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every village, and the fearful truth burst on her Jaspar, were by his side in an instant, with their as she saw the blazing valleys. Renee tried to hunting-knives and rifles. Young Constant told pray, but she could only utter, “ Lord, be merci. them, in a few hurried words, how he and his comful!"
-a prayer most fitting for this world at all panion had found the pass of Susa guarded by times, and especially then, for it was the bloody Piedmontese soldiers, whose orders were to turn Easter of 1655. On that morning, about the time back all travellers ; how, in returning by the way the disciples came to the sepulchre, " early while of Saint Jovianno, they heard the uproar of it was yet dark,” a preconcerted signal flashed from slaughter, and saw the flames burst out along the the old church tower of Saint Mary, in the citadel valleys; how they fought their way through two of La Torre, and Pienaza's troops, distributed in burning hamlets, and sent the alarm across the every commune, village, and hamlet, rose on the hills, that all who could wield a weapon might people and homes that sheltered them, and one of hasten to the Pra del Torre, on which it was known the most treacherous and cruel massacres on re- the pikemen and halberdiers were advancing, as the cord devastated the Waldensian country*, key of the mountain country, and now the last hold
Down the rocks, and through the vineyards, of the Vaudois. There were woe and horror in the Renee ran to tell her terrible discovery. Old Gaston Shepherd's-rest that morning, as fugitives from all stood in his cottage-porch, to see the sun rise over the valleys poured in. Some came in the silence crag and glacier, as he had seen it for almost eighty of despair ; some uttered frantic cries for wives and years. In every dwelling the people were prepar- children, for aged parents and young sisters; and ing for church; but at her report, young and old all came with tales that seemed enough to make climbed as high as they could, and saw through the old rocks rise in vengeance; for there was the brightening day in all directions, nothing but no form of crime that had not been done in the burning villages. Readers, they at least saw not valleys. the horrors that made the pen drop from Leger's “ Friends !" cried Victor, and his young voice hand, when collecting evidence to lay before the rang clear above the tumult; “ there is a witness Christian Princes; that made hard captains, used on high who sees our wrongs this day, and will to battles and sieges, lay down their commissions avenge them; but for the sake of the innocent and swear that they would never again serve blood shed, and for our mountain country, arm and where priests or their tools commanded. Fathers follow me.' and mothers! brothers and sisters ! to whom our The desperate men wanted but a leader. In a tale may come, by the hearths of British house- moment they had seized on every thing that could holds, these things are matter of history, and we be turned to a weapon-axes, crow-bars, instru. will not enter into the details which, according to a ments of husbandry; and those who could find no writer of the period,“ harrowed up men's hearts better, broke down branches from the chestnut everywhere but in Rome.” The destruction was trees. Then came the strong men of the mountains, so wide, the perfidy so unexampled, that the men wood-cutters, and charcoal-burners from the pine of the Shepherd's-rest came down from that sight forests, shepherds from the heaths, hunters from stunned and stupified, all but Humbert Renaud, the moors, and fiercest of them all, the herdsmen of who flew to the cottage for his arms. At the same Angrogna, who came down like wild creatures from instant, the signal horns were heard sounding their summer huts in the upland pastures, where throughout the hills. Hunters and shepherds they had seen the flames of their own village. were gathering from their mountain homes ; fugi. Scenes of war and slaughter are what we would tives from the valleys were rallying; and down that not willingly bring before the reader's mind; on green dell rushed a band of haggard men, with the contrary, we fervently desire that the hour may traces of blood and fire on hair and garments, one come when peace, like the gentle dove, shall settle of whom shouted : “ Arm, brothers ! arm!'
, and permanently amongst the children of men ; but our hurry down to the pass of the Pra ; 'tis the only duty, following the stream of history on this occachance now for us and ours;" and as he spoke sion, is to record facts. they knew him to be Victor Constant. The men Victor approached Renee, who leant against the of the valley, led by Humbert and his brother rock." Listen," he said, speaking low, for they
had great trust in each other. "Gather the women
and children as quickly as you can, and come down * The reader is referred to Monastier's “History of the Vandois," "Sketches of the Waldenses," " The Israel of the
to us. They could reach this place, though the Alps," Gillies". "Vaudois Church," and other works, for a way is long across the mountains. Bid them bring description of the enormities practised by the Roman Catholic all the provisions and ammunition they can collect, allow
these outrages to remain in oblivion ; but while we see it for we are miserably provided to stand a siege." openly announced in leading Romish journals that they wait “ It is God's cause, brother,” said Renee; fear but the opportunity to put down Protestantism by persecution: not for us, but trust in Him, and do valiantly as a dungeon, (merely for reading the scriptures with their neigh our dead father would have done. We will all be bours,) and making offences against
religion capital, it is our with you before the evening falls.". duty to recall to remembrance the truthful records of history, that we may know how to shape our own course as a nation.
The brother and sister parted with the grasp of In reading the History of the Vaudois the book may well drop each other's hand and words of calm courage, as from the hand, when we read of peaceable men, women, and the peasant troop poured down the mountain, and - imprisoned in dungeons, driven from hearth and home, and not a man but old Gaston was left in the Shepherd'sfaith. We believe that many generous English
Roman Catho. rest. Fathers, husbands, brothers, all were gone, lics protest as heartily as ourselves against such cruelties; but and none had sought to detain them. In that hour in doing so,
they are inconsistent with the tenets of their own of trial, the strength of the mountain hearts and leaders, and compel us to view them as at variance with the faith was proved, and the parting watchword was, teachings of their church, and as men who are better than
“ Stand fast for God and us."
Meanwhile, Louisin had wondered what detained and half granite, but known to be older than any Renee. She saw strange people pass, and heard university in Europe; a church of pine logs, erectconfused sounds from the valley. Willingly would ed when Claude was bishop of Turin, in the eighth she have gone to learn what they meant; but old century; and a cemetery, which contained inscripMarietta, besides her Alpine superstition, which tions in the old Romance languages. The Romish forbade leaving the dead alone, was by this time so peasantry had a prejudice against settling in that distracted with terror, that she could neither move valley. The preaching friars passed by it, and herself nor let Louisin go, and clung to the Vaudois families preferred a less secluded situation ; young girl's clothes, weeping, praying, and even but the quiet that lay on its guardian rocks made offering to turn a Vaudois on the spot if she would old and weary people, with whom life had gone only stay.
hard, go there to spend the remnant of their days, * Dear Marietta," said Louisin, “I will not go, beside the school of the Barbes. Vineyards, fields, and I don't want you to turn a Vaudois, except you and antiquated cottages surrounded that edifice. know our faith and believe it. Meanwhile, you Barbes and all were maintained by the labour of and I may say the Lord's prayer ; what your people their own hands, but in peaceful ages the inhabitcall the pater-noster.”
ants were few. Now all who by chance or speed That was the only ground on which their souls escaped from the neighbouring valleys, fled for could meet;
the prayer in whose simple wisdom refuge to the Pra; some sore wounded, some all churches have agreed and all ages found utter- carrying disabled friends or young children, and ance. Slowly they repeated each petition; the many maddened by the sights they had seen. calm voice of the intelligent girl (mingling with To protect this miserable remnant, as well as keep that of the old and terror-stricken woman. Neither their own hamlets safe, was the object of the mounobserved, in the growing tumult without, that one tain band. They knew that the soldiers would be had entered and bent over the dead.
on them as soon as their wicked work was done, Gueslin Rosa. The woe he would not believe in for the priests had been heard proclaiming among had come, but the fountains of his grief seemed them that it was Pienaza's intention to destroy the frozen. He went down unperceived, took his heretics utterly. Against the overwhelming force father's arms from the mantelpiece of the great they could have no chance without repairing the chamber, where he had kept them bright for many bastion on the Angrogna slope. Victor saw this, a year, and when Louisin saw him by her side he and in a moment took measures that might have was fastening them to his girdle. Marietta would done credit to an experienced general. He posted have cried out for instant explanation, but the sentinels from his own troop on the surrounding man's calm face silenced her.
rocks, to look out for the enemy and direct the fu"They have burned the villages and are march- gitives; while by his example and exhortations, he ing on the mountains. Louisin, I am going to set every hand that could raise stones or carry fight for your people and our valley at the pass of earth to work on the bastion. The evil times had the Pra.' Lay my mother among the vines and scattered the Barbes on various missions, and come quickly to us, for there is no safety here." many were in the prisons of Turin; only two re
Once more he stooped, kissed the pale, cold brow mained in the school. They were brothers and of his departed parent, looked earnestly on Louisin, men of great learning, but they stood forth like and hurried down the mountain to Victor's com- true shepherds, praying aloud while they laboured pany.
with their people : "O Lord, make speed to help No one noticed him, for the haste of that gather- us, for there is none that fighteth for us but only ing was great. The signal fires and horns sum. thou, O God."* moned hands from every pass and ravine to swell Man, woman, and child were toiling on the the little army; men grey with seventy winters, bastion, when suddenly the sentinel above the pass boys who had not known fifteen ; and three hours' blew on his mountain horn a signal that the enemy rapid marching brought them to the Pra. were in sight.
The Pra del Torre is still a grassy valley, en- “Who will stand and keep the pass with me ?." circled by steep rocks from three to seven hundred cried Victor, as he sprung into the gorge. There feet in height. Their summits form a zone-like was speedily another by his side. “Is it you, Guesand rugged ridge between it and the surrounding lin ?” he cried. Alps; here shooting up in tall grey peaks, there “I will accompany you," said young Rosa ; scooped into huge hollows; but nowhere can a “ my mother is dead, and there is no one to miss human foot find entrance except in the direction me. of La Torre, where a mountain stream, swollen at His voice was drowned in a hoarse cheer of times to a torrent, shoots through a narrow gorge
“Saint Denis for ever!” as the French halberdiers in that rocky girdle, known as the Pass of the charged on the pass ; but with it mingled the rePra. On the Angrogna side, where the moun- port of the two young men’s rifles, followed by those tains retreat, leaving a wide glen between them, of Humbert and Carlo over their companions' the rocks for some hundred yards have a rough shoulders. For more than twenty minutes did zlope down which sure-footed men might make their the young men of the Shepherd's-rest thus keep way. At the period of our story this valley had five hundred halberdiers at bay, the four firing been the citadel of the Vaudois through ages of while Phillibert and Jaspar loaded the rifles. fear and fighting. The mountain people entrenched Only two abreast could enter the gorge, and they there in 1560, defied the whole power of France never allowed one to come within rifle range. and Savoy, and the ruins of their ponderous bastion There were not four better marksmen in the Alps. Were yet on the rocky slope. The ancient school of the Barbes was there; a rustic edifice, half timber * These facts are in strict unison with history.
The balls which their adversaries fired from a dis- | families in full march, under the conduct of Pienee tance rang on the sheltering rocks and fell spent and Gaston. among them; but every bullet of theirs told It had been a weary and anxious day with the with deadly effect. At last the trumpet sounded mountain women, but they saw the signal fires from a parley, and an officer with a white flag in his the Pra, and knew that all was well
. They had hand advanced. It was a bold step, for the four laid Gueslin's mother, as he directed, among the rifles were levelled; but the young men, to their vines, with thanksgiving for the light that rose so surprise, at once recognised the very individual late on her darkness.
Louisin planted on the whom they had rescued from the precipice a month grave a young oak tree, which her people regarded before.
as an emblem of faith and immortality; then, with “ The noble Marquis Pienaza,” he cried, in a loud as many of their flocks as might be useful, with voice, “bids me say, that if you surrender, your their young children and household goods, carefully lives and properties will be respected. I have not gathered, they took their way down the mountain. forgotten the kindness of your family, however," he | The poor sheep and cows remaining, were turned added, in a deep whisper. - Never leave the pass out to find their food among the heaths and pasunguarded a moment, and look well to your bas- ture, where the Angrogna cattle went wild for tion. If you abandon it, there will not be a living many a year. The scattered homes were shut up, man left among you.''
and the men worked in the neighbouring forests, “Tell the marquis,” said Victor, commanding keeping guard, and hewing by turns for timber to his own surprise, “that we know him to be a base build huts, with which the valley was soon covered. and perjured traitor, as men of all future times will Ah! who shall sum up the amount of guilt in. call him, when the cruelty and bloodshed of this volved in a war like this, when violence and rapine day will be required at his hands; and tell him are let loose on an unoffending people, and all the also, that we will perish piecemeal where we happiness of domestic life broken up! Rome! stand, before he or his shall set foot within this Rome! thy transgressions are of scarlet dye! valley."
Day after day the attacks were renewed, but alThe officer made him an approving sign, and ways repelled ; the peasant warriors gained ground, said still louder as he retired :-"Since you will but it required incessant vigilance to guard the not accept the terms, you must abide the conse- exposed points; their ammunition too was scarce, quences.
and provisions very limited, and in this time of disHe was answered by a shout of defiance from the tress their bread was in common. Pienaza's troops mountain men, now ranged rank behind rank in having wasted the country, were now obliged to the pass. The French troops were preparing for bring their supplies from the plain of Piedmont. another attack, when the rest of the Vaudois, with Victor and his band were considering the possibility the old war-cry of their people, “Truth and the of surprising a convoy, when unexpected and sinmountains,” dashed forward. They were but a hand- gular assistance was given to their cause. ful compared with their enemies, but the valour of the hills and the might of faith were there; and the soldiers, thrown into confusion by their unexpected onset, gave way and fled along the rocky defiles, EDINBURGH FIFTY YEARS AGO. pursued by the peasant warriors almost to the LORD Cockburn, one of the few survivors of the plain.
period he describes, has thus picturesquely painted The poor Vaudois, grateful for their deliverance from the horrors to which the success of their the state of society in the Scottish metropolis at opponents would have exposed them, gave God the commencement of the present century : – thanks for their signal triumphs, while they The society of Edinburgh was not that of a strengthened their bastion-a mound so broad and provincial town, and cannot be judged of by any high that it was visible at Lucerna. They also such standard. It was metropolitan. Trade or agreed among themselves that they should have manufactures have, fortunately, never marked this two stout captains; and by common consent Victor city for their own. But it is honoured by the prewas appointed to the command of the pass, and sence of a college famous throughout the world ; Humbert to that of the bastion.
and from which the world has been supplied with In making war on the Waldenses, perfidy was many of the distinguished men who have shone in generally relied on rather than military tactics. it. It is the seat of the supreme courts of justice, Pienaza was no general, and his ruffianly troops and of the annual convocation of the church were by no means remarkable for courage. They formerly no small matter—and of almost all the did not care to face the mountain marksmen among government offices and influence. At the period their native rocks. The glen was accordingly soon I am referring to, this combination of quiet with cleared of the Savoyards, while Count Saint Denis aristocracy, made it the resort, to a far greater contented himself with rallying the balberdiers extent than it is now, of the families of the and leading them off in good order. Weary and gentry, who used to leave their country resi. defeated, the soldiers retired to bivouac on the dences and enjoy the pleasures which their prebanks of the Pélice. Masters now of the valley's sence tended to promote. Many of the curious vicinity, Victor and Humbert planted sentinels characters and habits of the preceding age, the throughout the glen and the defiles, kindled signal last purely Scotch age that Scotland was destined fires along the foot of the mountains ; and though to see, still lingered among us. Several were then the path to the Shepherd's-rest had not been to be met with who had seen the Pretender, with threatened, Victor was right glad when he went his court and his wild followers, in the palace of up with a small escort at sunset to meet the hill Holyrood, Almost the whole official state, as
settled at the Union, survived ; and all graced the operation of the commercial principle which tempts capital, unconscious of the economical scythe which all superiority to try its fortune in the greatest has since mowed it down. All our nobility had accessible market, is perhaps irresistible ; but anynot then fled. A few had sense not to feel degrad- thing is surely to be lamented which annihilates ed by being happy at home. The old town was local intellect. not quite deserted. Many of our principal people According to the modern rate of travelling, still dignified its picturesque recesses and historical the capitals of Scotland and of England were mansions, and were dignified by them. The closing then about 2400 miles asunder. Edinburgh was of the continent sent many excellent English still more distant in its style and habits. It families and youth among us, for education and had its own independent tastes, and ideas, and for pleasure. The war brightened us with uni- pursuits. Enough of the generation that was forms, and strangers, and shows.
retiring survived to cast an antiquarian air over Over all this there was diffused the influence the city; and the generation that was advancing of a greater number of persons attached to litera- was still a Scotch production. Its character may ture and science, some as their calling and some be estimated by the names I have mentioned ; and for pleasure, than could be found, in proportion to by the fact that the genius of Scott and of Jeffrey the popnlation, in any other city in the empire. had made it the seat at once of the most popular Within a few years, including the period I am poetry and the most brilliant criticism that then speaking of, the college contained Principal Ro- existed. This city has advantages—including its bertson, Joseph Black, his successor Hope, the being the capital of Scotland, its old reputation, second Mnnro, James Gregory, John Robison, and its external beauties--which have enabled it, John Playfair, and Dugald Stewart; none of in a certain degree, to resist the centralizing tenthem confined monastically to their books, but dency, and have hitherto always supplied it with a all-except Robison, who was in bad health— succession of eminent men. But now that London partaking of enjoyment. Episcopacy gave us is at our door, how precarious is our hold of them, the Rev. Archibald Alison; and in Blair, Henry, and how many have we lost ! John Home, Sir Harry Moncriefl, and others, Presbytery made an excellent contribution, the more to be admired that it came from a church which eschews rank and boasts of poverty. The THE NAUTICAL ALMANAC FOR THE YEAR law-to which Edinburgh has always been so
1855. largely indebted-sent its copious supplies ; who, Though nearly two years have to elapse before the instead of disturbing good company by professional tradesman will enter the above date in his books, and matter-an offence with which the lawyers of every place are charged—were remarkably free it, yet in the work named at the head of this paper
we, or our survivors, inscribe our correspondence with from this vulgarity; and being trained to take issued from the press months ago--we have a synopsis difference of opinion easily, and to conduct discus of the important phenomena of the solar and stellar sions with forbearance, were, without undue obtru. universe for the year in question, beginning with the sion, the most cheerful people that were to be met first hour of January, 1855, and ending with that with. Lords Monboddo, Hailes, Glenlee, Meadow. which will usher in the January of 1856. It is surely bank, and Woodhouselee, all literary judges, and a wonderful effort of the human mind, and a fine illusRobert Blair, Henry Erskine, and Xenry Mac-tration of the stability of those divine laws which rekenzie, senior, were at the earlier end of this file; gulate the plan of our system, and the multitudinous Scott and Jeffrey at the later ; but including a orbs that glimmer out of the far-off depths of space, variety of valuable persons between these extremi- thus to have in hand an index to the celestial events ties
. Sir William Forbes, Sir James Hall, and of an epoch which will not be closed till the earth has reMr. Clerk, of Eldin,
represented a class of country volved upwards of a thousand times upon its axis, and has gentlemen cultivating learning on its own account. the central luminary; a register of right ascensions,
more than twice accomplished its mighty course around And there were several who, like the founder of declinations, eclipses, occultations, transits and transits the Huttonian theory, selected this city for their of shadows, with lunar distances, calculated in their residence solely from the consideration in which occurrence to the minutest fractions of time; a detail science and letters were here held, and the facili- of the positions of sun, moon, and planets, satellites ties, or rather the temptations, presented for their and stars, as they will be at swiftly recurring intervals prosecution. Philosophy had become indigenous of the annual cycle referred to, nicely appreciated to in the place, and all classes, even in their gayest fractions of a second of space. Thus, a line of figures hours, were proud of the presence of its cultivators. in this production reduced to writing is to the effect, Thus learning was improved by society, and society that dating three years forward from last Christmasby learning. And, unless when party spirit inter- eve, Geminorum, a star of the sixth magnitude in fered, which at one time, however, it did
frequently the constellation of the Twins, will be occulted or hid and bitterly, perfect harmony, and indeed lively by the body of the moon to the watcher at Greenwich, cordiality, prevailed.
the exact times of disappearance and reappearance for And all this was still a Scotch scene. The
that place being registered, the whole phenomenon whole country had not begun to be absorbed in transpiring in fifty-five minutes, while the inhabi!! the ocean of London. There were still little great ing another line in the same way, the information
tants are enjoying their midnight slumbers. Treatplaces-places with attractions quite sufficient to
runs as follows, that on June 21, 1855, at nine o'clock retain men of talent or learning
in their comfort- P.M. for Greenwich, the three first class stars, Regulus, able and respectable provincial positions; and Spica Virginis, and Antares, will be at certain speciwhich were dignified by the tastes and institutions fied angular distances from the apparent centre of the which learning and talent naturally rear. The moon, expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of space, Regulus being westward, Spica and Antares, the astronomer royal, Mr. Bliss, in 1765, his attaineastward of the luminary. We are told also, that ments and devotion to science procured for him the from the 3rd of January to the 24th of February, appointment to the important post ; and having ample 1855, the satellites of Jupiter will not be visible, owing knowledge, from his maritime experience, of the wants to the planet being too near to the sun. Some general of nautical astronomy, he speedily laid before the Board idea may be formed from these statements of the of Longitude the plan of the Nautical Almanac, to be extraordinary nature of the results combined in the compiled with the greatest care, and have its accuracy pages before us; and before concluding, we shall hope guaranteed by competent authority. The idea being to render their practical purpose sufficiently intelli- adopted, the publication commenced in 1767, its gible.
author remarking in the preface: “The Commissioners The volume to which we are referring, a bulky of Longitude, in pursuance of powers vested in them octavo of six hundred and fifty pages, is founded by a late act of parliament, present the public with upon the work performed at the Greenwich Ob- the Nautical Almanac and Astronomical Ephemeris servatory, and published by order of the Lords for the year 1767, to be continued annually; a work Commissioners of the Admiralty, under the super- which must greatly contribute to the improvement of intendence of Lieutenant Stratford, of the Nautical astronomy, geography, and navigation.” The anticiAlmanac Office, 3, Verulam-buildings, Gray’s-inn-lane. pation has been amply verified. It is designed to enable the mariner to find the From this period, through an interval of forty-three place of his ship at sea, as well as to assist the prac- years, Maskelyne devoted unceasing attention to the tical astronomer in the daily routine of his observa- work, availing himself of every discovery or correction, tory; and being a national undertaking, the publica- the accuracy of which could be depended upon. It tion is exempted from the heavy stamp duty imposed was held in the highest repute by foreign authorities, upon other almanacs. It has the advantage of now and was superior to any kindred production in the last appearing at half the former price of five shillings, century, the French Connoissance des Tems borrowing and considering the immense cost of simply printing from the English almanac its lunar distances. Mas. such an enormous mass of figures and symbols, it is kelyne is also known as the first who gave a catalogue by far the cheapest production of the press with which of what are styled “standard stars," or a number of we are acquainted. For the convenience of the stars observed with such frequency and precision, that voyager going on a long cruize from his native shore, their places serve as standard points of the heavens, and of our countrymen in general at distant stations, also called “ nautical stars” from their service to the work is always published three years in advance. navigation. He was the first likewise to suggest that Thus the almanac for the present year appeared in meteors or shooting stars, visible over extensive re1850, and we were supplied last March with the one gions of the earth's surface, might be used as natural for 1855. Hence the expedition under Sir Edward signals by distant observers to ascertain the difference Belcher, recently sent to the polar seas to search for of longitude between their stations. In 1774, he Sir John Franklin, has not only gone out victualled for conducted an experiment to measure the attraction an absence of some years, but provided with celestial of the mountain of Schiehallion, in Perthshire, by guide books for 1852, 1853, 1854, and 1855, offering observing its effects upon the plumb line, with a view important aids for the determination of latitude and to determine the mean density of the earth. The longitude in the icy ocean. We propose to give some same experiment had previously been tried by Bougier account of the history and contents of this national and La Condamine, upon Chimborago in Peru; and it work.
was subsequently followed up by Baron Zach, in rela. Its commencement, with the high character it at tion to Mont Mimet, in the neighbourhood of Mar. once acquired for scientific merit and practical utility, seilles. The last observation at Greenwich registered is due to the zeal and talents of Dr. Nevil Maskelyne, under the superintendence of Maskelyne, is dated who projected it soon after the middle of the last cen- December 31, 1810. He died February 9, 1811; and tury. This eminent man (while a student at the age on the 4th of January, 1813, Delambre delivered an of sixteen) had his attention strongly directed to eloquent éloge on the English Astronomer before the astronomy by the great solar eclipse of 1748, and it is Institute of France. As this was at a period when somewhat remarkable that the same event had the war was wildly raging between the two countries, it like effect upon the equally celebrated Lalande, who forms a pleasant record of the amenities of science was then also pursuing his collegiate course. Both were being preserved from the interruption which political born in the same year ; both survived the century of hostility offers to the general ties of nations. their birth; and while Lalande edited the Connoissance More recently, the Nautical Almanac lost credit, not des Tems, an old-established French nautical alma- keeping up with the advance of science, and failing to nac, still published under the superintendence of the meet the requirements of the age. It lagged behind Bureau des Longitudes at Paris, Maskelyne originated the Astronomisches Jahrbach of Berlin, the Effemeridi a similar manual for his own country, but of a far Astronomiche of Milan, and other works of the kind more valuable kind than its foreign contemporary, as supplied on the continent. At length the government then produced. In 1761, he sailed to St. Helena to gave effect to the recommendations of the Astronomi. observe the transit of Venus, and ascertain, if possible, cal Society, and the publication appeared in 1834 in the parallax of the fixed stars, proceeding in 1764 to a manner worthy of the national character, reflecting Barbadoes to test the merits of Harrison's marine the improvements made in practical astronomy, and chronometer. The result of this voyage brought to adapted to supply the wants of the most educated the ingenious constructor of the instrument the parlia- class of seamen. mentary reward of twenty thousand pounds, offered It is difficult to convey a popularly intelligible for the best improvement of the method for finding idea of the contents of a volume, abounding with the longitude at sea. At the same time, full trial was algebraic signs and astronomical symbols, as unmeanmade of Irwin's marine chair, vainly designed to miti- ing to the uninitiated as the hieroglyphics of Egypt; gate the effect of a ship's oscillation, and obviate the and with figures which may literally be reckoned difficulty of observing eclipses of Jupiter's satellites by the thousand in a single page. Still
, we must on the ocean, an object which still remains a desi- try our hand, but shall overlook a vast amount of deratum. These voyages had an important influence matter which can only be appreciated by accomplished upon Maskelyne's future labours. On the death of science, and confine attention to the more accessible