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would take warning, and endeavour to convert it into something substantial before the evil day comes to him. He will have scarcely any room to claim pity for his loss and his folly, after the timely warning which has been given to him. I rather think the bank directors are keeping back their inimitable notes, for the purpose of beginning a fresh account with them, and that they might not have to exchange those pretty things for the filthy rags, that are now in circulation. The mountain has been a long time in labour, and there is room to fear that these state physicians are not well skilled in the obstetric art, and that the birth will perish, But like the compiler of Moore's Almanack, we must leave this also to time to disclose,


Dorchester Gaol, June 5, 1820.


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We confess that we do not feel much surprise at any attempt that may be made on the part of the Spanish priesthood to work a counter revolution; A tumult has taken place at Saragossa, in which some lives have been lost, It appears, that a body of people, to the number of four or five hundred, were instigated by an archbishop and other priests, to throw down a stone or pillar, that had been lately erected to commemorate the restoration of the constitution, and that the military turned out, unanimously to prevent them, and fired among the seditionists. No further particulars have transpired, save that the archbishop and six other persons have been arrested, and are immediately to be brought to trial. Much as we deplore this or any similar circumstance, it appears to us but as a natural consequence, that a priesthood, which has possessed such an influence over a people as the Spanish priesthood has, should feel a shock at the great and unexpected change that has taken place, and that they should make some effort to recover their wonted influence, which under the new state of things must fall into a total decay. It should be recollected, that the great body of the Spanish people, the peasantry and the labouring classes, are quite ignorant, and have uniformly given them

selves up to the entire direction of their priests. They have had no newspapers nor periodical pamphlets to instruct them in politics and their rights, they have been ignorant of every thing that was passing beyond their own sphere of action. Had not the disposition to revolt against the despotism of Ferdinand commenced with the army, it could never have been carried into effect by the people, without the army, unless the priests had headed them, which was by no means likely, whilst their interests and privileges were not invaded. It has been the common characteristic of the Spanish soldier, to follow his officer to any thing. When in battle, if the officers were brave, the men would follow them to any thing, if the officers turned their backs, the men were sure to follow. Thus the revolution has been accomplished by the bravery of a few officers, who were intelligent and well disposed, and it was by the same means, that the horrid massacre of Cadiz took place, the officers who commanded those troops were not well disposed to the revolution, and possessed all the bigotry which is the attendant on kingcraft and priestcraft. As the liberty of the press is now extant in Spain, it must be producing a prodigious influence, because the people are just in that humour to imbibe political information and principles, which is essential to their future welfare. Should the Cortes be able to carry on the great work of reformation, civil and religious liberty, and prevent the priests from stirring up a civil war, a year or two will make a wonderful change in the ideas and comprehensions of the mass of the Spanish people. Every man of course will be anxious to learn to read, to qualify himself as an elector, and when able to read, he will not have his mind polluted at first with false and injurious political principles. He will begin with those that are pure, they will not be theoretic, as such principles are in England at this moment; but the Spaniard will see them in practice before he has the theory by heart. We must expect to hear of some little disturbances; the change has been great and sudden. In one province of Spain, a priest was sufficiently imprudent to burn a copy of the constitution before his congregation, and the inhabitants of the town insisted on the civil magistrate's putting him into confinement, and bringing him to trial, which was accordingly done. Another ventured to declaim against it as inimical to, and subversive of, their holy religion; and he was obliged to banish himself from the town. Thus it appears, that the sufferings of the people have been sufficiently great to open their eyes to the impositions which have been practised upon

them. Some little consternation has occurred at Madrid, in consequence of the violent measures of a club, who have established themselves in that city, under the title of the Lorencini. These persons meet, discuss the state of the nation, and even take upon themselves to dictate measures to the administration of government; accompanied with threats, that it would be prudent to put them into execution without delay. How far this is true, it is difficult to say, but any private cabal, who ventures to usurp a controul over the ostensible and responsible ministers of state, such as those of Spain undoubtedly are at this moment, must be injurious to such an administration, because, it is impossible that such a club can have so extensive an information of the real state of the country as the administration must possess. The Cortes will meet in a few weeks, when it is to be hoped that the government will assume a firm and steady aspect. Every thing at present must be in a kind of chaos for want of a due authority to make the necessary regulations and to appoint competent authorities to work the great machine. We might rather feel surprise that the disorder has not been greater than it really has been, than that any should have taken place. Consider the immense number of municipal and other officers of the old system, who were momentarily obliged to lay down all their authorities and emoluments, and see them occupied by those whom they had viewed as enemies, and perhaps had assisted In inflicting some kind of punishment upon them. For we have seen that the greatest confidence was placed in those who had merited a dungeon under the old system, and that immediately on their release, they were appointed to the highest offices. Spain certainly has held out a fine lesson to despots. The lesson they have to read at this moment in Spain, is much more important, and likely to be more useful to them, than all the horrors which attended the revolution of France. The King of Great Britain has now no gold to spare to corrupt and mar the fruits of the revolution of Spain, as was the case with regard to France. Nearly all the horrors of the French Revolution had their origin in the councils of St. James's aided by British taxes. Almost every scheme that was put in motion to thwart the views and wishes of the French nation, and to distract their councils, was at the instigation of British gold. It may be considered fortunate for Spain that the English government is bankrupt, and no longer capable of assisting the combined despots of Europe to crush the rising and progressive state of liberty and emancipation. The

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English government is now compelled to look at home, and it finds it difficult to protect itself from the violent hands of Englishmen. There are now no mobs to cry Church and King, and burn and destroy the property of every rational, intelligent, and independent man, who could foresee the mischief the measures of the government were calculated to bring on the country, and seeing it were bold and honest enough to condemn such measures. The people are now as careless about mother church and their Holy Religion, as our aristocracy and priesthood are indifferent to the welfare of the people. They are no longer to be charmed into a ery of war against liberty, all over the world, for the preservation of such impositions and bugbears. No, even the party, who call themselves Whigs, can venture to give, as a toast, at their public dinners, Civil and Religious Liberty all over the World," which I construe to mean the writing and speaking of all opinions, without the fear of punishment, or in other words, that all opinions should be tolerated, whether spoken, written, or printed. If the Whigs do not mean to go so far, they had better have said nothing, for nothing else will satisfy the growing intelligence of the age. But a few years since, our English clergy could inflict terror on any individual, by the act of excommunication from their church; but now, such an excommunication would be laughed at; for such is the multiplicity of sects and opinions, that, if a man be excommunicated from one, he will be received with open arms by another sect, and may have pretensions to being a very religious character all his life time, although he may be one of the greatest villains. The monied man may play any pranks he likes among his fellow-men, without the fear of excommunication from the religious sect to which he belongs. Even among the Quakers, this assertion will stand good; and we could enumerate a few instances to corroborate it, if it were demanded. The Church of England would now embosom the greatest villain, if he were anxious to profess religion, rather than let him join a sect of dissenters, provided he was a man of property and show in the world. Thus by an extended variety of opinions, the power of persecution will be lessened, and true liberty will finally triumph. The intelligence of mankind cannot retrogade; if it loses a little in one spot, it is doubled in another, and frequently makes rapid and sudden starts. If we look back to the best periods of Greece and Rome, they were conspicuous from courage, and the stability of their governments. They reached

a height beyond the present age in sculpture, and some other sciences, but in that kind of knowledge which elevates man above the brute, they were very deficient. They were extremely superstitious, and every thing in its turn became the subject of their adoration. The science of chemistry was scarcely known to them, which must be now considered the most important among the sciences. The science of electricity was totally unknown to them, they spoke of an ether or subtle fluid, without the notion of any one single experiment with it. We look to those two sciences as the main engine for the annihilation of superstition, and as the key to all the secrets of nature. They are carried on in earnest in France, and other parts of the continent, and we have some celebrated practitioners in England and Scotland. Those two sciences require the fostering hand of a liberal and enlightened nation and government, and in a few years they would reach something like perfection; though like nature itself they would be infinite, and researches and discoveries would never cease. It is this that makes science delightful, that there is always room for further improvement, and the mind that delights in it, might never be dull and unoccupied, but kept in a continual exercise, which would render it the model of nature itself.



After a delay of more than a twelve month, this individual has suffered the sentence of the law by decapitation with a sabre, which we suppose to be the common mode of execution in Germany. The fate of Sandt has excited much interest throughout Europe. His youth, his situation in life as a student in an University, the cause of killing Kotzebue, his intrepid manner of doing it, his disinterestedness, and lastly, his attempt on his own life, rather than fall by the hand of an executioner, have combined as so many circumstances to excite an interest and a sympathy towards him, which was never felt towards any other individual in a similar situation. It is evident, that numbers of the German students have identified themselves with his cause, and although they had not sufficient power to stay the hand of the executioner, still they expressed their approbation and admiration of the deed of Sandt, and

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