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MAXIMS TO GUIDE THE YOUNG.-Keep. good com- A WALL OP PIRE OR WALL OF SNOW.-It was dur. pany or none. Never be idle. If your hands cannot being the campaign which brought the allied armies to Paris, usefully employed, attend to the cultivation of your mind. in 1814, that an aged woman and her grandson, who lived Always speak the truth. When you speak to a person, in a small village in Germany, were preparing for their look bim in the face. Never listen to loose and infidel nightly rest. The peasants universally entertained a wellconversation. If any one speaks evil of you, let your life grounded terror of the marauding Cossacks, who formed be so virtuous that none will believe him. When you the light cavalry of the Russian army, and who, penetrate retire to bed, think over what you have been doing during ing the most obscure solitudes, swept away all on which the day. Never speak lightly of religion. Abhor sin if the subsistence of the poor inhabitants depended. Fraio you would be happy.

the position of the advancing troops, these unwelcome The shortest and surest way to live with honour in the visitants were at this time hourly expected in the village. world is to be in reality what we appear to be.

"Grandmother,” said the child, when their simple supper You may glean knowledge by reading, but you must “We must put our confidence in God," she replied, " for

was done, “what shall we do if the Cossacks come herer separate the chaff from the wheat by thinking.

He never forgets any who trust in Him. And now, my Persevere in every thing that an enlightened conscience child, read the chapter, and let us ask our Heavenly Father tells you is honest and right, and you need not fear the to take care of us." The evening's portion was the second result.

chapter of Zechariah, and the old woman called the boy's One hour a day gained by rising early is worth one attention to the promise in the fifth verse; “I will be a month of labour in a year. The difference between rising wall of fire round about.” “But,” said he, with the literal at five and seven o'clock in the morning, for the space of exactness of childhood," will God really make a wall of fire forty years, supposing a man to go to bed at the same round us to keep out the Cossacks ?" - I do not say that," hour at night, is nearly equivalent to the addition of ten replied the grandmother, “but he will certainly protect tas years to a man's life.

in the best way; and if there were no other means of doing Nothing begets confidence sooner than punctuality.

so but by fire, even that would not be wanting." They

went to bed and slept ; the one in the carelessness of youth, Great talkers are generally small doers.

the other in the calmness of faith. The night was quiet, He who anticipates calamities, suffers them twice over. and seemed unusually long, till the grandmother-though

Death is like thunder in two particulars : we are alarmed not a gleam of daylight appeared desired the child to rise at the sound of it: and it is formidable only from that and open the door. On doing so, he found the entrance, as which preceded it.-Collon.

well as the window, blocked up with snow. As there were Witty sayings are as easy lost as the pearls of a broken prisoners: and when on the ensuing day they contrived to

provisions enough in the house, they remained contented string; but a word of kludness is seldom spoken in vain. liberate themselves, it appeared that, during that very It is a seed wbich, even when dropped by chance, springs night, the dreaded Cossacks had entered the village ; and up a flower.

while the terrified inhabitants sought safety in flight, bad The more ideas a man has of other things, the less he is destroyed some of their dwellings, and plundered all. One taken up with ideas of himself.

cottage only, hidden by the drifting suow, escaped ; and Happiness consists in the gratification of the desires ; to there, we may well believe, the aged Christian and young make their attainment probable, they should be reason companion devoutly returned thanks to Him who had able; to make their enjoyment lasting, they must be heard their prayers, and made a wall of snow no less virtuous.

effectual for their protection than one of fire.—Youthful

Thinker. Wit loses its respect with the good when seen in com. pany with malice.

TAE Rev. PHILIP SKELTON.–The prorost of the Every virtue communicates a proportionate degree of University was wont to cxact from the students, and felicity, as may be instanced in that of honesty, which Philip's indisposition to submit to this soon made the reigngains confidence; the exercise of judgment gains estima- | ing provost his enemy. On one occasion he accused the tion; prudence, respect; courtesy and affability, affection; youth of being a Jacobite, and without heeding Skelton's temperance gains health and fortitude, that peace of mind firm but respectful denial, he said to him : "Child, I'll which adversity cannot disturb.

ruin you for ever!".." Will you ruin my soul, sir?" Skel. Lay it down as a rule, never to smile, nor in any way college here." "Oh, sir,” Philip observed, " that is but a

tou replied. "No," he said; “but I'll ruin you in the show approval or merriment at any trait in a child which

short for ever.” The same year in which he took his de you would not wish to grow with his growth, and strengthen with his strength.

gree of B. A., being then at home, in the

parish of Derria.

ghy, a remarkable circumstance occurred, which he ever The longer I live, says a great writer, the more certain afterwards regarded as an instance of the Divine judgment. I am that the great difference between men, the great and He was then twenty-one years of age; and since he was the insignificant, is energy-invincible determination--an eight years old he bad never once omitted, morning or honest purpose once fixed-and then death or victory. night, to offer up his prayers to God, until one morning That quality will do anything that can be done in the two or three of his companions broke in upon him while he world ; and no talents, Lo circumstances, no opportunity was in bed, and carried him off with them " to play long will make a two-legged creature a man without it.

bullets." While they were engaged in this exercise, a We cannot expect too little from man, nor too much

three-pound ball thrown by one of his companions, hit a from God.

stone, and leaping back, struck him above the left eye,

flattening the projecting part of the skull. He fell to the God in Christ, as one of old described him, is “ a sea of ground as one dead, and was teken to the house of a woman sweetness without a single drop of gall.”

who knew something of surgery; she stitched the wound God views effects in their causes, and actions in their in five different places, and kept him some time at her motives.

honse. A small splinter of bone came away from the To find God in erery thing, is one important means of skull before he quite recovered; and he always conlearning to find every thing in God.

sidered that an originally excellent constitution had

been much shattered by this hurt. Connecting this The merely outward irregularities of men bear no more circumstance with the fact that for this morning only, proportion to the whole of their depravity, than the par- during so many years, he had omitted prayer to God, tieles of water which are occasionally emitted from the he always regarded it roverently as a warning judgment surface of the ocean do to the tide that rolls beneath. and special providence towards him. - Kitto's Sunday FULLER.


Published January 2nd, 1854.
Part XXIV-Dec.] 53

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SIXPENCE, in fancy corers.

TENPENCE, in cloth boards, gilt edges. 1. The Life of Julius Cæsar.

51. The Senses and the Mind. 2. Glimpses of the Dark Ages.

52. The Geography of Plants. 3. Wild Flowers of the Year.

53. Lives of Eminent Anglo-Saxons. Part I. 4. Jamaica, Enslaved and Free.

54. Life and Times of Leo X. 5. Our Song Birds.

55. The Jordan and the Dead Sea. 6. The Solar System. Part I. By Dr. Dick.

56. Good Health-the Possibility, Duty, and Means of 7. Cowper's Task, and other Poems.

Obtaining and Keeping it. 8. Sketches of the Waldenses.

57. Iona. By a Fellow of the Society of Scottish Anti9. The Solar System. Part II. By Dr. Dick.

quaries. 10. The Life of Luther.

58. Lives of Eminent Anglo-Saxong. Part II. 11. Blights of the Wheat. By Rev. E. Sidney.

59. Ancient Egypt. 12. Ancient Jerusalem. By Dr. Kitto.

60. London in the Olden Time. 13. Philosophy of the Plan of Salvation.

61. Idumea and Arabia. 14. Man, in his Physical, Intellectual, Social, and Moral 62. Babylon and the Banks of the Euphrates. Relations.

63. Nineveh and the Tigris. 15. Modern Jerusalem. By Dr. Kitto.

64. Lives of the Popes. Part I. 16. The Life of Cyrus.

65. London in Modern Times; or, Sketches of the 17. Garden Flowers of the Year.

Great Metropolis. 18. Dawn of Modern Civilization.

66. Mines and Mining. 19. The Life of Lady Russell.

67. The Telescope and the Microscope. 20. Our Domestic Fowls.

63. The Jesuits: an Historical Sketch. 21. Cowper's Truth, and other Poems.

69. The Life of Sir Isaac Newton. 22. The Life of Mohammed.

70. The British Nation: its Arts and Manufactures. 23. Sketches of the French Revolution.

71. Life and Times of John de Wycliffe. 24. The Caves of the Earth.

72. Remarkable Delusions. 25. Eminent Medical Men.

73. Lives of the Popes. Part II. 26. The Life of Martin Boog.

74. Volcanoes: their History, Phenomena, and Causes, 27. Self-Improvement.

75. James Watt and the Steam Engine, 28. Comparisons of Structure in Animals.

76. The Ancient British Church; an Inquiry into the 29. Protestantism in France. Part I.

History of Christianity in Britain previous to 30. Magic, Pretended Miracles, etc.

the Establishment of the Heptarchy. 31. The Atmosphere. By Dr. Dick.

77. The Palm Tribes. 32. Schools of Ancient Philosophy.

78. Life and Times of Charlemagne. 33. The Life of Cranmer.

79. Wonders of Organic Life. 34. The Origin and Progress of Language.

80. Tyre : its Rise, Glory, and Desolation. 35. Our English Bible,

81. Lives of the Popes. Part III. 36. The Tahtar Tribes. By Dr. Kitto.

82. Dublin : an Historical Sketch of Ireland's Metropolis. 37. Life of Napoleon Bonaparte.

83. Caxton and the Art of Printing. 38. Protestantism in France. Part II.

84. Money. 39. The Arctic Regions. By Captain Scoresby.

85. Lives of the Popes. Part IV.
40. The Court of Persia. By Dr. Kitto.

86. Old Edinburgh.
41. The Northern Whale Fishery. By Captain Scoresby. 87. The Greek and Eastern Churches,
42. The Crusades.

88. Venice, Past and Present.
43. Life of John Kaspar Lavater.

89. The Inquisition. 44. Life's Last Hours.

90. Remarkable Escapes from Peril. 45. The People of Persia. By Dr. Kitto.

91. Switzerland, Historical and Descriptive. 46. Life of Alfred the Great.

92. The Bible in Many Tongues.
47. Plants and Trees of Scripture.

93. Australia : its Scenery, Natural History, etc..
48. Characters, Scenes, and Incidents of the Reforma- 94. The Life of Alexander the Great.
tion to the Times of Luther. Part I.

95. Australia and its Settlements.
49. British Fish and Fisheries.

96. Successful Men of Modern Times.
50. Characters, etc., of the Reformation. Part II. 97. Modern Edinburgli.


Cowper's Task, and other Poems.

The Arctic Regions and Northern Whale Fishery. By
Dr. Kitto's Ancient and Modern Jerusalem.

Capt. Scoresby.
Dr. Dick's Solar System.

Lives of Eminent Anglo-Saxons.
The Garden and Wild Flowers of the Year.

Characters, Scenes, and Incidents of the Reformation.
Our Domestic Fowls and Song Birds.

London in Ancient and Modern Times.
Dark Ages and Dawn of Modern Civilization.

Babylon and Nineveh.
The French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte. Egypt und Idumæa.
Protestantism in France.

The Caves and Mines of the Earth.
The Court and People of Persia. By Dr. Kitto.

The Lives of the Popes. Two Vols.

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THE PASHA'S PIPE-BEARER. great measure accounts for the savage brutality There are but few pashas, in the Ottoman empire, which has escutchconed their arms with bloodshed, who cannot trace the descent of their immediate rapine, and every vicious excess.

Such men as ancestors from the humble station of pipe-bearer to Ali Pasha, and the equally detestable Djezzar, are some other pasha ; and this lowness of origin in a ! not without their counterparts even at the present No. 101, 1853.


day, though certain degree of civilization re-than ever. In either case, the faithful pipe-bearer stricts these petty despots within prudent bounds. adheres to the fortunes of his patron ; he is either Many dark acts of treachery and foul dealing basking in the sunshine of liis success, or comtranspire in secret; and, though hushed up at the fortably shaded by the cloak of his misfortunes. time, eventually get bruited about, although, in On every occasion of the disgrace of a pasha, the Turkey, they are thought of little importance, unwelcome information is usually accompanied by being looked upon in the light of every-day oecur- . the unexpected appearance of his successor in rences. Such an instance, for example, occurred office; but never, in any single instance, does the when we were residing in the pashalik of Adana, porte condescend to show cause why the imperial in 1845-6, when the governor of a district, fearful mandate has been issued. The pasha learns that that the influence of a cousin might preponderate his services are no longer required, and that, peragainst his own interests, invited him to dinner, haps, in addition to his loss of place and salary, he and shot him dead at his own board. This was is sentenced to be exiled; but the why and wherewell known at the time all over the east; and the fore is never discussed. The sultan wills it, and, news was communicated to me the very next day, therefore, the pasha must obey; and he may be with the same sangfroid as I might tell my reader thankful that the days are gone by when such imthat Jones had shot a duck. But what can be perial mandates were usually accompanied with a expected from ignorant and superstitous men, sud- silken noose and the grand vizier's compliments-, denly elevated into power, without those honourable a fatal token that the pasha might either go and and moral qualities which adorn the history of so strangle himself, or else submit to having the opemany self-advanced men in our own country? The ration performed by rougher arms. history of many a pasha is, indeed, neither more To return, however, to the immediate subject of nor less than follows.

this paper—the pasha's pipe-bearer-we will, if you A Turkish nobleman is taking his morning ride please, select one specimen from many, and call round the environs of the city, or, it may be, tra- him, for convenience sake, Achmet the goat-herd. velling from place to place in the country. His It is a fine spring morning, and somewhere about attention is attracted by the handsome features, or an hour before mid-day, when Achmet, breathless remarkably strong frame, of some peasant lad, who from abortive attempts to make music sound from has been employed in fetching water for him, or in stubborn Pandean-pipes, stretches himself wearily getting a bit of fire, with which to ignite his pipe. under the shade of some myrtle bush in the plains He is struck with the appearance and intelligence of the Amak, which extend' between Scanderoon of the youth, asks him a few questions, and winds and Aleppo; he is possibly meditating on what his up by ordering his followers to carry him along poor mother will contrive to bring him for his midwith them, and bring him again into his presence day repast-a precarious subject, considering the so soon as he has arrived at his journey's end. exliausted state of their joint exchequer; or he is That journey may be five miles in length, or five plamming some method of catching birds, or frighthundred; the pasha, nevertheless, must be obeyed ening away wolves from his flock. By-and-by he to the letter. It is in vain for the goat-herd to hear's the distant tramp of horses' hoofs, and startplead that his master's goats must first be driven ing up at the sound, listens more attentively. home, or even to beg that he may be suffered There is evidently a body of borsemen drawing to run back, and tell his friends of the sudden nigh, and the boy anxiously hopes they may turn change in his fortune. The flocks are left to their out to be European travellers, for in such a case he chance, and if not scattered before sun-down by is pretty sure of lovying a bucksheesh, or fee, from some hungry wolf, they will, in all probability, trot them. "Getting up, he peeps over the bush in the home meekly as ever. As for the goat-herd, the direction of the sound, and then discovers, to his chances are ten to one that he will never set luis consternation, that the cavalcade approaching is eyes on home or friends again ; from the moment evidently the suite of some pasha, from whose he has mounted one of the pasha's spare bag menials he has nothing but cuffs and hard words gage-mules, his career has changed; and if he turn to expect. Wisely calculating that it is best to be out to be a sharp-witted lad, apt in the art of flat-civil and willing to oblige for the rustic lacks not tery, and quick in understanding, the chances are common sense-Achmet jumps up on his legs, that he will one day become as great a person and runs to the well hard by, drawing water as age as the man in whose train of followers he is fast as his strength will permit him, and filling the now enlisted, and whose very name, and voice, stone trough, placed there for the convenience of make the child tremble so excessively that he can thirsty horses, mules, and camels; he has hardly barely hold on by the saddle of the fractious mule accomplished this, when the cavalcade arrives, and he bestrides. At any rate, if he continues faithful the pasha dismounts to smoke a pipe and rest him. to the discharge of his duties, and becomes attached self. The goat-herd then has the audacity to seize to his patron, he is sure of sharing the pasha's upon the pasha's horse, and, loosing the bit from success or mishaps in life, which, however, is, after its mouth, leads it to the trough ; the attendant all, in some cases, nothing better than a lottery; sycophants, who have been paralysed at the boy's for the pasha of the Ottoman empire may be to-day impudence, now rush upon him to annihilate him; in high favour at head-quarters, full of authority, but their zeal has been misplaced. The pasha and surrounded by wealth and luxuries, whereas interferes, having observed the acuteness of the the very next post may bring him the intelligence boy. He asks the trembling goat-herd a few quesof his utter disgrace and ruin. Perhaps he is tions, which are answered so adroitly, that the doomed to perpetual exilo, or, perhaps, bis disgrace great man at once determines upon enlisting him may be only temporary, and the sunshine of favour in his service, and, much to the chagrin of his burst forth upon him again with greater brilliancy I attendants, the order is given, " Bring him with

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