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“ O happy be ye, beastes wilde,
“ That here your pasture takes !
66 Ise that ye be not begilde
« Of these your faithfull makes (a).

6. The hart he fedeth by the hinde,
“ The buck hard by the do:
“ The turtle dove is not unkinde
6 To him that loves her fo.

" But welaway, that nature wrought,
" Thee, Phyllida, fo faire ;
• For I may say, that I have bought

“ Thy beauty all too deare! &c. (b)."
In this part of his work, Mr. War- images and fanciful conceits which
ton has inserted several extracts the introduction of the Roman
from the manuscript Romance poets and the Italian models had
YWAIAN and GAWAIN, written rendered fo abundant ; but it is
in the reign of Henry the Sixth, equally true that Lord Surrey, not-
in order to lay before his reader a withstanding he refined our poetry,
comparative view of our language on these very models, yet retained
during that period, and this he a fimplicity in his poems which
is now treating of, and by fo do- could only be the effect of a judg
ing the better to illustrate the re- ment naturally chaste and correct;
spective ages of such pieces as and it is as reasonable to suppose,
he has already, or intends to that whoever wrote the Nut-

BROWN Maid had, with the same The NUTBROWN MAYDE,and advantages, as good and as pure the satyrical ballad called the a taste as Lord Surrey. TOURNAMENT OF TOTENHAM, The violence with which the are by our author classed under Reformation was carried on during thereign of Henry the Eighth, and the short reign of Edward the apparently with good reason, al. Sixth, rendered poetry subservient though our antiquarians have al. to its views and interests, and to ways ascribed them to that of them alone. The character and Henry the Sixth. Both of these spirit of our compofitions underpieces, but more especially the wenta considerable alteration, and first, bear strong marks of that had not that mixture and display dawn of genius and taste which of love and gallantry in them which took place during this period, was so conspicuous in the writings and the language which it exhi- of the former reign. The metribits, is not of that harsh and go- cal version of the Psalms and of thic cast which characterises the different portions of the scripture, poetical performances of Henry became the only subjects for the the Sixthis time. It is true that muse: almost ihe whole of the the NUT-BROWN Maid does not Old and New Testament was contain any of those classical turned into verse by many of our

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reverend prelates, and by such as son than we now imagine, for were accounted the best scholars complaining of the too great clearof rheir time.

ness of the translation, when with The translation of the Bible, an in Gdious view of keeping the which even during the reign of people in their antient ignorance, Henry the Eighth was not allowed he proposed, that inftead of al. but with numberless restrictions, ways uling English phrases, many was now admitted into thechurch- Latin words should still be prees, and into the hands of the vulgar served, because they contained an in general. The effect this tranila- inherent significance and a getion had on our language is remark- nuine dignity, to which the comed upon with great judgment by our mon tongue afforded no correauthor. He says, “I must add ípondent expressions of sufficient here, in reference to my general energy(b)." subject, that the translation of the We now come to the reign of Bible, which in the reign of Ed- Queeu Mary, during the commoward the Sixth was admitted into tions of which was wrote A MIRchurches, is fuppofed to have

MAJISTRATES, a fixed our language. It certainly poem planned and chiefly executhas transmitted and perpetuated ed by Thomas Sackville the first many antient words which would Lord Buckhurst, and Earl of Dorotherwise have been obsolete or set, and which our author says, unintelligible. I have never seen illuminates with no common lur. it remarked, that at the same tre that interval of darkness which -time this translation contributed occupies the annals of English to enrich our native English at poetry from Surrey to Spenser. an early period, by importing As we have, in another part of our and familiarising many Latin Annual Register (c), inserted Mr. words(a).

Warton's literary character of this These were suggested by the La- nobleman, we shall not dwell upon tin vulgate, which was used as a it here, but only add what he says medium by the translators. Some of the poem in question. of these, however, now interwoven “ About the year 1957, he forminto our common speech, could ed the plan of a poem, in which not have been understood by many all the illustrious but unfortunate readers even above the rank of characters of the English history, the vulgar, when the Bible first from the conquest to the end of the appeared in English. Bifhop Gar- fourteenth century, were to pass diner had therefore much less rea. in review before the poet, who de

(a) More particularly in the Latin derivative substantives, such as, divina. tion, perchtion, adoption, manifestation, confolation, contribution, adminiftration, confummation, reconciliation, operation, communication, retribution, preparation, inimortality, principalily, &c. &c. And in other words, frufirate, inexcusable, transfigure, concupiscence, &c. &c.

(6) Such as, Idololatria, contritus, bolocaufta, facramentum, elementa, bumilatas, satisfactio, ceremonia, olifolutio, mysterium, penitentia, &c. See Gardia ner's proposals in Burner, Hist. Rer. vol. i. B. iii. p. 315. And Fuller, Ch. Hist. Bok v. Cent. xvi. p. 238. (c) See CHARACTERS, p. 14. of this volume.


scends like Dante into the infernal In the induction just mentionregion, and is conducted by SOR- ed, there are many beautiful, as ROW. Although a descent into well as grand and sublime parts: hell had been suggested by other of the latter species is the followpoets, the application of such a ing extract from a part of it, fiệtion to the present design, is a

which Mr. Warton has inserted, conspicuous proof of genius and and speaking of which, he uses even of invention. Every per- the following words. sonage was to recite his own mis. " Our author appears to have fortunes in a separate foliloquy. But felt and to have conceived with Sackville had leisure only to finish true taste, that very romantic a poetical preface called an In- part of Virgil's Eneid which he DUCTION, and one legend, which has here happily copied and is the life of Henry Stafford Duke heightened. The imaginary beof Buckingham. Relinquishing ings which fate within the porch therefore the design abruptly, and ofhell

, are all his own. I must not hastily adapting the clole of his omit a single figure of this dreadINDUCTION to the appearance of ful groupe, nor one compartment Buckingham, the only story he of the portraitures which are had yet written, and which was feigned to be fculptured or to have been the last in his series, painted on the Shield of War, he recommended the completion indented with gajhes deepe and of the whole to Richard Baldwyne wideand George Ferrers."

And, first, within the porch and jaws of hell
Sat deep REMORSE OF CONSCIENCE, all besprent
With tears; and to herself oft would she tell
Her wretchedness, and, curfing, never stent
To sob and figh, but ever thus lament
With thoughtful care; as the that, all in vain,
Would wear and waste continually in pain:
Her eyes unstedfast, rolling here and there,
Whirl'd on each place, as place that vengeance brought,
So was her mind continually in fear,
Toft and tormented with the tedious thought
Of those detested crimes which fe had wrought ;
With dreadful cheer, and looks thrown to the sky,
Wishing for death, and yet she could not die.

Next, law we DREAD, all trembling how he shook,
With foot uncertain, profer'd here and there ;
Benumb'd with speech: and, with a gastly look,
Search'd every place, all pale and dead for fear,
His cap born up with staring of his hair;
'Stoin'd and amazed at his own fhade for dread,
And fearing greater dangers than was need.


And, next, within the entry of this lake,
Sat fell REVENGE, gnafhing her teeth for ire;
Devising means how she may vengeance take;
Never in rest, 'till she have her defre ;
But frets within so far forth with the fire
Of wreaking flames, that now determines the
To die by death, or 'venged by death to be.
When fell REVENGE, with bloody foul pretence,
Had show'd herself, as next in order set,
With trembling limbs we softly parted thence,
'Till in our eyes another fight we met;
When fro my heart a sigh forthwith I set,
Ruing, alas, upon the woeful plight
Of Misery, that next appear'd in sight:
His face was lean, and some-deal pind away,
And eke his hands consumed to the bone;
But, what his body was, I cannot say,
For on his carkass rayment had he none,
Save clouts and patches pieced one by one;
With staff in hand, and scrip on shoulders cast,
His chief defence against the winter's blast:

His food, for most, was wild fruits of the tree,
Unless sometime some crums fell to his share,
Which in his wallet long, God wot, kept he,
As on the which full daint’ly would he fare ;
His drink, the running stream, his cup, the bare
Of his palm closed; his bed, the hard cold ground:

To this poor life was Misery ybound.” Our author compares Dante's most ridiculous and incongruous Inferno with Sackville's Descent nature, when incorporated with into Hell. They have both for the ideas of the antient classics. their foundation the sixth book of In treating the fofter paffions Virgil, and their different modes Dante is incomparable: bis deof treating the subject, arife in a scriptions are the most natural great measure from the different and graceful that can be conceir. periods at which they wrote. ed, and tinctured with a degree of Dante composed his poem about sentiment and refinement (for the the year 1310, and when the spic source of which we must look to rit of chivalry and romance was chivalry and romance), not eaat the highest. It is this spirit fily to be found in the best clarthat renders many of his fublime fical authors. parts more fearful and terrible by Sackville wrote about the year infusing into them an air of mste: 1557, when the models of antiriousness, and it is the fame spirit. quity were better underftood than that often exhibits effects of the they were in Dante's time, and

when when they began to have their oblivion, is to be attributed to true and genuine effect. His com- the nakedness and uninteresting positions are therefore more na- nature of the plot, the tedious tural and correct, although infe. length of the speeches, the want rior, as there are few but are so, of a discrimination of character, in point of sublimity to Dante. and almost a total absence of paMr. Warton has been particular- thetic or critical situations. It is ly attentive to the works of these true that a mother kills her own two poets, not only on account fon. But this act of barbarous and of their intrinsic merit, but also unnatural impiety, to say nothing from their being the models which of its almost unexampled atrocity Spenser and Milton afterwards in the tender sex, proceeds only ftudied with great attention. from a brutal principle of sudden

During this reign several criti- and impetuous revenge. It is cal and rhetorical works were pub- not the confequence of any deep lished, and the cultivation of our machination, nor is it founded in language began to be attended to a proper preparation of previous by men of learning.-The pedan- circumstances. She is never betry of treating all subjects in the fore introduced to our notice as a Latin tongue was first broke wicked or designing character. through by the TOXOPHILUS of Sie murthers her fou Porrex, beRoger Askam in English, and by cause in the commotions of a civil fome regular systems of logic and diffenfion, in felf-defence, after rbetoric in the same language, by repeated provocations, and the Thomas Wilson, in 1553, tutor strongest proofs of the bafest into Henry and Charles Brandon, gratitude and treachery, he had Dukęs of Suffolk, afterwards se. Ilain his rival brother, not without cretary of state and privy counsel- the deepest compunction and re. lor. We shall not attempt to

morse for what he had done. A follow our author through a regu- mother murthering a son is a fact lar account of the writers of these which must be received with hortimes, contenting ourselves with ror; but it required to be come remarking only upon the more plicated with other motives, and grand and decisive periods of the prompted by a co-operation of improvement of our poetry. other causes, to rouse our atten.

In the beginning of Elizabeth's tion, and work upon our pasions. reign appeared the play of GOR- I do not mean that any other mo. DOBUC, written by the same Lord tive could have been found, to Buckhurst we have before spoken palliate a murther of such a naof. As this is the first regular ture. Yet it was possible to tragedy in our language, our au- heighten and to divide the distress, thor has given it an attention be- by rendering this bloody mother, yond what it claimed as forming under the notions of human fraila part of his system : the charac- ty, an object of our compassion as ter he gives of it is as follows. well as of our abhorrence. But

“ That this tragedy was never perhaps these artifices were not a favourite among our ancestors, yet known or wanted. The geand has long fallen into general neral story of the play is great in

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