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metal buttons boast of the greatest antiquity, we thus managed: the buttons are first very summust attend to them in the first place. The first marily and efficiently cleansed by immersion in an process of manufacture, which consists of preparing acid solution; they are then put into a large the metal—a mixture of copper and zinc-casting earthen pan along with a mixture of common salt, it in flat moulds, and then rolling it to the required cream of tartar, and silver, and probably something thinness in a rolling mill, the reader will suppose else; here they are violently dashed and jumbled to have been already gone through. The metal, and shaken about for some minutes, at the termi. rolled into strips of about five feet in length and nation of which violent usage they glisten in all as many inches in width, has now to be cut into the splendour of new coin, being completely coated circular blanks. A female, seated at a small hand- with silver in every part. The gilding is a more press, holds the strip of metal in one hand and the complicated ceremony, as well as a more expensive handle of the press in the other ; she shifts the one; it may be thus briefly described : the butmetal and depresses the punch some thirty or tons to be gilt, being first properly cleansed in the forty times in a minute, and every time a "blank” way above alluded to, are thrown into a vessel of or disc of metal is cut from the strip and falls into what is called "quickwater," a solution of nitrate a drawer beneath. Now the blanks thus cut are of mercury; the mercury precipitates upon the so sharp round the edges that they would lacerate metal and gives the buttons a whitish appearance. the fingers; the next process, therefore, is to give They are now, when dry, ready for the operation them a round edge, which is done by a young girl of the gilder, generally a female, who applies the seated at a table, who, turning the handle of a gold to the parts to be gilded by means of a brush machine contrived for the purpose, forces the dipped into a kind of paste, formed of mercury and blanks to revolve between two steel plates having gold-leaf mixed in certain proportions, at a modeconcave edges, which, pressing with great force rate heat. A number of them are now shaken upon them in their passage, impart a round edge together in a bag to remove any excess of mercury, to the button. If the button, instead of being a and are then put into a kind of pan, in which they common flat button, is to have a convex surface, it are subjected to the heat of a small furnace, in which has now to be subjected to pressure from a press the mercury evaporates, and the button assumes armed with a polished concave surface. This is its golden dress. This latter process, when the done with astonishing rapidity, as indeed are all button is a superior article, is a very careful one, the operations of the hand-press, the use of which and requires continual watching by the manipuis universal in Birmingham. It is by means of lator, who removes the buttons one or two at a the hand-press that the various devices we see on time when they are sufficiently baked. Formerly, metal buttons are impressed on their surfaces, such the mercury used in gilding was wasted and lost; as ornamental borders, anchors, masonic emblems, but now, by a skilful arrangement of the flues, it thistles, etc., etc., as well as the makers' names. is condensed, collected, and used again : by this The press has only to be armed with the appro- ingenious invention there is not only a saving in priate dies, which are changeable at pleasure, and the expense of manufacture, but the serious danger the work proceeds with characteristic rapidity. to the health of the operative from the inhalation Some buttons, which are stamped with deeper-cut of volatilized mercury is obviated. dies, or have to receive impressions on both sides, Most buttons which undergo gilding require require extra force of pressure, and these are burnishing; this, the finishing process, is accomstamped by men. Again, a vast proportion of plished in the lathe, and of course is the work of metal buttons, particularly of the larger kind, are a man, occasionally assisted by a boy to turn the hollow, being formed of two pieces of metal, one wheel. Taking the buttons in his left hand, he called the shell and the other the bottom. These inserts one in the hollow of a chuck turned to fit are known as shell-buttons, a term probably due it; an agreeable half-musical twang is heard as he to the shape of the larger of the two pieces of applies the polishing blood-stone to the rapidly metal, which, after it is cut from the strip in the revolving surface, and in a few seconds a deep and shape of a flat disc, passes through another press, brilliant polish is produced. by which it is transformed into a kind of miniature In describing the above processes, we have resaucer, with its edge raised all round ready to ferred merely to such buttons as form the staple of overlap the bottom. The two parts are brought the manufacturer. The reader is not to suppose into permanent contact by a single pressure, the that the capabilities of the art end here. Buttons overlapping edge clasping the smaller piece in its may be had at any price which the wearer may circular embrace.
choose to pay for them; he may employ the first The button has now to be shanked. The shanks artists in the land in designing, and pay large are bought from the shank-maker, who can sup- sums for die-sinking, and may sport a button worth ply them cheaper than the button-maker can make five pounds if he choose. We were shown patterns them. The shanking is performed by a woman, exquisite in design and perfect in workmanship, who, laying the buttons on their backs, places the and which, as specimens of art, were worthy to shanks in the centre of each, retaining them in figure in the collections of the medallist. their places by small iron clasps or springs; she But it is now many years ago since the manu. now touches the part where the shank and button facture of metal buttons received almost a fatal unite with a little solder, and when a batch of blow from the hand of fashion : the brass and gilt them are thus prepared they are exposed in an buttons of our boyish days, which we were so oven to a heat which melts the solder, and the pleased to wear, and still more pleased to cut from work is done.
our coat and use in the play-ground, have almost The next process to be considered is the silver- totally disappeared from the attire of boy and man, ing, and after that the gilding. The silvering is and have given place to the cloth-covered or Florentine button, the manufacture of which next of operation ; but the principle of pressure in the demands our notice.
hand-press is perhaps the basis of the whole inWe have all seen tailors occasionally employed dustrial process, with some few exceptions, and it in covering horn buttons with cloth by means of may well be some very important modifications. needle and thread. This would appear to be the We were struck with the remarkable beauty of simplest form of the Florentine button ; but some of the designs woven at Spitalfields for button though millions of covered buttons are made coverings, as well as by the singular and ingenious monthly in Birmingham, the needle and thread economy practised by the weavers, who contrive to have nothing to do in the business, and only come leave the spaces between the button patterns, into play when the goods are finished and have to which are woven in pieces many yards in length be sewn on cards or coloured paper for sale. It is and half a yard wide, uncovered by any portion of the hand-press, with its magical punches, tools, the silken web. This rigid economy is carried out and fittings, that, in the hands of young females, in the whole business of button making; the scraps accomplishes nearly the whole of the work. At of metal being returned to the furnace, and even the factory of Messrs. Elliott, in Frederick-street, the shreds of punched paper to the paper-mill. having climbed a narrow staircase, we are ushered Shirt buttons and buttons for ladies' use, which into a long room, where, amid the prattle of chil- are manufactured at this establishment in prodidren and the occasional singing of a merry tune, gious quantities--as many as from forty to fifty a small army of young females are seated at the thousand gross of one kind having been produced presses and actively engaged in the various de- in a single week-are made by a process analogous partments of the manufacture. Here one is rain to that above detailed. The chief difference would ing a shower of the blanks which form the upper appear to be, that the metal used is finer, underside of the button into the drawer beneath the goes a process of purification, and is cut into rings press, punching them out of the metal sheet at the instead of flat circles ; there are other minor differrate perhaps of fifty a minute ; another, with ences which it is not necessary here to notice. almost equal rapidity, transforms the flat circles They are made with a rapidity which exceeds into shells with raised rims; a third is cutting the thought and baffles observation ; a round number bottoms, each of which has a perforation with a of children are employed, whose main occupation serrated edge in the centre; a fourth cuts out the is to place the several parts of a button together thick paper puffing which is to fill the space be preparatory to their permanent union in the press. tween the two pieces of metal ; a fifth cuts the A considerable number of females are employed, in fine silken texture or woven pattern which covers a separate chamber, in sewing with the needle the the outer surface; and a sixth the piece of coarse linen buttons on coloured paper in squares of a black canvass which goes between the paper puffing gross each, after which they are consigned to the and the perforated bottom, and which is prevented dealers. from being drawn forth by the tug of the tailors' We must glance now for a few moments at the thread by means of the serrated edge which grips manufacture of pearl buttons, in the making of it fast-an ingenious contrivance patented by Mr. which above two thousand persons are engaged in Elliott. The fixing firmly together of these five Birmingham. The mother-of-pearl, of which they pieces which go to form the button is accomplished are made, is a substance secreted by the large by the instantaneous pressure which they undergo oysters of the Indian seas ; it is bought by the ton in a steel matrix, into which the operator places in the London market, and taken to Birmingham them in proper order, and then, by a touch of the to be wrought. The first operation, after cleansing lever, they are combined in a perfect button, the the shell, is cutting the blanks, which is done by å parts of which it is impossible to sever without tubular saw worked in a lathe; they are then destroying them all. This last operation appears rasped flat on one side, and afterwards turned in to a stranger a complete piece of jugglery, and it the lathe to the required pattern. If they have to is not without the trouble of some serious thought be drilled for shirt buttons, this process is perupon the matter that the mind obtains a clue as formed by women, by means of a drill fixed in the to the means by which it is effected. The result lathe. In many pearl buttons a shank of metal is is , of course, dependent upon the ingenious con- inserted. As neither solder nor any adhesive com. struction of the minute implements brought to position can be used, an ingenious device is resorted bear so forcibly upon the different materials. to: the shank is split below its ring into the form
We have above described the manufacture of of an inverted v, thus A; the turner now cuts, at one, the commonest kind of Florentine buttons; the back of the button, a hole much wider at the bat in this extensive establishment, where little bottom than at the orifice; he inserts the shank less than a thousand hands are employed, an im- at the aperture, and a sharp tap of the hammer mense variety of buttons bearing the same generic causes the A-shaped wire to spread out flat, and designation, but differing widely in shape, size, and shank and button are inseparably fastened togecost of production, are made. Some are flat, some ther. The next process is the polishing with soap conver, some round, some elliptic in form; some and rotten-stone, which is also done in the lathe. are covered with exquisite patterns woven at Spi- Pearl buttons are made of all sizes, from that of talfields or Kidderminster, some with plain and a child's fist, as seen on the shaggy great-coat of a some with figured textures; others again are sportsman, to that of a small pea. globular, and others cone-shaped ; some are de- Besides the buttons already noticed, there is an şigned to project like flower-buds, and some to almost infinite variety of fancy articles, which it droop pendent in the form of acorns. Such an ex- would be in vain for us to attempt to describe. tensive variety in the goods produced must neces- Many of these are made of coloured glass, in consarily imply a considerable variation in the modes junction with metallic knobs or ornaments ; some
are exceedingly beautiful in design, others alto- on this subject, I shall think it your own fault, gether as odd and whimsical. Not a few of these and perhaps give you an unmitigated admonivarieties are made at a cost at which no manufac- tion.' turer who had to pay wages could produce them. Though my good friend has, in this part of his The trade in these fancy descriptions of goods is in letter, confined himself to a few only of the things the hands of numbers of small independent masters, that minister to his comfort, in another part he with whom it would be hopeless for the capitalist alludes to other sources of relief, and among them to compete. The existence of these small masters, to the kind hearts by which he is surrounded. So who are technically denominated" garret-masters," far from quailing at his conditional threat, I am is an anomaly in the working world. They are a hopefully looking forward to a ride with him in singular class of beings, who prefer their personal his pony phaëton, fearless of his “unmitigated freedom to every other consideration, and will admonition.” submit to every deprivation except that of liberty. Rightly considered, this subject of mitigations The regular toil of the journeyman under the is a very consolatory one. In the days of my master's eye, and the discipline of the workshop, childhood, I was once much interested in listening are more hateful to them than the lowest poverty. to the remarks of an American. “ Our country," Rather than enter the workshop, they will labour said he,“ is much infested with poisonous reptiles, at their own miserable homes for half the remune- but we are not without our mitigations; for where ration of the regular journeyman; and, as a body, rattle-snakes abound, rattle-snake herb grows, so they have done more to reduce the wages of labour that when bitten by the snake we chew the herb in many departments of manufacture than all the and are healed.” This struck me at the time as a vicissitudes of the market or the strikes of the very merciful provision; but I need not pause to artisans. They are always to be found in numbers inquire into the truth of the allegation, having a in large cities. There can be little short of five much surer declaration in the holy scriptures of thousand of these, working under price at different the merciful mitigations of our heavenly Father : trades, in the city and suburbs of London. Nearly “Cast thy burden upon the Lord, and he shall every department of industry suffers from their sustain thee.” He stayeth his rough wind in practices; that of the cabinet-makers, perhaps, to a the day of the east wind.”. “No chastening for greater extent than any other. It is sad to be the present seemeth to be joyous, but grievous : forced to add, though it is what might be ex- nevertheless afterward it yieldeth the peaceable pected, that generally they are the most demoral- fruit of righteousness unto them which are exerized class of the industrial community.
Forty years ago I knew a friend who was then in the full possession of all her faculties. She
was wedded to one of the worthy of the world, OLD HUMPHREY ON MITIGATIONS.
who sometimes, when giving a lecture on geology A GOOD and pleasant subject is a great advantage to his friends, would playfully observe, in allusion to an author. When he has to tell his reader to his partner, who was from Cornwall, that unwelcome truths, and to oppose his opinions and though the specimens of British gems on the his prejudices, it is sad up-hill work; but when, table were not without their value, he had in his in a kind-hearted spirit, he hits on a subject in possession a Cornish diamond of much greater which he can take his reader with him, willing value than them all
. When I called upon her, to be pleased or profited, it is like going down a few weeks ago, I found her quite blind; but she a gentle slope, all ease and effortless : down such was not without her mitigations. She had learned a slope would I now go, discoursing on the subject to read her Bible in raised letters with her finger; of mitigations.
she was looking forwards to a glorious abode, The great lexicographer tells us that a mitiga- where the Lord would be her light, and her God tion is an “abatement of any thing penal, harsh, her glory; and she sweetly observed to me, in a or painful.” I shall apply the word as a reliever spirit of thankfulness, and not of repining, or sessener of the mental and bodily afflictions to time of life, you know this affliction cannot be a which humanity is liable. A letter from a friend, long one." This is the way to meet our trials, which now lies before me, has drawn my thoughts to ameliorate our afflictions, to get all the comfort to this subject. Would that I could do it justice! we can from our mitigations, and to make the Would that I could comfort the hearts of a thou- best of our position. sand afflicted ones, by opening their eyes to discern Soon after this interview I visited the chamber the manifold mitigations which surround them. of one whom for five and thirty years I had known One part of the letter runs thus :
as a trusty and faithful domestic. Heavily afflict"Since I have been a cripple, I have become ed with cancer, she was, as she believed, on the wondrously leg-wise, leg-considerate, and leg. very verge of an eternal world, but she was not sympathizing : this is one of the collateral ad- without her mitigations ; she had kind friends vantages of lameness; but now for the mitigations, and necessary comforts; she was perfectly resigned Old Humphrey must write a paper on this sub- to the righteous will of her heavenly Father, and ject. I have derived much alleviation from acute looked alone, as a sinner, for salvation to the pains from the electric chain. I get good spring "Lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the water, and take it freely at night; and twice in world." I left her, saying to myself, “When the that season I take a cup of cocoa, having a fire in waves of Jordan rise around me, may my feet also my bed-room all night. I have bought a pony be found on the Rock of Ages,' and my heart be phaëton, so that I can ride out daily and get fixed where true joys are alone to be found.”. fresh air. Now, if you cannot make a good paper It was but yesterday that an account was
At my related to me, by an eye-witness, of an affecting interview between two females; the one being blind,
ELIZABETH KULMANN: A RUSSIAN and the other deaf and dumb. The latter was
PRODIGY. introduced to the former as one who had never “ The bright Star of the North”-such was the heard a sound; neither music, nor the melody of name given by Jean Paul to one of the most brilbirds, nor the voice of affection, nor the words of liant of early developed geniuses that ever rose holy writ, had ever entered her ear. The blind above the literary horizon, dazzling for a while the listener to this account lifted up her hands in astounded beholder, but then disappearing from his thankfulness and unfeigned sympathy, saying, "I sight, like a meteor suddenly extinguished by the have heard all these sounds," and then deeply too rapid exhaustion of its own inflammable matebewailed the sorrows of her more afflicted sister. rials. Elizabeth Kulmann was born at St. PetersBut now, she that was deaf and dumb, shaking burg, July 5th, 1808, " in the humble cottage of with emotion, for her eyes had been fixed on the want,” as she herself expresses it in one of her lips of the blind speaker reading the meaning of poems. Her father, an officer in the Russian her words, in her turn declared with thankfulness, army, died in her earliest infancy, leaving the tenspeaking with her fingers, that her affliction was der exotic plant to be brought up by her mother, not half so heavy as was supposed. “If,” said amid the cares and deprivations of extreme poverty. she, “I have heard no sounds, I have been An elder sister was married, and her seven brothers mercifully kept from the evil and impurity of a were already provided for in the army, or military deceitful tongue.” Thus did these afflicted ones schools, so that Elizabeth was the object of her diminish their trials by dwelling on their mitiga- mother's undivided attention. Of her brothers, tions.
nearly all perished in the wars with France. Mrs. Being " born to trouble as the sparks fly Kulmann was a woman of superior mind and great upward,” afflictions must and will come to us all; attainments, and was well fitted, in many reit becomes us all then to look to our mitigations. spects, to guide the early developed genius of her I take it for granted, reader, that you have some gifted child. She was a native of Germany, but open or secret cause of sorrow; some hope that spoke the language of her adopted country with you cannot attain ; some fear that you cannot avoid ; the correctness of a native, and, from the birth of or some care that is difficult to endure. My advice her danghter, carefully instructed her in the lanis, whether your affliction be a light one or a guages of both countries. heavy one; the head-ache or the heart-ache ; a Elizabeth's wonderful talent for languages, exfractured limb or a wounded spirit; a suffering traordinary powers of observation, and retentive body or a desponding soul ;-look to your mitiga- memory, began to manifest themselves before she tions. Be assured we are sadly overrating our bur. had completed her second year. She knew, in dens and underrating our benefits, if we cannot say, German and Russian, the names of every object * Though round us a shower of afflictions may fall,
that came within her sphere of observation, was an Our manifold mercies outnumber them all."
incessant talker, and found in her mother a patient
listener, and an unwearied answerer, to all her inThe patriarch Job sets us an excellent example numerable questions. As her ideas expanded, she of falling back on our mitigations; for he seems to endowed, as it were, all inanimate objects in her have kept a sort of debtor and creditor account, little world with a soul; would sit for hours tonot only of the present but of the past. He looks gether, asking the different objects respecting their not at a part of God's dealings with him, but at nature, qualities, destination, and relation to manthe whole, and exclaims: “What! shall we re- kind; and then, personifying the object, give a ceive good at the hands of God, and not receive ready reply to all her own questions. Let us evil?" Are we doing as Job did, thankfully imagine her at the age of five years, sitting on the remembering our past mercies, and setting them step of their cottage door, watching a blade of against our present trials? This, whether we grass growing in the little gutter formed by the adopt it or not, is a wise course, an upright course, dropping of the rain from the eaves of the house. and the only course we ought to pursue.
“Who are you? Whence do you come ?" asked Neither past mercies, present mercies, nor the child. After a short pause, as if waiting for an fatare mercies should be forgotten in the long list answer, she replied: "I am a child of the earth ; of our mitigations; nor should we think lightly of our house is silent and dark. We see no sun, we newly discovered alleviations, professional skill, hear no bird. From the roof comes the water, drop, medicine suited to our case, kind ministerial aid, drop, drop. That is our nourishment-a mother's the visits of affection and friendship, the gentle milk. When we leave our cradle, our mother says, voice that soothes our griefs, and the kind hand Rush your way through the covering, then you that smooths our pillow. When onr trials are sharp, will see the sun, and hear the birds. The butterit is a comfort to know that they will be short; and, flies will greet you and admire your green dress, let the worst come to the worst, we can look be. and near by, you will see the violet, the lily of the yond them.
valley, and the rose!” We see here already the But, after all, our best mitigators will ever be germ of that wonderful facility of invention which God's word, God's promises, and God's presence. afterwards found vent in verse, and which enabled Having these, in all our weakness we may wage her to complete a long poem, full of luxuriant Far with every trouble; whether it be care, images and beautiful thoughts, before another poverty, sickness, pain, or death.
would have completed the arrangement of his * Men, brethren, kindreds, people, tongues, and nations, subject. Count up your mercies and your mitigations."
Elizabeth gave early manifestations of that extreme sensibility to the pain others, and that
sweetness and gentleness of disposition, which was Kulmann the loss of the document, which he had no less characteristic of her than her intellectual some indistinct recollection of having once shown endowments. For a long time she could not suffer her at his house. Elizabeth recalled to his memory, the presence of an otherwise esteemed friend, when not only the day when it happened, but also the mishe heard that he was fond of shooting. “Are not nutest circumstances, and described exactly where the birds God's creatures," said she, as well as he had laid the paper. He ran home, and soon we are? Why shoot them, then P" One day she returned with a large cactus, which Elizabeth bad called her mother's attention to a spider in his often admired, exclaiming, “Admirable child! you web. “Look, mother," cried she,“ how the spider are my memory. If I were emperor, you should is watching over these flies, that are sleeping near be my secretary of state.” him. I saw him invite the fly, and then he came Elizabeth had hitherto received all her instrucdown stairs to conduct his guest into the room, tion from her mother ; she now found one teacher and now see how he watches him, that he may not worthy of such a pupil, in the friend who had prebe disturbed in his sleep!" Beautiful illusion of an sented her with the book on natural history. He unsophisticated mind! She attained her fifth year was a German, and possessed great classical attainwithout ever having seen a book, for her mother, ments, and was familiar with many modern lanknowing her incessant thirst for knowledge, had guages. A tutor by profession, and engaged dur. prudently removed from her sight the few that she ing the day in the wearing and arduous duties of herself possessed; at last a friend presented her his calling, he devoted his holidays and leisure with a work on natural history, with plates. This hours to the instruction of Elizabeth! Under his opened a new world to her inquisitive mind, and guidance she learned writing, history, and geowith such eagerness did she apply herself to its graphy, and before the completion of her seventh contents, that, with the assistance of her friend year, the forms of countries, the courses of rivers, and of her mother, she soon learnt the German, the situations of towns, and the principal historical French, English, Italian, and even Latin names events, were firmly fixed in her mind, never afterof the objects represented. Portions of the text wards to be forgotten. She soon became acquaintwere read to her, and immediately she asked to be ed with French, having learned to speak it fluently taught to read. A spelling book was given her, in three months. Being well versed in German, but she threw it aside the next day, after having from the instruction of her mother, she learnt learnt the words of one syllable, and applied herself many little poems in that language by heart, but to the German text of her book, which in a few had as yet no clear idea of rhythm. She had often . weeks she read with ease.
questioned her instructor on this point, but he, as The following anecdote will afford a key to the if fearing the too early development of those excorrectness of the accent with which she afterwards traordinary poetical powers with which he saw spoke so many languages. She had often listened she was endowed, carefully avoided all allusion to to the conversation of an Englishman, a French the subject, and evaded even her direct questions. man, and an Italian, who occasionally visited her This silence on a point with which she was sure he mother, the former being the owner of their cot. was acquainted, excited her curiosity, and she tage, and an intimate friend. She had paid much meditated for herself. She remarked the rhymes, attention to the rising and falling of the voice, in counted the syllables, and resolved on making the their respective languages, and could imitate it with attempt to produce something. The result was a singular exactness. In a playful mood, she took poem, that put an end to the silence of her friend, into her head one day to imitate these langnages, who then initiated her into the mysteries of versifito an old man who daily supplied them with bread, cation. From this time she almost seemed to live and with whom she was a great favourite. She but for two things--to acquire knowledge, and then repeated to him the names of animals in Russian, to give it new forms in her own poetical composiGerman, and English. “Can you speak English P" tions. The Italian language was soon added to her cried the old man, astonished. Instead of answer- other acquirements. Scarcely had she taken three ing, she spoke with great volubility, and without lessons when she exclaimed with rapture, that she hesitation, a number of English words, at the should study no tongue with such zeal and pleasame time raising and dropping her voice as if sure. So well did she keep her word, that in a really conversing. She then did the same with few months she wrote it with elegance, and indeed French and Italian. The old man related the she never required more than three months to learn wonder to his master, who henceforth ordered him a living language. to leave his bread at the house, even if they had It was on her tenth birthday that her instructor no money to pay for it. Often, alas ! did this kind. came to dine with them, bringing with him a large ness of the worthy baker save mother and daughter piece of Elizabeth's favourite gingerbread. When from going to bed supperless.
dinner was over, it was presented to her, and she So acute were Elizabeth's powers of observation, was told to break it in two. She did so, when lo! that she could recal the most trivial circumstance a little book was concealed within it. She glanced years after it happened. She was only two years at the first page. “ Tasso! Oh, I have Tasso !" and a half old when she accompanied her mother cried the child, weeping with joy, and dancing one day to the house of their landlord, the above about the room; “ Tasso, dear Tasso, I will learn mentioned Englishman. The child was busily you by heart.”. She then counted the stanzas, and occupied with her doll, when the landlord folded reckoned how long it would take her to learn the up a paper, about which he had been talking to whole, allowing three stanzas for each day. But her mother, and going to a closet in an adjoining on the third day, she exceeded the limits she had room, unlocked it and laid the paper in a drawer. allowed herself, and in a short time never learnt Three years afterwards he was regretting to Mrs. less than nine verses a day. She had hitherto