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VISIT OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT.

that as no questions had been put, no answer could THE OASIS OF THE LIBYAN DESERT. be given. Nevertheless, taking advantage of the circumstances, he kept the matter up, and delivered an able address on the same subject.

THE Macedonian conqueror, having projected Next rose one of the prelates, the bishop of the erection of a city on the bank of the western Oxford; it was not to be expected that any one'

branch of the Nile, proceeded from its site on a bearing the honoured name of Wilberforce could remarkable and hazardous expedition into the heart sit at ease, and not have something to say under of the Libyan desert, accompanied by a detachment circumstances so interesting, and on such a subject. of his troops. Policy of state, personal vanity, He made a brief but brilliant speech, and recom

some curiosity, and a romantic love of adventure, mended that a firm and manly course should be led to this enterprise, the two former motives pursued towards Spain in the matter.

being doubtless the most influential. Every Lord Brougham, whose eloquence on this subject Egyptian king had styled himself" the son of the has often thrilled the house, offered a few brief but sun," or Ammon, the fabulous protecting divinity pungent and pointed remarks. It must have been of the country, called Zeus Ammon by the Greeks, a source of no little gratification to the distin- and Jupiter Ammon by the Romans. Alexander guished foreigner, to notice how well his lordship appropriated the titles of the ancient sovereigns looked, and how surprisingly energetic bis man to himself, and in order to be acknowledged by the ner and firm his voice, considering the age he has priesthood, in the same relationship to the national attained. This remarkably able and eccentric peer god, and firmly to establisha his own authority, he often winds up a debate, and he did so on this undertook a visit to one of the most celebrated occasion, by saying all that was left unsaid and shrines, an Ammonium, or oracle temple, situated that it was necessary to say on the subject.

in an oasis of the western desert. Lord Wharncliffe added, that the authorities of

The oases are fertile spots in the sterile wilderCuba could put a stop to the traffic if they were ness, occasioned by the presence of springs, which so disposed. The petitions were then “ordered to saturate the ground with moisture for soine dislie on the table;” that is, they were thrown into a tance around them, and in many cases give rise to box behind the bench occupied by the clerks, and, small streams, which meander through dells and to use the ordinary phrase, " the subject then valleys till they are finally lost and absorbed in the dropped." The bishops went out one by one, and soil. The tracts thus irrigated are clothed with were followed by a number of the peers. The duke vegetation, natural or cultivated, and resemble of Argyle stepped across the house and spoke to islands of verdure in a sea of sand. Besides being the duchess of Sutherland and Mrs. Stove, and often beautiful in themselves, they receive an adthey, too, speedily left. In five minutes, there were ditional charm from the contrast with the suronly eight peers present, and the other business rounding desolation, and offer to caravans and having been proceeded with for a brief space, their travellers a welcome supply of water, with an lordships adjourned.

agreeable shade for balting, furnished by clamps The end of the hall immediately opposite the of palms, olive groves, and other trees. These reporters' and strangers' galleries is a point of in- green and fruitful spots in the tawny expanse of terest, for there the eldest sons of peers and distin. bare rock or sand, although generally small, are guished foreigners are permitted to witness the occasionally of considerable extent, and are the proceedings of the house. During a recent debate, seats of a resident population. The

Great Oasis we saw lord John Russell leaning on the brass rails of the Libyan desert, westward of Esneh on the which separate this portion of the house from that Nile, consists of a chain of fertile tracts, extending which is confined to peers alone. Soon after he about a hundred miles in length, and comprising had entered, lord Brougham walked up to the rail many springs, villages, and ancient ruins, with to chat with his right honourable and noble friend, plantations of olives, liquorice, grain, and fruits. on the outer side of it. One could not help think? The Little Oasis, to the north, has the same phy. ing how often, and how easily, lord John might sical character. Still further north, and upwards have entitled himself to a right to sit within the of three hundred miles west of the Nile, immedibarrier that intervened, had he so pleased.

ately above Cairo, is the oasis of Siwah, of very In a concluding paper, we hope to present the considerable size, but the most interesting of all

, reader with a few other observations made in because incontestably proved to be identical with both houses : meanwhile, we may mention (what the oasis of Ammon, visited by Alexander. Few some of our readers may not be aware of) that by Europeans bave penetrated to this spot, owing to application at the lord Chamberlain's, any Wednes. the natural difficulties of the route, and the maday, they can obtain gratuitously an order to see the rauding habits of the wandering Bedouins. But house of lords on the following' or any subsequent three of our countrymen, Mr. Brown, Mr. Hoskins, Saturday. Both the application and the visit must and Mr. St. John, accomplished the enterprise, take place between the hours of 10 and 4 o'clock. the first in 1792, the last in 1847, both following

the line of march pursued by the aspiring Macedonian.

Starting from the western mouth of the Nile, Division of TIME.- What a desirable plan it would

an indirect route along the coast was adopted by pe if a sinking fund should be established of all the long Alexander, on the recommendation of his guides, hours men know not what to do with, and the surplus as presenting fewer obstacles, and affording better divided amongst those who could einploy forty-eight hours forage fur cattle. None of the ancient historians a day if they had them. If men could buy time, what a price some would give for it, and how cheaply others would . From the “Life of Alexander the Great," one of the let it go!-Miss SINCLAIR.

recent Monthly Volumes of tho Religious Tract Society.

make any statement of the number of people he roosting-places are chosen, and routes are always took with him, though they sometimes speak as if determined by the position of the sites where he was accompanied by an arıny. But this is very water may be obtained. Two ravens encountered improbable in itself, and contradicted by the fact Belzoni as he was approaching a locality of this that no preparations were made for the journey on description. It is remarkable, that a spot on the an extensive scale, only camels and skins being line of Alexander's march is at present called the taken sufficient to carry water for four days. The Nugb el Ghrâb, or the Pass of the Crow, which journey along the shore terminated at Parætonium, seems to commemorate his extrication from diffià distance of about two hundred miles. No cities culties, and may possibly have been originated at were encountered. The entire region is described the time by it, as the names of places in the desert as deserted, but not waterless. At a subsequent are generally permanent. More remarkable still period, it supported numerous towns, founded as is the fact, that the Bedouin guides of Mr. St. Greek colonies, and the originally unproductive John lost their way, and the party halted an tract was rendered fertile by human industry. entire night, fearful of losing it irrecoverably. The cities gradually decayed, and were finally While in a state of suspense the next day, two devastated by the Sassanidæ and the Saracens, crows were seen wheeling in the air, and then after which the country returned to its primitive taking a south-west direction. The guides deterdesolation, and has retained that aspect. Mr. St. mined to follow the course indicated by the birds, John speaks of meeting with no four-footed animal and speedily fell in with a well-defined track. At except a gazelle and a hare, either in going or present, the benevolent practice of marking the returning, unless a few rats, a tortoise, a chame- road for future travellers prevails to some extent leon, and legions of lizards are reckoned. Birds in the Libyan desert. This is done by piles of were in attendance ; numerous pigeons appeared stones at short intervals, raised by the industry of chased by hawks, falcons, and kites; and white successive caravans. The Arabs are particular in gulls occasionally scudded the surface of the waves. rearing these monuments, and clearing away the Parætonium must have been not far from the accumulations of sand which otherwise would soon eastern frontier of modern Tripoli. Its position obscure them, regarding it as a sacred duty; but has been identified with that of a place called the aboriginal Berber race are said to view this Bareton by travellers, not indicated on the charts. usage with great dislike, preferring the wilderness It became a port of some consequence, for Mark in its primitive pathlessness. Antony and Cleopatra landed at it as fugitives Eight days appear to have been consumed in after the battle of Actium.

the passage from the Mediterranean shore to the At this point, the king, warrior, and pilgrím, oasis of Ammon. The journey may be readily perhaving taken in a supply of water, left the coast formed in four, but leisurely movements in this and struck into the interior. His historians speak strange region might be deemed expedient, and of a vast expanse of sand being traversed, the wind the loss of the track created delay. The figure of raising it up in clouds and columns, threatening the god called Ammon was Krioprosopic, or that the adventurers with destruction. It is not un- of a man with the head and horns of a ram. common to see the loose particles driven along the Jewels and ornaments, the gifts of devotees, ensurface by the breeze, like light spray, or filling riched the statue. It was carried about on great the whole atmosphere with a vast mist. But the occasions by a train of eighty priests, followed by plains in this part of the Libyan desert are able- a procession of matrons and virgins singing his lands, and have far more the appearance of a sea praises. Alexander, on his approach, seems to of stones than of sand. There are also ridges of have been met by a procession of this kind, and strangely contorted and perfectly naked rocks forth with conducted to the temple, where the chief intersecting the country, passed by defiles of the priest delivered from the shrine oracular responses most desolate and savage character. Marvels are to his questions. He went alone into the innermost reported of the journey of Alexander, some of sanctuary, and did not reveal what passed, except which are easily resolved into natural incidents, by the general statement to his followers, that the wbile the rest are doubtless referrible to misappre- answers were satisfactory. Willing or unwilling, hended facts, which the distorted description con- the presiding priest had no alternative but to hail ceals. After four days, the water in the skins was the master of Egypt as the son of Ammon, and exhausted, and the horrors of thirst began to be promise him the empire of the world—a service felt. But at this juncture a copious rain came on, which the offerings of the royal traveller doubtless and revived the despairing party—an event re- rendered sufficiently acceptable. We are not to garded as a manifest interposition of the gods. The suppose that Alexander was himself deceived. occurrence is perfectly credible, however unusual Among a people who worshipped and built temples in the desert; and a scanty shower descending so to their kings, he deemed it politic to claim such seasonably would naturally have its magnitude honours by having his relationship to the national orerstated. Afterwards, the guides became com- deity formally declared, while among his own pletely bewildered respecting the right direction, friends he probably allowed his assumed divinity to and the travellers wandered about uncertainly for be made the subject of many a joke. some time, till delivered from a painful dilemma The Macedonian admired the locality, and the by two crows or ravens, the track being recovered ancient writers are profuse in terms of admiration by following their flight. This incident was like- respecting its scenery. It was a green and shaded wise interpreted as a supernatural interposition ; valley, surrounded by parched sand hills, irrigated nor is the apparently idle story a fiction. These by springs of fresh water, and clothed with plantabirds are looked upon

the African desert as tions of olives, laurels, and palms, cultivated by a indicating the vicinity of a well, near which their resident population. In other parts were salt lakes,

and snowy tracts of fossil salt. The inhabitants The temple of Ammon, after having borne the traded with Egypt in the mineral, which, from the brunt of ages, is represented by some majestic rename of the place, was called salt of Ammonin. It mains on a slightly elevated platform of rock, in was so highly valued as to be deemed a suitable the centre of an open glade. On approaching the present to kings and dignitaries, to whom it was site, a ruined gateway is seen standing immedisent in baskets; and even the monarchs of Persia ately in front of the fragments of a chambe, had their table supplied with salt from this remote Huge masses of calcareous stone lying in pictuspot. The valley extends for sixteen or seventeen resque confusion, parts of the shafts of columns, miles, nearly in an east and west direction ; but the capitals of alabaster, and other architectural mon. available land is confined to a district in the centre, uments, cover the surface of the ground, and inabout five miles long by three or four broad. The dicate the former existence of a considerable pile of sterile and fertile grounds run into each other, ren- buildings upon the spot. The temple was inclosed dering it difficult to determine where the one ends by a wall of immense thickness, nearly four hun. and the other begins. Fresh and salt waters also dred feet from north to south, and more than are closely contiguous, both at their source and in three hundred feet from east to west, a considertheir direction. From the top of Gebel-el-Monta, able portion of which may be made out. A variety or the Mountain of the Dead, a hill honeycombed of chambers, probably the residences of the priests, with catacombs, Mr. St. John obtained a splendid with a central apartment or sanctuary, n here the view of the whole oasis. “It is difficult,” he states, responses of the god were delivered in the midst "to convey an idea of the pleasure I experienced in of druidical gloom, seem to have composed the viewing the prospect that developed itself on all interior, perhaps surrounded by an inner inclosure. sides around me. It could scarcely have possessed The north end of the sanctuary remains, and es. more elements of the beautiful. The verdure, the hibits a peculiar construction. The side walls, lakes, and the arid bills may be found elsewhere, though six feet in thickness, are formed of comand be deemed to afford contrasts sufficiently strik- paratively small blocks, while the roof consisted of ing; but perhaps here alone are added in such immense masses, some of which are still aloft. close juxtaposition the glittering desert and the They are literally beams of stone, twenty-seven snowy fields of salt, looking like vast glaciers just feet in length, four in breadth and depth, stretchbeginning to melt beneath that sultry clime. ing from side to side, and projecting a little beyond

“ In addition to this view, which may be ob- the walls, so as to form a kind of exterior cornice. tained with little variety from almost any of the Hieroglyphics--processions of human figures with hills I have mentioned, many details of the scenery tablets above their heads, and representations of of the oasis are extremely pleasing. I never wish cagles or vultures, flying after each other, on a to enjoy prettier walks than some of those we took ground interspersed with stars appear on mony during our stay. There is generally a garden wall of the blocks. These were originally painted blue or a fence on either hand of the lanes, with pome- and red, as traces of such colours still remain. granate trees bursting over it in redundant luxu- Among the hieroglyphics, the camel occurs as a riance, and hanging their rich tempting purple character, and a bird resembling the ostrich. There fruit within reach of the hand, or the deep-green are also sculptured representations of a hideousfig tree, or the apricot, or a huge ragged leaf of the looking personage with ram's horns, doubtless banana, or the olive, or the vine. The spaces meant for the ram-faced Ammon. between these are not left idle, being carpeted with In the neighbourhood of the temple, the ancients a spacious growth of bersim and lucerne that loads commemorated the “ Fons Solis," or Fountain of the air with its fragrance, and is often chequered the Sun, which the Macedonians viewed with inwith spots of a green light that steals in through terest and veneration on account of the supposed the branching canopy above. Sometimes a tiny diurnal change in the temperature of the water, brook shoots its fleet waters along by the wayside, from cold at noonday to heat at midnight. The er lapses slowly with eddying surface, rustling following passage occurs in Lucretius :gently between grassy banks or babbling over a

“ A fount, 'tis rumour'd, near the temple purls pebbly bed. Here and there a rude bridge of palm trunks is thrown across, but the glassy current

Of Jove Ammonian, tepid through the night,

And cold at noonday ; and th' astonish'd sage frequently glides at will athwart the road. At one Stares at the fact, and deems the punctual sun place there is a meadow; at another, a copse; but Strides through the world's vast centre, as the shades on all sides the date trees fling up their columnar

Of midnight shrond us; and with gay reverse forms, and wave alost their leafy capitals. Occa

Maddens the well-spring: creed absurd and false." sionally a huge blue crane sails by on flagging Ovid makes a similar statement :wing to alight on the margin of some neighbouring pool; the hawk or the falcon soars or wheels

“Thy stream, O horn-crown'd Ammon ! in the midst far up in the air ; the dove sinks fluttering on the

Chills us at noon, but warms at morn and eve.” bough; the quail starts up with its short, strong, Herodotus mentions further, that while the natives whirring flight; and sparrows, with numerous used the water to fertilize their gardens, this was other small predatory birds, go sweeping across only done at midday, the time of its greatest cool. the fields." In one respect the place differs from ness. This celebrated fountain is a remarkably the ancient representations of it, which speak of its deep and clear pool, of a slightly bitter taste, salubrious climate. Dangerous remittent fevers inclosed in ancient times with masonry, fragments now intest the spot, and annually visit all the oases of which still remain. It is probably a thermal in the summer and autumn, being caused by the spring. Modern visitors describe the surface as neglect which allows the collection of stagnant continually covered with bubbles, which rise from fætid water that ought to be used up in irrigation. the bottom, and give to the pool the appearance of

being almost constantly in a state of effervescence. the assent of all who were present, he began by But the change of temperature assigned to it is knocking away some very thin little pieces of lath, apparent only, resulting from the strongly con- which appeared to be no part of the machinery trasted temperature of the external air at noon and but to go from the frame of the machine to the night. Amidst the burning heat of midday, the wall of the room, merely to keep the corner posts water will feel cool to the hand, and be warm at of the machine steady. night, when the atmosphere is in an opposite con- It was found that a catgut string was led dition. Though divested of mysterious properties, through one of these laths and the frame of the the fountain is an object of singular beauty, and of machine, to the head of the upright shaft of a no little interest, when we reflect that thousands principal wheel; that the catgut was conducted of years ago princes and sages stood by its margin, through the wall, and along the floors of the gazing with wonder and veneration upon its sur second story to a back cock-loft at the distance of face. The transparent water bubbles as gaily as a number of yards from the room which contained ever, and reflects as brightly the splendour of the the machine and there was found the moving heavens, while time has impressed its changes power! This was a poor old fellow with an imupon everything human once associated with it. mense beard, and all the appearance of having Shattered and moss-grown masonry peeps out at suffered a long imprisonment, who, when they the brink from a growth of reeds and rushes inter- broke in upon him, was unconscious of what had twined with creeping plants; surrounding palins happened below, and who, while he was seated open between them, long, majestic, and shady upon a stool, gnawing a crust, was with one hand vistas, like the solemn aisles of a great cathedral; turning a crank. The proprietor of the perpetual while a rill emerges from the spring, and runs motion soon disappeared. The mob demolished rippling towards the mouldering temple of the his machine, the destruction of which immediately unshrined, dethroned, and nearly forgotten Am- put a stop to that which had been for so long a mon.

time, and with so much profit, exhibited in Philadelphia.

PERPETUAL MOTION.

THE POWER OF A WORD. AMONG the numerous curious facts connected with the history of the oft-exploded and oft-renewed to me in an inquiry meeting,” said a pious man once to a

"I NEVER can forget that word which was once whispered search for perpetual motion, the following anecdote friend. “What word was it?" "It was the word ETERis worthy of perusal. It appears that some years NITY. A young Christian friend, who was yearning for ago an American, named Redheffer, contempo. my salvation, came up to me as I sat in my pew, and raneous with the celebrated Fulton, pretended to simply whispered “ Eternity' in my ear, with great solenhave discovered perpetual motion, and for a long nity and tenderness, and then left me. That word made time deluded the people, and realized a large sum Saviour.”

me think, and I found no peace till I believed in the of money. It was almost universally admitted The holy M'Cheyne was once riding by a quarry, and that he had made a wonderful discovery, and men stopped to look in at the engine-house. The fireman had of learning and science formed various theories to just opened the door to feed the furnace with fresh fuel ; account for this perpetual motion. Mr. Fulton when M'Cheyne, pointing to the bright hot flame, said was a perfect unbeliever in Redheffer's discovery, thing ?" The man could not get rid of the solemn ques.

mildly to the man, “Does that fire remind you of any and although hundreds were daily paying their tion. To Irim it was au effectual arrow of conviction. It dollar to see the wonder, Mr. Fulton could not be led him to the house of God, and will lead him, we trust, prevailed upon, for some time, to follow the crowd. to heaven. He was at length induced by some of his friends blessings which

had resulted from the labours of Di. Carey,

A single remark of the Rev. Charles Simeon, on the to visit the machine. It was in an isolated house in India, first arrested the attention of Henry Martyn to in the suburbs of Philadelphia.

the cause of missions. His mind began to stir under the In a very short time after Mr. Fulton had new thought, and a pernsal of the life of Brainerd fixed entered the room in which it was exhibited, he him in his resolution to give himself to the dying hoa

then. exclaimed, “Why, this is a crank motion.” His ear enabled him to distinguish that the machine Sabbath-school to get the spiritual census of the school.

It is said that Harlan Page once went throngh his was moved by a crank, which always gives an un- Coming to one of the teachers, he said, “Shall I pnt you equal power, and therefore an unequal velocity in down as having a hope in Christ ?” The teacher replied, the course of each revolution ; and a nice and prac

"No." "Then," said he very tenderly, “I will put you tised ear may perceive that the sound is not uni. down as having no hope.” He closed bis little book and form. If the machine had been kept in motion by soul no rest till he found a hope beneath the cross.

left him. That was enough. God gave that young mau's what was its ostensible moving power, it must A member of a chureh, not long since, overtook a lady, have had an equable rotary motion, and the sound on her way to a prayer-meeting. She asked the young would have been always the same.

woman if she never thought of her own salvation? The After some little conversation with the show. lady thus addressed, replied that during all her life she man, Mr. Fulton did not hesitate to declare that salvation of her soul! Within a month from that time

had never had one word spoken to her before abont the the machine was an imposition, and to tell the she became a devoted member of the flock of Christ. gentleman that he was an impostor.

Fellow-disciple! have you never yet spoken one word to Notwithstanding the anger and bluster these au impenitent friend about the most momentous of all charges excited, he assured the company that the questions? Then I fear you will find no one in heaven thing was a cheat, and that if they would support Though you may reach the many mansions," I fear your

that you were the means, under God, of sending there. him in the attempt, he would detect it at the risk crown will glitter with no splendours. It will be a starless of paying any penalty if he failed. Having obtained crown.--- Presbyterian.

Varietirs.

is a

TELEGRAPHIC LIGITNING.-During a recent thunder. TIE FIRST WILLOW TREE.- It is said that all the storm in America, Mr. Smith, the operator in the tele- weeping-willow trees in England and America originated graph office at New London, laid a large piece of glass, used from a twig set by Pope, the poet. He received a pre

paper weight," upon the button attached to the wire, sent of figs from Turkey, and observing a twig in the when an explosion occurred, loud as the discharge of a basket, he planted it in lis garden, where it soon became a pistol, and upon examining the glass, a considerable portion fine tree. of it was found melted off, and one side was turned black. Cast Iron PAVEMENTS.—The Bostonians are laying Mr. Smith says these phenomena frequently occur upon cast iron pavements. The pavement is of a novel character, the approach of a thunder-cloud, and sometimes before the composed of circular boxes of cast iron, about twelve inches cloud' is in sight; but he has never before known the ex. in diameter, and five inches in height, divided into sis plosions so loud, or the sparks so distinct and continuous. compartinents, so small as not to admit the hoof of a horse. THE SOAP-PLANT.--The Vienna journals announce

In the present experiment, these spaces will be filled with that a firm of California has sent to that city soine seeds gravel, but some other substance, such as a composition of of the soap-plant. It grows wild in California, rising The surface of the pavement is grooved, to prevent

horses

asphaltum and sand or gravel, may be found more suitable. to the height of about a foot. The plant fades away in the from slipping, and on the outer edge of each box are keys month of May, and inside each is a ball of natural soap, which fit into the edges of the surrounding boxes, thus superior, it is asserted, to any that can be manufactured.

binding the whole firmly together. The thickness of the MACHINE FOR BORING RockS.-A gentleman bas outer riin and the inuer division is about an inch. The patented a new method of boring rocks, consisting of an street will be covered with a network of iron, filled in with apparatus, in which a series of cutters, or cluisels, are caused a substance to produce a smooth and durable surface. The to cut out segments of circles from the centre to the peri. inventor of this plan is Mr. William D. Terry of Boston, phery of the opening to be excavated, and by a continuous and it is the opiniou in Boston that it will be successful. succession of instruments the whole of the rock is cut Chinese Custom.-- When a Chinese Emperor dies, the away.

intelligence is announced by despatches to the several Crayoy FOR WRITING ON GLASS.-M. Brunqnell provinces, written with blue ink, the mourning colour. prepares a crayon for writing on glass so as to enable the All persons of rank are required to take red silk ornaments contents of glass vessels to be inscribed on thein at once. from their caps, with the ball or button of rank; all subHe takes four parts of spermaceti (stearine), three parts jects of China, without exception, are called upon to forbear of tallow, and two parts of wax, and melts them in a cup; shaving their heads for ono hundred days, within which six parts of minium and one part of potash are then stirred period none may marry, play on musical instruments, or into it, and the whole is kept warm for half an hour, and perform any sacrifice. then poured into glass tubes of the thickness of a lead DOMESTIC LIFE IN THE MIDDLE AGES.—Rude were pencil. After quickly cooling, the mass may be screwed the manners then : man and wife ate off the same trencher ; up and down in the tube, and cut to a fine point with a a few wooden-handled knives, with blades of rugged iron, knife. This crayon will readily write on clean, dry glass.- were a luxury for the great ; candles unknown. A servant Dingler's Polytechnic Journal.

girl held a torch at supper; one, or at most two, mugs of Cotton ROPES FOR Sups, and Cotton Nets.- tus in a house. Rich gentlemen wore clothes of mlined

coarse brown earthenware formed all the drinking apparaThere is a novelty about the “ Sovereign of the Seas” that leather. Ordinary persons scarcely erer touched flesh doubtless will be soon imitated by other vessels. The meat. Noble mansions drunk little or no wine in summer; ropes which forin the running rigging are of cotton, which we understand is not only capable of a lighter twist, but is portions; even ladies dressed extremely plain. The chief

a little corn seemed wealth. Women had trivial marriage not liable to become deteriorated by friction in the same part of a family's expense was what the males spent in degree as hempen cords. After they have been in use, too,

arms and horses, none of which, however, were either rery for years, they can be sold for nearly as inuch as the good or rery showy; and grandees had to lay out inoney original cost. These ropes are quite smooth, and run with

on their lofty towers. Wretchedly indeed plebeians great rapidity through the blocks. The sails, also, of this hovelled; and if noble castles were cold and dreary vessel are of cotton, two sets of cotton sails costing only everywhere, they were infinitely worse in Italy, from the the suin paid for one set of linen. · Fishing-nets made of horrible inodes of torture and characteristic cruelty, too cotton are much used in America.- Scientific Reporter.

frightful to dwell on. Few of the infamous structures GASOMETERS.-Some few years ago, several of the most built at the time treated of stand at present; yet their eminent engineers of the day gave evidence before a ruins disclose rneful corners.--History of the Order of Se. Parliamentary Committee to the effect that a gasometer of John of Jerusalem. greater diaincter than 35 feet would be dangerous, and A BREAKFAST in Saroy.-Horace Greely, in a jumprecommended that in all cases where this limit was ap- ing account of his ride in a diligence from Lyons across the proached, a series of strong walls should be built round the lower Alps to Turin, has a morceau about Chambery, the gas-holder, in order to lessen the injury which the almost capital of ancient Savoy, where he was allowed twenty-five * inevitable" explosion might entail. One has lately been minutes for breakfast. “There was enough and good enough manufactured at Smethwick of 165 feet diameter. The to eat, and (as usual throughout all this region) wine in gas-holder of the Philadelphia Gas-works, erected in 1850, abundance without charge, but tea, coffee, or chocolate is 140 feet diameter, and 74 feet high, and one now erect- must be ordered and paid for extra. Even so I was unable ing there will be 160 feet diameter and 30 feet high, with to obtain a cup of chocolate, the excuse being that there a top nearly flat, having only rise enough to carry off the was not time to make it. I did not understand, therefore, water, without the usual framing and rafters for sustaining why I was charged more than others for breakfast; but to the crown.

talk English against French or Italian is of course worse Frost in SIBERIA.—The soil of Siberia, at the close of than useless, so I pocketed the change offered me and the summer, is found still frozen for fifty-six inches beneath came away. On the coach, however, with an Englishman the surface, and the dead that liave laiu in their coffins for French and Italian, I ventured to expose my ignorance as

near me who had travelled this way before, and spoke one hundred and fifty years bave been taken up unchanged follows :-Neighbour, why was I charged three francs for in the least.

breakfast, and the rest of you but two and a half?' A Good RULE.-Two persons--I believe a husband Don't know-perhaps you bad tea or coffee.' 'No, sirand a wife-being very much at rariance, referred their didn't drink either. "Then perbaps you washed your quarrel to Mr. Howels. Each accused the other, and both face and hands.' oli, w wonld be just like me.' 'Oh, declared themselves to be without blame. Mr. Howels then, that's it! The iraif franc was for the basin and heard them very patiently, and then said, "My judgment towel.' 'Ah, oui, ouii' So the milk in that cocoa-rut is this :-Let the innocent forgive the guilty.”

was accounted for."

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