and there is every reason to believe that the latter borrowed the ceremony from the former, We have also in this chapter for the first time, the parentage of Moses and Aaron, and I would particularly draw the attention of the reader to the following passage, near the end of the chapter. "These are that Aaron and Moses, to whom the Lord said, Bring out the children of Israel from the land of Egypt according to their armies. These are they which spake to Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring out the children of Israel from Egypt: these are that Moses and Aaron," Can any one for a moment believe, that Moses could have written in this manner of himself, besides what armies are we to suppose that the children of Israel formed in Egypt? Armies of murmuring brickmakers?

I proceed with the seventh chapter;

"And the Lord said unto Moses, see, I have made thee a God to Pharaoh and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet, Thou shalt speak all that I command thee: and Aaron thy brother shall speak unto Pharaoh, that he send the children of Israel out of his land. And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt. But Pharaoh shall pot hearken unto you,

VOL, III. No. 7,

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