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If the foldier finds abundant matter of entertainment and observation in the recital of these events, the statesman and philosopher will not find less room for serious contemplation in the causes and consequences of the contention. They have led to the establishment of a new epocha in the history of mankind; they have opened the way to new fystems of policy'; and to new arrangements of power and of commerce. To the whole British nation, however dispersed in the old or in the new world, every part of the history of this con-. tention, in all its circumstances and consequences, must at all times be in the highest degree interesting. · It would be trespassing too far on the indulgence of the public, to trouble them with any detail of the unavoidable and unfortunate interruptions which have occasioned the delay of our present publication. We console ourselves in the hope, that those causes will not appear in any degree to have operated with respect to the attention which we have paid to a faithful discharge of our duty in the conduct of the History. The happy return of the public tranquillity will, by lessening our labours, enable us to recover our former station in point of publication.

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Retrospective view of affairs in Europe in the year 1780. Admiral Geary

appointed to the command of the channel fleet on the death of Sir Charles Hardy. East and West India convoy taken by the combined fleets, and carried into Cadiz. Loss Sustained by the Quebec fleet. Admiral Geary regns, and is fuccceeded by Admiral Darby. M. de Guichen arrives at Cadiz, and the French

fleets return to France. Great gallantry displayed in various engagements between British and French frigutes. Seige of Gibraltar. Spanijh fireships destroyed. Success of General Elliot in deAtroying the enemy's works. Queen of Portugal refuses to accede to the armed neutrality. Germany. Election of the Archduke Maximilian to the coadjutorship of Cologne and Munster, opposed in vain by the King of Prusia. Correspondence between the King and the Elector of Coloyne on the subject. Meeting of the Emperor and

the Empress of Rusia, at Mohilow in Poland. Proceed together to Petersburgh. King of Sweden vihts Holland. Death of the Empress-Queen, and some account of that great princess. Question, by torture, abolished for ever by the French king: Great reform of his household. Loans negociated by the court of Madrid. Public and private contributions to relieve the exigencies of the ftate. Humanity of the Bishop of Lugo. Duke of Modena abolishes the Inquisition in his dominions.

TH
THE death of Sir Charles ty with respect to a proper comman-

Hardy, about the middle of der,who would undertakethe impor-
May 1780, occafioned fome difficul- tant charge of the channel fleet, as
VOL. XXIV.

[A]

the

If the soldier finds abundant matter of entertainment and observation in the recital of these events, the statesman and philosopher will not find less room for serious contemplation in the causes and consequences of the contention. They have led to the establishment of a new epocha in the history of mankind; they have opened the way to new systems of policy; and to new arrangements of power and of commerce. To the whole British nation, however dispersed in the old or in the new world, every part of the history of this contention, in all its circumstances and consequences, must at all times be in the highest degree interesting. . It would be trespassing too far on the indulgence of the public, to trouble them with any detail of the unavoidable and unfortunate interruptions which have occasioned the delay of our present publication. We console ourselves in the hope, that those causes will not appear in any degree to have operated with respect to the attention which we have paid to a faithful discharge of our duty in the conduct of the History. The happy return of the public tranquillity will, by lessening our labours, enable us to recover our former station in point of publication.

THE

ANNUAL REGISTER,

FOR THE YEAR 1781.

THE

HISTORY

OF

E U R O P E.

CHAP. I.

Retrospective view of affairs in Europe in the year 1780. Admiral Geary

appointed to the command of the channel fleet on the death of Sir Charles Hardy. East and West India convoy taken by the combined fleets, and carried into Cadiz. Lofs sustained by the Quebec fleet. Admiral Geary refigns, and is fuccceeded by Admiral Darby. M. de Guichen arrives at Cadiz, and the French

fleets return to France. Great gallantry displayed in various engagements between British and French frigutes. Seige of Gibraltar. Španijh fireships destroyed. Success of General Elliot in de Atroying the enemy's works. Queen of Portugal refuses to accede to the armed neutrality. Germany. Election of the Archduke Maximilian to the coadjutorship of Cologne and Munster, opposed in vain by the King of Pruffia. Correspondence between the King and the Elector of Cologne on the fubječt. Meeting of the Emperor and

the Empress of Russia, at Mohilow in Poland. Proceed together to Petersburgh. King of Sweden vifts Holland. Death of the Empress-Queen, and some account of that great princess. Question, by torture, abolished for ever by the French king. Great reform of his household. Loans negociated by the court of Madrid. Public and private contributions to relieve the exigencies of the state. Humanity of the Bishop of Lugo. Duke of Modena abolishes the Inquisition in his dominions.

WHE death of Sir Charles ty with respect to a proper commanMay 1780, occafioned fome difficul- tant charge of the channel fleet, as VOL. XXIV.

[A]

the

the discontents which had so long ceived intelligence, that a detachprevailed in the navy, kept several ed squadron of French and Spanish of our best officers from the service. ships of war, under the conduct of To remove this difficulty, Admi- M. de Beausset, were cruizing on ral Geary, an experienced qtficer, the coasts of Spain and Portugal, but who, like his predecessor, had the squadron proceeded to the for many years retired from actual fouthward, at least to the height service, was prevailed on to aban- of Cape Finisterre, in the hope of don his retreat, and to enter a- intercepting the enemy. new into the active duties of his In the mean time, a rich and profeffion.

considerable convoy for the East He sailed from Spithead pretty and West Indies, under the conearly in June, with 23 fail of the duct of Capt. Moutray of the Raline, several of which were capital milies, and two or three frigates, ships, and was joined during his failed from Portsmouth in the late cruize by five or six more. In the ter end of July, and were intermean time, the French fleet from cepted, on the gth of August, by Brest had, according to a custom the combined fleets, under Don now becoming annual, formed a

Louis de Cordova. The convoy junction with the Spaniards at Ca- included, besides the merchantdiz; by which the allied nations men, eighteen victuallers, storeacquired such a superiority, at fhips, and transports, destined for least in point of number (though the service in the West Indes; one with respect to real force and con- of these was of particular importdition it might perhaps have ad- ance, being laden with tents, and mitted of some doubt), as afforded camp equipage, for the troops dethem the apparent dominion of the figned for active service in the European leas.

Leeward Islands. The five EastAdmiral Geary had the fortune, Indiamen, likewise, befides arms, in the beginning of July, to fall ammunition, and a train of artilin with a rich convoy from Portlery, conveyed a large quantity of au Prince, of which he took twelve naval stores, for the supply of the merchantmen ; but a thick and British fquadron in that quarter. sudden fog checked his success, The five East-India ships, and and along with the nearness and above fifty Weft-Indiamen, indanger of the enemy's coast, af- cluding those upon government forded an opportunity to the rest, account, were taken. The Raas well as to the ships of war by milies, with the frigates, and a whom they were guarded, to make few Weft-India ships, had the fortheir escape. It happened unfor- tune to escape. tunately, that the satisfaction af- Such a prize had never before forded by this small success was entered the harbour of Cadiz. An foon overwhelmed and lost, in the English fleet of near fixty ships, contemplation of one of the hea- led captive by a Spanish squadron, vieft blows that ever had been suf- was extremely flattering to a peotained by the British commerce. ple, to whom naval captures, from

But before this event took place, such an enemy, were an unusual the naval commanders having re- fpectacle. All their ancient lolles,

all

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