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On the Cortes,

CHAP. 1.-On the manner of forming the Cortes. ART. 27. The Cortes consists in the union of all the deputies that represent the nation, nominated by the citizens in the manner that shall be mentioned.

ART. 28. The basis of the national representation is the same in both hemispheres.

This basis is the population, consisting of those natives who on both sides are aborigines of the Spanish dominions, and of those who may bave obtained from the Cories letters of citizenship, as well as those comprehended under the 21st articles.

Here we have the establishment of Universal Suffrage; here is no exclusion. Here is an answer to those who prattle about the wild and visionary notions of the Reformers of this country. Here every citizens who can read and write is en, tiiled to assist in making and altering the law, Here is the true definition of the word liberty. Without this, liberty is a word only—a delusion.

ART. 30. To calculate the population of the European dominions, The last census in 1797 shall be referred to, until a new ove can be taken; and a corresponding one shall be made for the calculation of the ultra-marine population, referring, in the mean time, to the latest and most authentic census, or returns in existence.

ART.51. For every seventy thousand souls, composed as explained in the 29th article, there shall be one deputy to the Cortes.

ART. 32. The population being divided in different provinces, in case there should appear an excess beyond thirty-five thousand souls, one deputy additional shall be elected in the same manner as if the number amounted to seventy thousand; but if the excess does not pass tiirty-tive thousand, it shall not be calculaied on.

ART. 33. Should there be found any province whose population does not amount to seventy thousand souls, but which is not under sixty thousand, it shall elect a deputy by itself; and, should it be less than this vumber, it shall unite with one adjoining to complete the number of seventy thousand requisite for the right of election. From this regulation is excepted the island of St. Domingo; that shall name a deputy, whatever inay be its population.

CHAP. 11.--On the nomination of the Deputies to the Cortes.

ART. 34. For the election of deputies to the Cortes, parish, dis. trict and provincial meetings shall be lield,

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CHAP. III.--Of the parish elective Meetings ART. 35. The parish elective meetings shall be composed of all citizens settled and resident in the Jistrict of each respective parish, including the secular ecclesiastics.

ART. 36. These meetings shall alivavs be held in the Peninsula, the islan is, and adjacent possessions, the tirse Suuday in October tlie year meious to the meeting of the Cortes.

We stop here to express our admiration of a time being appointed for those elections which is an idle day in all Chris. tian countries. How particularly provident is this constitution for the labouring classes. Ii is also a day when such proceedings are likely to be performed with a due solemnity free from drunkenness and riot. Spain thou art destined to be an example for nations.

ART. 37. In the ultramarine provinces they shall be held the first Sunday in December, lò mouths before the meeting of the Cortes ; the magistrates being bound to give previous notice of both,

Art. 38. In the parochial meetings there shall be appointed for every 200 inbabitants a parish mimber.

ART. 39. If the number of the inhabitants of the parish exceeds three hundred, although not an ounting io four hundred, iko menubers shall be appointed ; if it exceeds tive bundred, and does not amount to six hundred, - three shall be appointed ; and so ou progressively.

ART. 40, In parishes, wlinse population is between one hundred and fifty and two hundred, a merrber shall be appointed; and in those that do not amount to this pember, the inhabitants of a negli. bouring parish shall unite to elect the member or members corresponding

ART. 41. The parish meeting shall select eleven umpires of their number by plurality of votes, in order that they may elect the parish member,

ART. 42. Suyuld it be necəssary in the parish meeting to name two parislı members, it shall then select twenty one umpires of their puncher; if three, thirty-ove: in no case the selected to exceed this number to aroil confusion.

ART. 43. With due attention to the convenience of the small towns, it will be observed, that the parish with twenty inhabitants shall select one umpire; that with thirty to forty, shall select two; that from fifty to sixly, three, and so on progressively. Those parishes with less than twenty inhabitants, shall unite with adjoining ones to elect the select, or an umpire.

ART, 44. The selecice umpires from the parishes of the small


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towns thus elected, shall meet in the town most convenient, and Hmounting to eleven, or at least hive in ’!!!!mber, they shall nominate a parish menber; if they amount to twenty-one or at least to' seventeen, they shall nominate two parish snembers; and if they are thirty-one, or at least twenty-five, they shall nominate three meaibers, ar correspondingly.

ART, 4ă. To be entitled to be appointed parish member, it is pecessary to be a citizen, twenty-five years of age, au inhabitant, and resident in the parisla.

ART. 46. The parish meetings shall be presided over by the chief of police, the mayor, or chief magistrate (Alcalde) of the city, town or village wherein they may be held, with the assistance of the parish priest, to give the greater solemnity to the occasion, and if iwo or more ireetings sliould be held in the same town from the number of, its parisies, the chief of police, or mayor (Alcalde) shali preside in one, the other Alcalde in the other, and the aldarmen shall preside in turn in the rest.

ART. 47. At the appointed time of meeting, which shall be in the council chambers, or in the usual place, the citizens, having met shall go to the parish church with their president, wlien shall be celebrated a solemn mass of the Holy Ghost, by the purish priest, who sliall deliver a sermon corresponding to the occasioni.

ART. 48. Church being over, they shall go back to the place they came from, when the business of the meeting shall commence, by nominating two examiners and a secretary among the citizens present, the whole with open doors.

With respect to the form and manner of election, it would be presumptuous to offer any comment. If there be any defects or superfluities, experience will point them out, and there is no fear but that a Spanish Corles will be equal to the remedying of them. The ordination of religious rites on the occasion may be excused when we consider the priestcraft of that country. Oblivion shall draw its veil over such useless mummeries, and we hope that the next corrected edition of the Spanish Constitution will leave such ordinations a blank.

ART. 49. The president shali then inqnire, if any citizen bas any complaint to make of bribery or corruption in favour of the election of any particular person; and should it appear that there is, public and verbal explanation should immerliutely take place. The accusatien being proved, the guilty shall be deprived of both active and passive votes. Slaudereis sliall suffer the same punishment, and from this seotence no relief can be admilled.

Morality will be the basis of the laws of Spain. This very article is almost of itself sufficient to procure it. flow just is this provision.

VOL. III, No. 1.

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Art. 50. If doubts are started among the members present, as to the qualifications required for voting, the same meeting shall decide what it thinks fit; and its decision shall be carried into execuțiou, without redress, this once, and for this purpose only.

ART. 51. T'he umpires shall be immediately nominated, which shall be done by each citizen pointing out an equal number of persons with the umpires required; for which purpose he shall approach ibe seats of the president, the examiners, and the secretary; The last-ibentioned shall make out a list thereof in his presence, and io this and other acts of the election, no one can vote for himself under the penalty of losing the right of voting.

ART. 52. This business being over, the president, the examiners, and the secretary, shall examine the lists, and the last shall in a loud voice proclaim the names of those citizens who have been chosen umpires by the greatest number of votes.

ART. 53. The noininated umpires shall retire to a separate place before the meeting is dissolved, and conferring together, shall proceed to noninate the elector or electors of the parish, and the person or persons who shall receive more than half the votes shall be elected. Subsequently their appointment shall be published in the meeting

ART. 54. The secretary will open the record, which the president mod ihe umpires will sign, and a copy of the same, signed by the same parties, will be delivered to the person or persons elected, to be evidence of their appointment.

ART. 55. No citizen can be exempted from these duties, from any reasons or pretexts whatever.

ART. 56. In the parish meeting no citizen shall appear with arms.

Art. 57. The appointinent of the electors being proved, the meeting shall immediately dissolve; and whatever other public act it may attempt, shall be null and void.

Art. 58. The citizens who formed the meeting shall go to the parish churcii, where a solemn Te Deum shall be chaunted. The elector or electors in procession, between the president, the examiners, and the secretary.

We fear that the mode of electing the umpires at the parochial meetings will be extremely tedious and attended with difficulties and confusion. This, however, will prove a trifle and might be soon remedied. This ceremony is also to be concluded with a religious procession, and the Battle Hymn, or Hymn of Victory, is to be chaunted. However this will not affect the main object, so let the Spaniards chaunt their hymns as long as they like. We deprecate all processions of large bodies whatever be their object. There is something extremely ridiculous in it when viewed with an impartial and

philosophical eye. The main object of all processions is to captivate the vulgar with its glare.

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CHAP IV. On the district elective meetings. ART. 59. The elective meetings of the district shall be composed of the parochial electors, who shall assemble at the head of each dis, trict, for the purpose of nominating the elector or electors, who must proceed to the capital to elect ibe deputies to the Cortes.

ART. 60. These meetings shall always be held in the peninsula, the islands, and adjacent possessions, on the first Sunday in November, of the year preceding the ineeting of the Cortes.

ART. 61. Io the ultramarine provinces, they sball be held the first Sunday in January succeeding to that December wherein the parish meetings took place,

ART. 62. To ascertain the number of electors that cach distiict is to appoint, the following rules must be observed.

ART. 63. The number of the district electors shall be in propor• tion of three to one of the deputies to be elected.

ART. 64. If the unber of the districts of the province should be greater than that of the electors required by the preceding article for the nomination of the deputies to be named, nevertheless one elector shall be nominated for each district.

ART. 65. If the number of districts should be less than that of the electors requisite, each district shall elect one, two, or more, until the necessary number is completed; but, should ove elector even be wanting, the district of the greatest population shall nominate him; if another should still be deficient, the district vext ing population shall appoint bim, and so on successively,

ART: 66. According to the principles iv the 31, 32, and 33 arti. cles, the census determines alle number of deputies for each province, and the punsber of electors to each of its districts.

ART. 67. The elective meetings of the district shall be presided at by the chief of police, or the chief magistrate of the chief lown of the district, to wborn the parochial electors shall present themselves with the warrant of their election, that their vawes may be inserted in the book of the records of the meeting.

Art. 63. On Ilie appointed day, the parish electors shall assemble, with the president, in the council chambers, with open doors, aud shall commence their proceedings hy nominating a secretary and two examiners among themselves.

ART. 69. Subsequently, the electors shall present the certificates of their nornination for the examination of the secretary and the scrutinizers, who should the following day declare if they are or not according to law. The certificaics of the sccretary and scrutinizers

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