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would quicken his pace if you raised your hand, the animal who arrived last at the goal. Of course and invariably kept an eye upon your motions as the object of each competitor was to urge the ani. he trotted along. He would swerve aside gently mal he bestrode in advance of the one which was of his own accord to avoid a rut or a stone, and in his own property, and in consequence there was stinctively gave a wide berth to everything he met just as keen a strife as there would have been at a or overtook. We rode him daily from ten to race of the ordinary kind. Each ass, upon entertwenty miles through a very hilly country, with ing for the race a fortnight before, had been transout inflicting any suffering on him. His one vice ferred to the keeping of the man who would ride was greediness, which no doubt he inherited from him, who was also the owner of another who would his parents, who, like too many of their race, were This exchange had the effect of bringing all half starved. He would eat all day long if he the steeds to the starting point sin good condicould find fodder, and would have grown too fat tion, as no man would expect to distance his own for work had he been allowed his own way. This donkey if mounted upon one suffering from want experiment only confirmed us in an opinion which of food, or overwork. The goose and trimmings we had long entertained, namely, that the ass, if were carried off by a cunning sand-boy, who had justice is dealt out to him, is just as tractable, as taught his daily companion to stand stock-still at sagacious, and, in proportion to his weight, as effi- the sound of a low and peculiar whistle. Though cient a labourer, as the horse. And we have no the swiftest in the whole company, nothing could doubt that if the same pains and attention were induce this creature to move a foot so long as the bestowed upon his breed and education as are well-known sound rang in his ears. It was therelavished upon those of the horse, results no less fore easy for his owner to keep him in the rear till astonishing and advantageous would ensue. Treat all the others had shot past the limits, and then to a child as a dunce, and you inevitably make a fix him to the spot by a final note of warning, dunce of him ; treat a youth in your employ as a while he gallopped past him and claimed the prize. knave, and you will as surely render him unworthy Here was a "blundering jackass” for you! Where of your confidence. Is it to be expected that the is the horse who would have shown superior doci. ill-treatment of a beast will have no effect in dete-lity, or would have equalled the sand-boy's donkey, riorating his race, and superinducing the very vices unless he had first gone through the curriculum attributed to them?

of a professional trainer ? Starting, a few mornings ago, from an inland We forbear to multiply examples to substantiate village, about day-break, to catch the early rail- the ass's claim to the possession of such reasoning way train to London, we found that we had just powers as Providence has been pleased to bestow nine miles to get over within the hour. This was upon man's four-footed friends and colleagues, the nothing to the horse behind whom we sat in a beasts of the road and the field; and we are not light dog-cart, and, without a hint of the whip, he going to moralize, like a celebrated wit, upuu that devoured the way in his usual style. We must very rare spectacle, a dead ass; it is pleasanter to confess to some astonishment, however, upon being contemplate him living. We would, if we could, joined at a union of two roads by a young fellow obtain a reversion of the general decree which in a light cart drawn by a donkey, who retained denounces Donkey as obstinate and stupid, because his position at our side the remainder of the way, he is more long-suffering and patient than his without any extraordinary exertion. The ass was brother brutes; and would arouse mankind to a apparelled in new harness, which he had gained sense of his true value, because we believe that if at a late exhibition of asses, or " donkey show," his merit were rightly appreciated, both donkey in the neighbourhood, got up by a gentleman, a and driver would be far the better for it. Centuries country philanthropist, with a view to promote the of oppression and undeserved contempt have brocultivation and good treatment of asses, by award- ken the spirit of the former and abated his powers, ing a prize of some value to the poor man who, but they have perfected his patience; and it may keeping no other steed, could produce the best be well, in attempting the improvement of his race donkey. We heard with pleasure that the emula- by the means of kindness above alluded to, or by tion excited by the prospect of such a premium had any other, to take a lesson from the unresenting produced the best effects; and that, besides the subject of our speculations, remembering that he winning donkey, to whom the adjudicators had is but an ass. allotted the prize, there were a considerable number of others deserving of " honourable mention,” and all evidencing in their appearance a vastly

THE LATE CENSUS. improved state of feeling in reference to dumb III.-VILLAGES, TOWNS, COUNTIES, AND ISLANDS. creatures, and a higher estimation of the donkey AFTER the number of families and houses, the character especially, in the neighbourhood. next point to be considered is their distribution

This circumstance, by the way, reminds us of over the surface of the country. The dwellings of another proof of donkey intelligence which has the people are either isolated or arranged in imcome under our notice. A gentleman, desirous of mediate contiguity. The isolated habitations are amusing his cottage tenants (though many of our variously huts, cottages, farm-houses, villas, halls, readers will think that recreations of a far healthier palaces, castles, inns, or public institutions. They order might have been provided for them), set up have an endlessly diversified appearance and site, for competition, in what is termed a donkey race, on the sides of hills, the flats of valleys, or the the prize of a goose and trimmings. By a humane banks of streams, embosomed with foliage, inclosed regulation, neither whip nor spur was allowed to with gardens, orchards, and paddocks, or surthe riders, not one of whom rode his own donkey ; rounded with wild heath and moorland. There and the prize was to be awarded to the owner of are aristocratic mansions, the Chatsworths, Castle

Howards and Blenheims, with flags unfurled, pro- marked them in the middle ages. Each," says Mr. claiming their owners to be in residence; the halls Laing, “is like a distinct island, or small nation, of the old gentry, each with its groves of elm or with its own way of living, ideas, laws, and interbeach, and colony of rooks; the country seats of ests, and having little or nothing in common with the "merchant princes," with carefully-tended the country population around it. The country lawns and flower-beds; the homesteads of substan- girl's basket is opened at the town gate, to see if tial yeomen, with jasmine-clad trellis-work and well- it contains any bread, cheese, beer, or other articles filled stack-yards ; along with lonely mud-hovels in subject to town dues. The peasant's cart, loaded inland lanes, and solitary wood-cabins on the sea- with hay or straw, is half unloaded, or is probed shore. The associated habitations are often ar- with a long rod of iron by the city official, to disranged in rows along the high-roads, or they cluster cover goods which ought to have paid town dues. around centrally-situated spires and towers, or The city on the continent sits like a guard-ship form a complex and irregular aggregation, as if riding at anchor on the plain, keeping up a kind of the buildings had been tossed from the skies in a social existence of her own, shutting her gates at tempest, and had courts, alleys, lanes, and streets sunset, and having privileges and exactions which struck out in their midst as an after-thought. separate her from the main body of the populaThese connected or proximate dwellings constitute tion.” This system not only renders the two hamlets, villages, towns, boroughs, cities, and the classes more distinct, but antagonistic by its vexametropolis. The number of all the small groups tions, and those without the walls keep apart from of houses in Great Britain, answering to the idea the civilization within, as much by preference as of a “hamlet,” is not stated, but the number of necessity. There are tolls, indeed, collected in our places which have defined boundaries, and are market-places, but they are levied indiscriminately separately returned in the population tables, is upon those who occupy the ground, whether be17,150, to each of which, it may be assumed, there longing to town or country. Unlimited freedom of is a church or chapel, with an aggregation of intercourse, and great facilities to maintain it, con. families, forming a village.

tribute to draw the two populations together; and The towns of England and Wales are 580; of they are united by the operations of commerce, Scotland, 225; and of the Channel islands, 10; the interchange of intelligence, the ties of neighmaking a total for Great Britain of 815, of various bourhood and relationship: No inconsiderable magnitude, wealth, character, and social activity. number of those born in the towns settle in the They are either market-towns, county-towns, or country, and a very large proportion of those born cities, sea-ports, watering-places, or the seats of in the country migrate to the towns. manufacturing, mining, and trading pursuits. London exhibits the representation of the village Some are of old establishment, and are known to in its churches and chapels, of the town in its historic fame, as Canterbury, York, and Chester. markets, of the county-town in its courts of justice, Others are of comparatively modern origin, and of the sea-ports in its tidal river, of the sites of were mere villages or small places a century ago, artisanship in its varied inanufacture, and has in but have acquired extraordinary importance with addition, the seat of the legislature, the offices of the development of industry, as Manchester, Bir- government, and the palace of the sovereign, with mingham, and Sheffield. There is a much larger the head-quarters of the learned professions and proportion of towus in Scotland than in England, scientific bodies. It extends over an area of 78,029 but they are of smaller size, containing only an acres, on both sides of the Thames, into three average population of 6654, while to each English counties, and contained within these limits, on the town there is an average of 15,501.

day the Census was taken, a population of two milThe population in the 815 towns amounted to lions, three hundred and sixty-two thousand, two 10,556,288, standing on an area of 3164 square hundred and thirty-six. This is an increasc in miles. The remainder of the people, or the inhabit. half a century, or since 1801, of 1,403,373, and ants of the isolated houses, hamlets, villages, and the increase is continually progressing. The mesmall places without markets, was 10,403,189. tropolis comprises the largest congregate mass of Thus, at the present era, there is so little difference human life, power, opulence, enterprise, and mein numbers between the town and country popula. chanic skill, that ever has existed in the history of tions of Great Britain, that they may be considered mankind. Some of the capitals of antiquity covered equal. But how widely they differ in density! In a much wider area, but occupied it far more loosely, the towns there were 5.2 persons to an acre, and and the number of their inhabitants has been enor3337 persons to a square mile: in the country mously over-estimated. Excepting architecture, there were 5:3 acres to a person, and but 120 sculpture, and the fine arts, in every other point persons to a square mile. The distinction between London bears away the palm, both from modern town and country dwellers is far less marked with rivals and the cities of the antique. us than in many parts of the continent. The walls The results of the half-century may be given of the towns were either destroyed in the civil with reference to several classes of towns. wars, or remain in fragments, preserved as curious relics of a by-gone age; the gates, by which alone Twenty-six geaports, excluding Lonthey could be entered, have shared the same fate;

don, namely, Liverpool, Hull, Bris

tol, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Sunder. the ancient moats have disappeared, or are only land, Typemouth and North Shields, to be traced by the antiquary; while no battle

South Shields, Hartlepool, Whitby,

Scarborough, Birkenhead, Goole, mented lines of stone have been drawn round the

King's - Lynn, Grimsby, Whiteextended or the new populations. It is otherwise haven, Yarmouth, Dover, Ports

mouth, Plymouth, Southampton, in France and Germany, where the towns maintain

Poole, Cardiff, Swansea, Greenock, largely the defensive aspect and jealous spirit which Leith, and Port Glasgow

428,767 . . 1,267,236






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Fifteen watering-places : inland, Chel

and the “liberties” of a few other districts. They tenham, Bath, Leamington, Tun.

are finally confined in counties, the largest of the bridge Wells; on the coast, Brigh

territorial divisions. Counties in England vary in ton, Ramsgate, Margate, Worthing, Weymouth, Scarborough, Ryde,

extent from an area of 5983 square miles in YorkCowes, lifracombe, Dover, and

shire to 150 in Rutland; in Wales, from 947 in Torquay

78,766. 278,930 Four towns engaged chiefly in the

Caermarthenshire to 289 in Flint; in Scotland, from manufacture of stockings : Notting;

4256 in Inverness to 46 in Clackmannan. Excludham, Leicester, Loughborough, and Hinckley.



ing the metropolitan shires, the greatest proportion Three, in glove-making : Worcester,

of persons to a square mile was, in England, 1064 Woodstock, and Yeovil

14,797 Two, in shoe-making : Northampton

34,775 in Lancashire, 539 in Warwickshire, 535 in Stafand Wellingborough

10,193 31,718 fordshire, and 496 in the West Riding of York: the Fifteen, in woollen manufactures :

least was 146 in Lincolnshire, 125 in Cumberland, Leeds, Bradford, Halifax, Haddersfield, Wakefield, Rochdale, Stroud,

102 in the North Riding of York, and 77 in WestBradford (Wilts), Trowbridge, Wit

moreland. The greatest proportion in Wales was ney, Kendal, Kidderminster, Kil. marnock, Galashiels, and Hawick, 169,495 507,886

268 in Glamorgan; the least, 58 in Radnor. In One, in woollen and silk : Norwich 36,238

68,195 Scotland, the proportion of persons to a square Five, in silk manufactures : Coventry,

mile was 687 in the county of Renfrew, 653 in Macclesfield, Derby, Spitalfields, and Bethnal Green

74,880 227,622 that of Edinburgh, 537 in Lanark, 27 in Argyle, Two, in making straw-plait : Laton

26 in Ross and Cromarty, 23 in Inverness, and and Dunstable.

3,153 14,237 14 in Sutherland. Fourteen, in cotton goods : Manches:

The general result was, in ter and Salford, Preston, Bury,

England, 332 persons and 60 inhabited houses Burton, Oldham, Ashton, Black

to a square mile; in Wales, 135 persons and burn, Stockport, Chorley, Wigan, Carlisle, Belper, Paisley, and Glas

27 houses; in Scotland, 92 persons and 12

319,072 1,220,104 houses. One, in poiteries : Stoke-upon-Trent: 23,278

81,027 Three, in manufacture of salt: North

The greatest density of population in England wich, Nantwich, and Droit wich 6,611

9,955 was found in the east London registration district, Seven, in copper and tin works : Hel

St. Botolph and Cripplegate, where it was in the stone, Camborne, Redruth, St. Austel, Illogan, Gwennap, and St.

proportion of 185,751 persons on the square mile; Just

23,970 60,200 the least density was eighteen on the same area, Eight, in coal mines : Newcastle-uponTyne, North Shields, South Shields,

in the district of Bellingham, Northumberland. Tynemouth, Sunderland, Swansea,

Upon the hypothesis of equal distribution, the Wolverhampton, and Chesterfield. 127,196 371,633 Seven, in iron works : Merthyr Tyd

people were on an average one hundred and eight vil, Tredegar, Rotherham, Wolver

yards asunder, and their houses at the mean dishampton," Walsall, Dudley, and

tance of two hundred and fifty-two yards apart. Chesterfield

68,784 Two, in hardware manufacture : Bir:

268,201 Proximity of population is one important social mingham and Sheffield

116,425 368,151 element, influencing the extent, intimacy, and The greatest increase has been in the towns in number of social relations. Half a century ago, a

messenger having to deliver a thousand letters at which straw-plait, cotton, pottery, and iron, are manufactured. The largest English towns, which other, would have had to travel 206 miles. Since

a thousand houses of average distance from each have a population of a hundred

thousand and up: that period, the land has become nearly twice as wards, within their municipal limits, together with full; the separation has lessened; the proximity has the number of inhabited houses in them, are in

increased; and order as follows:

a messenger on the same errand in 1851 would only have had to compass 143

Pop. Liverpool

54,310 Manchester and Salford

62,178 367,232 Irregularly distributed around the shores of Birmingham

45,844 232,841 Leeds


Great Britain, or in the British seas, there are up

172,270 Bristol

20,873 137,328 wards of five hundred islands, exclusive of the Sheffield

27,099 135,310" Irish main and its adjacent islets. Some are bare Bradford (York).

19,002 103,378

or scantily.covered rocks, inhabited by sea-fowl, Newcastle upon Tyne, Hull, Stoke upon_Trent, visited by fishermen in their boats, and tenanted Brighton, and Portsmouth, rank next. Let us by shepherds in summer, while many have no glance for a moment at by-gone times. Bristol is human occupants. They range from Jersey, latithe only place in the above list which has any im. tude 49° 13', through eleven degrees north to portance of ancient date. Liverpool, under the Unst in the Shetlands, latitude 60° 49', where the Tudors, was “a chapelry or hamlet," with a few day of the summer solstice is three hours longer fishing-smacks and trading-barks, “a castalet," than in Jersey, while at Jersey it is longer than and "a stone house" belonging to the "erle of in Italy: East and west, the purely British isles Darbe.” Birmingham had no market a century extend from Lowestoft Ness, 1° 46' E. long. on the and a half ago, Manchester, Leeds, and Sheffield coast of Suffolk, to St. Kilda, 8° 35' w. long., the were names unknown to fame when those of Rye, most westerly of the Hebrides. These limits are Winchelsea, and the other cinque ports, were cele- ten degrees of longitude from each other; and brated.

hence the sun rises and sets thirty-nine minutes The towns and villages of England are included sooner to the Suffolk fishermen than to the bird. generally in "hundreds," minor divisions of the catchers of St. Kilda. Of the above-stated number soil, to which the “wapentakes” of Yorkshire and of islands, upwards of two hundred are comprised Lincolnshire correspond : the "wards” of North in the Hebrides, more than one hundred belong umberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Dur- to the Shetlands, sixty-seven to the Orkneys, å ham: the " lathes” of Kent, the “ rapes" of Sussex, considerable number to the Scilly group, and


375,955 miles.


seventeen to the Staples, or Fern islands, off made to his worldly affairs, and he became too much the coast of Northumberland. But of the whole exhausted to converse. number, those with inhabitants, found and dis- “In the evening, the same members of his family tinguished by the enumerators on the morning being present, he was asked whether he felt happy. of March 31, 185), amounted to one hundred Perfectly,' was his reply,“ perfectly happy! The Lord and seventy-five, of which eighty-one belonged knoweth them that are his." to the Hebrides, twenty-eight to the Orkneys, than once, "The calmest man there!— I could not have

“Dr. Young, who was present, said afterwards, more twenty-seven to the Shetlands, six

to the Scilly, conceived'it. I have been by hundreds of death-beds, and six to the Channel islands. The gross in and never saw anything like it. Not a look—not a sular population, as it may be called, amounted tone! and they seemed to have loved him so !' to 423,120, of which the greatest proportions were “ In the course of the following day he said to his as follows:

wife, 'Oh, M- I have had during this illness such

an insight into the eternal world, that death seems a Anglesey


mere transition. I believe heaven to be only an expanJersey Isle of Man (Mainland)

52,344 sion of that intense happiness which I am now enjoying Isle of Wight.

50,320 in communion with God. Oh, what a bauble is this Guernsey Lewis and part of Harris

22,918 world! what a mere bubble to be caring about!' Skye (Mainland)

21,528 “Early on Friday morning, the 19th, Mr. R. acciShetland (Mainland)

20,936 dentally set the bed on fire whilst giving his patient Orkney (Mainland)

16,668 Islay, Argyleshire'.


some barley-water, and the whole furniture above his

head was instantly in a blaze; but, happily, it was Numbers dwindle to hundreds, tens, eights, and soon extinguished by the exertions of Mr. R., and sir fives, down to units. Barry island, Glamorgan- M. Blakeston, who was then in the room. Meanshire, had four inhabitants ; Chapel, Lancashire, while the bishop was perfectly calm and placid, and did three ; Calne, Argyleshire, two; Inchcolm, off the not speak or move a muscle." When the fire was put west of Fife, one, a farm-labourer, having charge of ont, he said, You should never hold a candle inside a thirty acres of land ; and Little Papa, one of the bed; it should be put on a table near it.' To Dr. Young, Shetsands, one, a woman!!. We should like to been agitated by the frightful accident, he replied, “No;

who inquired on coming into the room if he had not say something about this solitary lady--the queen I am in God's hands; it would not certainly have been of the rock-but the tables are provokingly silent

a pleasant death; but if it were His will that I should upon the subject, and so must we be.

die so, what have I to say? I cannot help myself. Nothing can happen to me without God's permission.' Dr. Young immediately felt his pulse, and declared

that not the slightest alteration in it had been occaMARK THE END OF THE UPRIGHT. sioned by this strange and alarming occurrence. Every shortly after having been appointed bishop of the dioHe always chose a passage of the chapter on which to DR. SHIRLEY, the subject of the following sketch, morning he had a chapter from the bible read to him,

and afterwards a prayer offered up suitable to his state. cese of Sodor and Man, was, while travelling, attacked make a short practical comment. When Mrs. Shirley by an illness, which, without at first seeming very dangerous, speedily assumed a fatal aspect. The subjoined eighteenth verse, and repeated, “Yes, perfect love cast

was reading to him 1 John iv., he stopped her at the extract from his biography will show what “perfect eth out fear. He that feareth is not made perfect in peace” attended the closing scene of his eminently love. In the course of the afternoon he illustrated the holy and useful life. * The bishop had earnestly requested his wife not to question whether he was happy or comfortable, “Yes,

meaning of the passage by saying, in answer to her conceal the result of the consultation, adding, “I should I am quite content to live or die. I am in perfect wish to know it, whatever it may be.' Accordingly,


Yes, perfect love casteth out fear. I have no when sufficiently recovered from the dreadful shock the little scruples; a child who loves its father is not physicians' report had been decidedly unfavourable) to always thinking whether he is offending. He does his be able to speak, Mrs. Shirley, accompanied by her son, best to please him, and feels assured of his love. At went

into the room, and asked if she should read to him another time, he exemplified the same text thus to a chapter from the Bible. John xiv. was proposed; Dr. Young; on a female servant's entering the room, he when he immediately said, Why do you choose that addressed her in terms of great kindness; when she chapter ? Walter read it to ine yesterday... It was left it he said, 'I cannot treat servants as some people then changed to 2 Cor. v. He listened with great do; I could not bear to be served with fear; where attention, repeating after his wife parts that particu- there is fear there is no love. Perfect love casteth out larly struck him; especially the fourteenth verse, For

fear.' the love of Christ constraineth us,' which he dwelt on

“ An expression of individual tenderness and love with great emphasis; making, however, no remarks

was also directed to all around, as he evidently bade excepting on the vividness and earnestness of feeling them each farewell in his heart. He also gave his displayed by the apostle in that chapter, so different blessing to one or two present, and again sent affecfrom our own lukewarmness. Prayer was then offered tionate messages to friends. His last conscious act up, his wife and son both kneeling by his bedside; after which he was told that the chapter and prayer had his head. Soon after he became quite insensible whilst

was to reprove his wife for weeping, by shaking his case in view, and that the fatal termination of his ill. she was endeavouring to repeat to him Cowper's hymn, ness was but too probable. The look of earnestness

beginningwhich he turned on his wife and son can never be for.

" " To Jesus, the crown of my hope, gotten by them; but he said nothing, and showed no

My soul is in haste to be gone:' signs whatever of emotion, excepting that a slight perspiration appeared on his forehead. In about a minute and at eight o'clock A.M., 21st April, 1847, after three after he said, “What a very happy and blessed life I deep sighs, he exchanged time for eternity.”-Memoir have had!' After this, some necessary allusions were of Bishop Shirley.



No. 350 150


4. New York

THE NEWSPAPER PRESS OF THE UNITED STATES.- 1 SUBTERRANEAN RAILROAD.-The projected railway The following facts and figures are from the Census Tables. under London, from the lower end of the Edgware-road to They allude to the 1st of June, 1850.

the King's-cross, will, for the most part, run beneath the No. Copies Printed New-road. The length will be less than two miles and

Annually. Daylies

a half. There will be stations at very short distances,

750,000 235,000,000 Tri-Weeklies :

75,000 11,000,000

say at every quarter of a mile; and it is intended that the Semi-Weeklies 125 80,000 8,320,000

charges shall be so moderate, that the omnibuses will be Weeklies


2,875,000 149,500,000 superseded. The charge for the whole distance in the Semi-Monthlies

800,000 7,200,000 first-class will be only 2d. Every carriage will be abunMonthlies

100 900,000

10,800,000 dantly lighted. Quarterlies

25 20,000


CORPORAL PUNISIMENTS IN THE ARXY.-A return 2800 5,000,000 - 422,600,000 to the House of Commons has been printed of the number Of these, 424 papers were published in the New England in each of the years 1847 to 1852 inclusive, specifying the

of persons flogged in the army of Great Britain and Ireland States, 876 in the Middle

States, 716 in the Southern, and offence, the regiment, the place of station, the sentence, 784 in the Western States. Average circulation in the and the number of lashes inflicted. It appears that, in United States, 1785. There is one publication for every 1847, the number of corps in which no punishment took 7161 free inhabitants in the United States and terri- place was 97; and in 23 corps soldiers were punished, and tories.

the number of men punished was 42. No return had been POPULATION OF THE PRINCIPAL CITIES.-We com- received from 12 corps. In 1848, no punishment occurred pile from Weber's Volks Kalender (People's Almanac) for in 82 corps, and punishment in 35: the number of men 1853-published annually at Leipsic--the following table punished was 94.* In 1849, there were 93 corps without of the population of the largest cities in Europe and North punishment, and punishment in 32 : the number of men America. As the Germans are proverbially accurate in punished was 55. In 1850, no punishments occurred in their statistical statements, it is to be presumed that this 90 corps, and punishments in 37: the number of met table may be relied upon as generally correct; though, punished was 58. In 1851, there were no punishments in having been compiled since the British Census of 1851, 104 corps, and punishments in 28: the number punished some variations are observable.

was 58. While last year there were no punishments in 101 1. London 2,362,236 | 33. Venice

126,768 corps, and punishments in 31 : the number of men punish2. Paris. 1,053,262 34. Pesth

125,000 ed was 45. For the last two years full returns were re3. Constantinoplo 786,990 35. Prague

124,181 ceived, but in other years returns had not been received. 622,766 36. Barcelona 120,000 The number of lashes inflicted was generally 50; in some 5. St. Petersburg 478,437 37. Genoa

120,000 6. Vienna 477,846 38. Cincinnati


cases 25. The offences range from disgraceful conduct, 7. Berlin

41,931 39. New Orleans 116,348 making away with necessaries, violence to superiors, and 8. Naples 416,475 40, Ghent

112,410 insubordination. Last year only two were flogged for 9. Philadelphia 409,354 | 41. Munich

106,776 drunkeuness, and one for stealing from a comrade. 10. Liverpool 384,263 42. Breslau

104,000 11. Glasgow 367,800 43. Florence

102,154 RAILWAY ACCIDENTS. The following parnllel view of 12. Moscow 350,000 44. Rouen

100,265 the relative rate of railway accidents between Great Britain 13. Manchester 296,000 45. Belfast

99,660 and America will show that, numerous as are those that 14. Madrid 260,000 46. Cologne

92,214 15. Dublin 254,850 47. Dresden


take place in our own country, they are vastly exceeded by 16. Lyons 249,325 48, Stockholm

90,823 those occurring across the Atlantic. During the year 17. Lisbon

241,500 49. Rotterdam 90,000 1852, of 89,135,729 railway passengers in Great Britain, 18. Amsterdam 222,800 50, Antwerp

88,800 216 were killed, and 486 injured. During the same year, 19. Harana 200,000 51. Cork

86,485 in the state of New York, of 7,440,653 passengers, 248 20. Marseilles 195,257 | 52. Liege


were killed, and 269 injured. 21. Baltimore 189,054 53. Bologna

75,100 22. Palermo 180,000 54. Leghorn

74,530 TIE STRAW PAPER.-All our printing and writing 23. Rome 172,382 55. Trieste


papers, with the exception of coarser qualities of printing, 24. Warsaw

162,597 56. Konigsberg 70,198 25. Leeds 152,000 57. The Hague 66,000

for which cotton and other waste is sometimes used, have 26. Milan 151,438 58. Leipsic

65,370 hitherto been made from old rags. The supply of material 27. Hamburg 148,754 59. Oporto

62,000 is necessarily limited, and the price has lately increased. 136,788 60. Malaga

60,000 Within the past ten years we have known a difference of 29. Brussels 136,208 61. Dantzio


50 per cent. in the value of rags. A plan was proposed 30. Turin 135,000 62. Frankfort

57,550 31. Copenhagen 133,140 63. Magdeburg

some years since for the manufacture of paper from straw;

56,692 32. Bordeaux 130,927 1 64. Bremen


but the article produced was extremely brittle. A large St. Paul's CATHEDRAL-The church stands on 2 prevented their general employment. A firm in town

quantity of packing papers was made, but the reason stated acres 16 perches of ground, and the iron balustrades by have lately advertised a paper made from straw for writing which it is surrounded stand on a dwarf stone wall

, having purposes. It is remarkably chcap, and although without seven gates ; the balustrades are 5 feet 6 inches high, and that uniform appearance which we meet in good post 2500 in number ; they are among the first specimens of papers, yet the finish of the surface is admirable. Soine that article manufactured in this country, and weigh, it is gentlemen who have used it for a short time prefer it to said, no less than 200 tons 81 lb.! They cost the enormous

fine post of the ordinary make ; and from the nature of the sum of 11,2021., whereas the entire building itself cost only paper and the quality of the surface, we think that it is 747,9641.-Daily Paper.

inore useful for those who use steel pens than the ordinary FLOW OF FRESH WATER INTO THE THIAMES.It descriptions of writing paper. The importance of this appears, from the evidence before the committee on the application can only be known to persons who have expewater supply of the metropolis, that the immense volume rienced the famine for old rags.—The Expositor. of fresh water derived from the area of the drainage of the COPPER AND COFFEE-HOUSES.— The first mention of Thames, which comes over Teddington lock and mixes with coffee in our statute books is in 1660 (12 Car. c. 24), when the water below, is calculated at 800,000,000 gallons a day, or about sixteen square miles of water ninety feet deep.

a duty of 4d. was laid upon every gallon of coffee made and

sold, to be paid by the maker. The statute 15 Car. II. C. New VIEW OF AN OLD Truty.-A modern philoso. 11, s. 13, directs that all coffee-houses, should be licensed at pher, taking the motion of the earth on its axis at 17 miles the general quarter-sessions. In 1675, Charles the Second a second, says that if you take off your hat in the street to issued a proclamation to shut up the coffee-houses, but in bow to a friend, you go seventeen miles barehcaded with a few days suspended the proclamation by a second. They out taking cold.

were charged with being seminaries of sedition.

29. Boston

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