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all the infults which their coasts, quences, affected all orders of and that city and port in particu- people, spread a general gloom lar, haci formerly endured, seemed throughout the nation. That now, at one stroke, to be done dissatisfaction which had long preaway.
vailed among many, with respect The appearance of the nume- to the conduct and government of rous prisoners, confitting of all the navy, now. became general, orders and denominations, and re- and was loudly vented in clamour sembling mure the various inhabi- and reproach. As the combined tants of a facked city, than the fleets were known to be at Cádiz, ordinary crews of a fleet, seemed and their putting to sea anxiously to render even the triumph more apprehended, it was asked, why complete, and made the light ftill the convoy was thrown into their more fingular. They confifter of mouths, by sending it fo close to 1520 seamen, including their pro- the coast of Spain? Or if there per officers; of 1255 soldiers, part had been any necessity for sending in the service of the crown, and it that course (which was howpart in that of the East-India com- ever denied), why was it not better pany; of 74 land officers; of 149 guarded? Why truft so immense women; and of 137 passengers, of a property, and of such peculiar both sexes, among whom importance, to a single man-of-war some married and unmarried ladies and two frigates? Could the weita of condition. The whole amount- ern, or grand fleet, as it was called, ing to 2865 persons. The value have been better employed, than of the faleable commodities was in guarding so valuable a convoy great; but the loss of the military till it was out of danger ? and naval supplies, both to go- When to thefe questions it was vernment and the Eaft-India com- answered, that the cause of the pany, was much more considera convoy's taking that course, was ble, as they could not be replaced in order to accommodate the merin time: and it was rendered the chants, and the East-India compamore particularly unfortunate to ny, who wanted to take in wines the latter, by the then very criti- at Madeira; it was, in the first cal (though' in Europe yet un- place, replied, that it was by no known) state of their affairs in the means neceilary to steer so close to East.
the continent of Europe, in order · About the same time an account to touch at Madeira; as there was was received of the lots of a great not a force sufficient for the propart of the valuable outward-bound tection of the convoy, the course Quebec fleet, which was intercept- should have been varied, and suited off the banks of Newfoundland, ed to the emergency and danger. in the beginning of July; by sume But it was infilted, that the acAmerican privateers. Some of commodation of the nerchants, in these vessels were retaken; but so very trifling a particular, was about fourteen rich ships were by no means to be admitted as a carried entirely off.
reafon for touching at all at Ma· These heavy losses, which, in deira, when fo great a prize was at their nearer or more remote coníe. ftake, and its safety thereby in any
degree hazarded. The merchants Indies to America, as had been might have provided their wines expected and intended, found his in another manner. They were lips so shattered, and his crews fo no politicians. The confideration extremely fickly, that he judged it of such matters, belonged proper- neceffary, to proceed directly, with ly and solely to the ministers at the great convoy under his charge, large, and to the admiralty in to Europe. It is probable, that particular. They poffessed, or his apprehension of falling in with ought to possess, superior political the British fleet, was the motive knowledge, and they had all the of his directing his course to Cameans of information fully in diz, where he arrived towards the their hands. It was their business latter end of October, with eighteen and duty, in all such cases, to fail of the line, and several 'fricure the ignorance, or to correct gates. There he found M. de the selfishness, of the merchants. Eftaign, with a large fleet, iu reaSuch were a few of the topics used diness to receive and conduct him at that time upon the subject. and his_convoy to the French Aug. 18.
Upon the return of the ports. The French united fleet 1780.
fleet to Portsmouth, Ad- was now numerous ; amounting
miral Geary chose to re- to thirty-six fail of the line, two sign the command. The former fifties, and a cloud of frigates. difficulty again recurred. It was Notwithstanding which, as the offered to Admiral Barrington, British fleet under Admiral Darby who had been his second upon the was now known to be in the way, late cruize, and of whose abilities the Spaniards conducted them alevery body was convinced. From most as far as Cape Finisterre. It whatever cause or causes it pro- is indeed said, that all the enemies ceeded, that thole professional ho- Heets were in very
bad condition ; nours and distinctions, which at and that those which had scarcely all other times had been emulously gone out of sight of Cadiz during fought after, and even grasped at the campaign, had little more to with the utmost avidity, were now boast of in that respect, than the avoided, so it was, that that brave ships which had gone through so and excellent officer declined the much hard service with Guichen command. He, however, offered in the West Indies. his services, to affift and second, After being driven back into whoever should be appointed. In port, by a storm which threw them these circumstances, it was bestow- into the greatest disorder, and ed on Admiral Darby, who stood which rendered their condition next in rank to Mr. Barrington. still worse, the French took their
The grand fleet failed again, a final departure from Cadiz, on the little before the middle of Sep- 7th of November. What would tember, but was detained by con- in other times and circumstances trary winds for some time at Tor- have been fatal, now produced no bay. In the mean time (as we effect; this was no less than their Mall hereafter more fully explain), falling in, after the separation of the Count de Guichen, instead of the Spanish fleet, with Admiral directing his course from the West Darby. But his force amounted
only only to twenty-two fail of the line, merous acts of bravery performed and two fifties. This great supe- on both sides. It is with fingular riority, as we could not be quite pleasure, and no small pride, we certain of the ill condition of the likewise record, that in these hard enemy, muft neceffarily have and bloody trials of virtue, the checked all well-governed adven- humanity, liberality, and geneture. It has, however, been rofity of the British officers, rose thought (and the opinion received in proportion to the gallantry of a considerable fanction, from what their vanquished enemies, and far was held out by the first lord of exceeded all examples of paft the admiralty upon the subject in times. Indeed, the generous reparliament), that their condition, gret exprefled for thote who had in every respect considered, en- bravely fallen, the kind attention cumbered and divided as they paid to those who survived, and were by their convoy, an attack the public acknowledgements would, in all human probability, made of the valour of both, rather have been attended with the most excited images of what we imagine decisive consequences. It was re- might have passed in the gallant ported, that the hostile fleets were contention of heroes at a tournafor some days so near each other, ment, than of the usual ferocity that it was a matter of some care and cruelty of war. and nicety to prevent their being The siege of Gibraltar still con entangled in the dark, an event, tinued. The blockade on the land the consequences of which, both side commenced in the month of fides were equally ftudious to July 1779; and the place was avoid.
soon after invested as closely by In the course of this year, an fea, as the nature of the gut, and extraordinary number of well- the variety of the wind and weafought and desperate actions took ther, would permit. The Spaniplace, both in the old and the ards likewise laboured inceffantly new world, between the British in the construction of works, as and French frigates; in which, well for the cover and security of though the former had constantly their camp at St. Rocque, as for the advantage when upon equal the furtherance of their future interms, and that the latter were tended operations. All the capifrequently taken ; yet there were tal efforts of the Spanish nation such instances of professional skill, seemed to be directed towards that courage, and dexterity, continu- object; and fortunately it happenally displayed on the part of the ed for this kingdom they were to enemy, as were before unknown directed. in the French marine. It is pro- We have seen in our last vobable, that no naval history of lume, the signal success which atany age, could, in an equal space tended Sir George Rodney, in his of time, afford so many instances voyage to administer supplies to of fingle combat between ship and that garrison; a service which he ship, in which the points of pro- effectually performed. From that feffional and national honour were time the vigilance and industry of to nobly sustained, and such nu. the Spaniards, in their endeavours
year of which we treat was so abundant in military event, that if all otser memorials of the fame nature were loft, it might as 79 very imperfect transcript of the art of modern war in a! its forms, whether by sea or by land. Tharga we are not astonished by the appearance of such inmenfe armies as have so often desolated the old world, nor by those actions which have in a day cecided the fate of nations and empires, we fee as valt, though less concentrated, operations of war, conducted upon its moft scientific principles. When taken in a general view, the combination of its detached parts forms a great whole, whether considered with respect to action or consequence of the war rage, nearly at the same time, in tessuto !, ides of the North River, on tim Chiemkr.!", Copriira, the Floridas, Northsiz sobom pó, the American au contra arrangement, in var bara eit. of design, we are pressant cond
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