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(i) Accentual. -The accent has changed in many words; e.g. Shakespeare always has aspéct (ii. 2. 100), impórtune (iii. 4. 149), and sepulchre-the verb-(ii. 4. 128). Retinue has the accent on the second syllable in i. 4. 191, and observants has it on the first in ii. 2. 97,-the only occasions in Shakespeare in which these words occur in verse. Consort, in the sense of company, is accented on the last syllable (ii. 1. 97).

Certain words had not a fixed pronunciation. It is often only by the position of the word in the verse that we can decide on which syllable the accent falls. Thus the noun sepulchre has usually the accent on the first syllable, but in Richard II, i. 3. 196, it is pronounced, like the verb, with the accent on the second syllable. Similarly revenue in i. 1. 130 and ii. 1. 100, but révenue in Richard II, i. 4. 46; éxtreme (iv. 6. 26), but extrémest (v. 3. 136). Note also sincere in ii. 2. 99. In general an adjective preceding a noun of one syllable, or a noun accented on the first syllable, is not accented on the last. A striking example of this accentual change is found in Henry VIII, V. i. 132Might corrupt minds procure knaves as corrupt.

The same change invariably takes place in such twosyllabled adjectives as complete, exact, obscure, extreme, sincere, &c. (See Schmidt's Shakespeare Lexicon, vol. ii, Appendix.) The pronunciation which now survives is generally that which represents most closely the Latin quantity. The English accentuation of these Romance words tended in Shakespeare's time to make the stress fall on the first syllable; but the influence of Latin has frequently in Modern English restored the accent to its original place.

(ii) Syllabic.—(a) A vowel may be lost before a consonant at the beginning of a word: e.g. 'scape, 'gainst, 'bove, and's for and his, 't for it, 's for his (i. 4. 99), for us (iii. 4. 100), and for is. Cf. this' for this is (iv. 6. 164).

The same omission takes place within a word ('syncope'): (a) In the inflexion, as in the past tense and past participle, in the second person singular, as mean'st (ii. 2. 102), in the possessive, as Phœbus' (ii. 2. 102), and in the superlative ('st for est). These shortened forms become more and more common in Shakespeare.

(B) In the second last syllable of words of three syllables accented on the first: e.g. courtesy1 (ii. 4. 176) and majesty 1 The mark (.) under a vowel means that it is mute.

(i. 1. 142), though ma-jes-ty (v. 3. 299). This contracted pronunciation has become fixed in such words as business, medicine. It is most commonly caused by a ' vowel-like '; see below, c.


(b) Two vowels coming together may coalesce, whether in the same word or adjacent words: e.g. influence (ii. 2. 101), radîant (ii. 2. 101), material (iv. 2. 35), violent (iv. 7. 28), immediacy (v. 3. 65), society (v. 3. 210), the expense (ii. 1. 100), the untented (i. 4. 291). Royal and loyal are generally dissyllabic.

There is no definite pronunciation of the terminations -ion, -ious, -eous, &c. Thus we find conditi-on (iv. 7. 57) but benediction (iv. 7. 58), and gorge-ous (ii. 4. 265) but gorgeous (ii. 4. 266). The contracted pronunciation, that now in vogue, is the more common in Shakespeare's verse, though the dissyllabic pronunciation was recognized throughout the seventeenth century. (See Sweet's History of English Sounds, § 915.)

(c) The liquids l, m, n, and have the function of either a consonant or a vowel, hence called 'vowel-likes'.

(a) By the consonant (non-syllabic) function they may cause the loss of a syllable, either immediately before or after: e.g. amorous (i. 1. 40), murderous (ii. 1. 62), stubborn (ii. 2. 120), pelican (iii. 4. 71), memories (iv. 7. 7), temperance (iv. 7. 24), victory (v. i. 41), countenance (v. 1. 63), prisoners (v. 3. 75), interest (v. 3. 85), privilege (v. 3. 129), absolute (v. 3. 300). Also in words of four syllables: e.g. unfortunate (iv. 6. 68), desperately (v. 3. 292), and particular (v. 1. 30), though partic-ul-ars (i. 4. 255).

(8) By the vowel (syllabic) function they may form a new syllable: e.g. entrance, sometimes written enterance, through, sometimes written thorough, hel-m (iv. 7. 36), but helm (iv. 2. 57), light-n-ing (iv. 7. 35), but light-ning (ii. 4. 161).

The 'vowel-like'r frequently resolves a preceding long vowel or diphthong into two syllables: e.g. such words as hour, hire, fire are sometimes dissyllabic.

(d) Sometimes a consonant, usually th or v, coming between two vowels is omitted, the vowels coalescing; in these cases the second vowel is followed by r or n. Thus even (adv.) is generally a monosyllable; so also ever, never, over, often written e'er, ne'er, o'er. The th is often omitted in whether (sometimes written where), rather, &c.

V. Rhyme.-According to Mr. Fleay's calculation, there are seventy-four rhymed lines in King Lear. Shakespeare's use of rhyme gradually diminished, but he retained throughout his career the couplet at the end of a scene. There are several instances of it in King Lear, e.g. i. 2, iv. 7, v. 1, and v. 3. Rhyme also marks the close of a speech and the exit of an actor, e.g. i. 1. 248–255. Similarly in iv. 6. 258-259 it is used to mark a change of subject. It has also the closely connected purpose of giving point to the expression (e.g. i. 1. 267, 268, i. 4. 337, 338); and hence it readily lends itself, by reason of this epigrammatic force, to clinching the argument and making an effective ending. The only rhymed passage of any length occurs at the end of iii. 6. It illustrates the use of rhyme in passages of moralizing or of 'plaintive emotion'. Rhyme is not used in passages of passionate emotion—the tendency is rather to pass into prose,-nor for narrative, nor for the development of the action of the drama.

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can (iv. 4. 8). O.E. cunnan. "The O.Teut. sense was 'to know, know how, be mentally or intellectually able', whence 'to be able generally, be physically able, have the power'" (Murray).

champains (i. 1. 57), or champaigns, plains. M.E. champayne, O. Fr. champaigne, Lat. campania: ultimately from Lat. campus, a level field. The word was taken into English in the central French form champaigne, not in the Norman French form campaigne (Murray): contrast caitiff.

cockney (ii. 4. 118), a pampered, affected woman: see note. M.E. cokeney, apparently coken, 'of cocks' +ey, egg'; thus literally 'cocks' egg'. The word was either a child's name for an egg, or a name for a small or misshapen egg. It was then applied as a humorous or derisive name for an unduly pampered child, a milksop. From this it was applied to a townsman, as being effeminate in comparison with a countryman. Finally it has got its modern special reference to a native of London. (Murray.)

comforting (iii. 5. 17), aiding, assisting; a common legal sense. O.Fr. conforter, Lat. confortare, to strengthen, con intensive + fortis, strong. In legal phraseology it is commonly used along with the synonymous word 'aiding', e.g. 'aiding and comforting', 'giving aid and comfort'.

commend (ii. 4. 27; iii. 1. 19), deliver, commit. Through O.Fr. from Lat. commendare, com + mandare, to commit to one's care. The secondary sense of 'praising' arose from the idea that what is committed is worthy of acceptance. The sense of 'committing' survives in such phrases as 'commend to memory'; but it was much commoner in E. E. than the sense of 'praising'. compeers (v. 3. 69), equals, is a

compeer with. O. Fr. comper, com +per, a peer (in Modern French pair), Lat. parem.

conceit (iv. 6. 42), imagination, illusion. Probably formed from conceive on the analogy of deceit, deceive, there being apparently no corresponding O. Fr. word. It never occurs in Shakespeare in the modern sense of 'high opinion of one's self'.

convey (i. 2. 94), carry out, do secretly. M. E. conveien, O. Fr. conveier, Late Lat. conviare, con +via. Originally 'to accompany on the way', 'to convoy'; but used later of inanimate things, = 'to transport, carry', and especially with a sense of secrecy. Cf. i. 4. 269.

cozen'd (v. 3. 154), cheated, beguiled. The derivation is uncertain. It has commonly been connected with Fr. cousiner, defined by Cotgrave, 1611, as "to clayme kindred for advantage, or particular ends; as he who, to save charges in travelling, goes from house to house as cosin to the honor of everyone". But there is no idea of 'pretext of relationship' in 'cozen' in E. E., in which the meaning is simply to 'cheat'. Cf. oozener, iv. 6. 144.

curious (i. 4. 33), complicated, intricate. O. Fr. curius, Lat. curiosus, full of care, scrupulous. Cf. curiosity, 'scruples', i. 2. 4, 'nicety of suspicion', i. 4. 67, and 'careful investigation', i. I. 5.

darkling (i. 4. 207), in the dark. M.E. darkeling, dark + ling, an old adverbial formative. Cf. flatling or flatlong, headling or headlong, sidelong.

debosh'd (i. 4. 232), an early variant of debauched'. Taken, about 1600, from Fr. débaucher, to draw away from duty; hence to lead astray, corrupt. "Obsolete in Er lish before the middle of the seventeenth century; retained longer in

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