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No sooner was the door opened, than there stood fully, in the presence of my wife, and found it to Thompson, dripping with perspiration, and shaking contain stones wrapped in hay, together with half with terror. Missiles of various kinds had been a dozen dead chaffinches, and a note in the wellhurled at him, and he felt alarmed for his life. known writing of my late tormentor, hoping I Preconcert was manifest in this outrage; for each should enjoy the roast.' assailant, as he suddenly started up and threw, At the period when captain Chesterton entered instantly laid down, and no one of the offenders upon his official station, it was a custom for philancould be recognised. I never saw a creature so thropic individuals to supply decent clothing to the completely overcome by alarm as Thompson, who naked and distressed on their discharge from prison. was withdrawn from the room more dead than This practice, originating in kindly and Christian alive.” To provide for his safety, he was removed feelings, was soon fearfully abused by the habitućs to another part of the building, where he remained of the prison, who almost invariably pawned the during the residue of his prison residence. After garments thus bountifully furnished, and squanhis departure, the opposition and revenge of both dered the proceeds. Indeed it operated as a direct officers and prisoners were concentrated against the encouragement to the perpetration of petty offences, governor himself, who was continually receiving for the sake of the retiring gifts bestowed by the anonymous letters, full of vindictive threats and hands of misplaced charity. This indiscriminate menaces. Every epithet was applied to him that practice was abolished by the governor, the effect rage and malice could suggest ; but, undeterred by of which was immediately seen in the diminution the perils that gathered around his path, he steadily of petty and wanton trespasses. and resolutely pursued his schemes of amelioration, Among other instances of the gross fraud and though, in deference to the wish of one of the turn- malversation that had infected the entire establishkeys, who warned him that his life was in hourly ment at Cold Bath Fields, was the waste, destrucjeopardy, he walked about with loaded pistols in tion, and misappropriation of the prison clothing his pocket, and slept with the same weapons beside and bedding. There had been, in fact, an utter him at night; thus for some months rendering his want of discipline and responsible oversight in this existence one of painful solicitude. He, however, matter, so that the annual sacrifice of property was with a spirit of true heroism, determined to reform enormous. The economical measures gradually the prison or perish in the attempt. It is gratify, introduced, under captain Chesterton's manageing to know that he was most effectively encouraged mext, displayed an almost incredible saving, as a and supported in this noble undertaking by the comparative table of two periods of seven years visiting committee. On the resignation, about this satisfactorily testify. time, of the chief warder, the hands of the governor Before a year had elapsed, much had been done were much strengthened by the appointment of towards purging the prison of its delinquent chasergeant Sims to the vacant post, who proved a racters and organized corruptions. The governor valuable coadjutor.
now found leisure to turn his thoughtful attention To give an idea of the exactions, tyrannical bear. to other progressive improvements. Foremost ing, and insolence of some of the "yardsmen," we among these, was the extinction of the mischievous transfer to our columns a picture of one man be- habit of unrestricted intercourse between the prilonging to this odious class. “Of all the domineer- soners. In imitation of the American model, which ing functionaries of that school, a fellow named had already been copied at Wakefield with great B- was the most conspicuous. He was a clever, success, the “associated silent system" was introplausible man, who could lie with imperturbable duced. This great change in prison discipline came serenity, and demur and contend, whenever assailed, into operation on the 29th of December, 1834, on with a cool impudence and well-feigned assumption which day 914 prisoners were suddenly apprised of innocence that few could imitate. He was one that all intercommunication by word, gesture, or of those semi-educated bravos with whom no single- sign, was prohibited; and without any approach minded novice could compete. He disputed with to overt opposition, the silent system became the me every step, inch by inch, swore by emphatic rule of the prison, as it since has of several others. paths that he would pose a jurist, and ultimately The results of this mode, after a trial of eighteen (as his time drew short), menaced me with pros. years, are declared by captain Chesterton to be pective law in every form. Nothing could exceed eminently satisfactory. the arbitrary sway which he exercised over the We could have wished in this article to have inmates of his yard, and with such provoking suc- made some reference to another work on prisons, cess, that I essayed in vain to shake his influence entitled, “Chapters on Prisons and Prisoners,” by amongst the prisoners. He had been tried and the Rev. Mr. Ringsmill, chaplain to the Peniten. sentenced in the court of King's Bench, and craftily tiary, Pentonville. This volume ought to be in the assumed a dignity, based upon the superior tri- hands of all who take an interest in the prevention bunal that had condemned him (of which he boasted of crime in our country; but its merits are too incessantly); and, in spite of my efforts, he all but great to dispose of thus summarily in a concluding triumphed over me by an assumption of superiority paragraph. At a future day we hope to bring the and importance which really imposed upon the work fully before our readers. ignorant by whom he was surrounded. At length he was discharged, and departed for the west of England, whence he played me off a trick which How TO LIVE AT PEACE.-1. Mind your own busi. was truly characteristic of the man. I one day ness.
2. Keep your tongue from evil. 3. Do not contend
for trifles. 4. If others neglect their duty to yon, be sure received a heavy box from Falmouth, marked game," for which I paid as “carriage" 4s. 6d. love to him. 6. Beg of God for universal charity. 7. Cal.
you perform yours to them. 5. Make your enemy see your I was astonished at its weight, but opened it care- tivate humility of mind.
“ Have you
“Oh!" she thought," if my brothers and sisters
were here, I am certain they would not grudge ADAPTED AND ABRIDGED FROM THE FRENCII.
their cakes to those poor people. I'm afraid "REMEMBER that if the hundred crowns arrears mamma won't be pleased; but then hunger is such of rent on your farm are not paid before to-mor. a dreadful thing, I must give them.” So the little row evening, you must turn out; I have a solvent girl, who had not herself tasted anything that day, tenant ready to take possession.". So saying, a divided her little store, as far as it would go, stern-looking man, dressed in brown, walked amongst the prisoners. quickly out of a cottage in the pretty village of “I have no more," she said at last, in so sad a Î'horaise, near Besançon.
tone that the French captain who commanded the “Oh, sir!" said a woman, following him and detachment, and who had been silently watching clasping her hands,“ have pity on my poor hus- her, approached. band, who has been ill all the summer, and who is “A pretty business this," he said, affecting a still
severe tone, “ to give your breakfast to your ene" I should have no objection, madame Biget,” mies !" said the steward; "but it does not rest with me. “Enemies, sir !” exclaimed Martha, " they are My lord is now absent, but he will be here to-day poor hungry people." or to-morrow; my accounts must be all squared “Yes, but they are English ; and the English and ready for his inspection. I am not going to are the enemies of France." lose my situation for your convenience, madame "Sir, I never thought whether they were enemies Biget, so you must manage the best way you can.” or not when I saw them suffering."
"Ah me!” exclaimed the poor woman, raising The officer took her little hand. her eyes appealingly towards heaven; “I have no eaten your own breakfast, my child po hope then left me from man.”
No, sir.” Re-entering the cottage, she opened a cupboard “ Then you must be very hungry P". and took out a piece of brown bread. “Martha," Oh, I don't much mind; I'm used to it.” she said, addressing a child of ten years old, “there “Does your mother allow you to want food ?” is your breakfast, my child; I have neither milk Oh, no, sir, my mother always gives us chilnor butter to give you to-day.”
dren our meals before she takes a bit herself. “Oh, mamma! that does not signify ; but why When I am hungry, it is not her fault, but mine do you look so sad ?"
for giving my bread away." "Don't ask me, child, but make haste to eat At that moment, an inferior officer approached your bread. Your aunt at Besançon has sent you the captain to ask for orders, and Martha went and your brothers and sisters a nice cake a-piece ; away, retracing her steps towards home ; for, not I wish you to take them theirs to school."
having anything to carry to her brothers and “Oh, thank you, mamma; and if you will allow sisters, it would have been useless to visit them at me, I will go at once, and keep my cake and my school. “What will my mother say P” she thought. bread to eat with them when we are all together." "I will tell her the exact truth, and then I hope
Her mother gave her leave ; and Martha, with she will not be angry." her little basket on her arm, was soon tripping When Martha entered the usually neat cottage, gaily along the road.
she was surprised to see the furniture in disorder, It was a fine morning in October, 1757, and as and her father, who during the last six months little Martha went on her way, she saw a vast had never quitted his bed, seated, pale and faint, cloud of dust advancing. Presently a large party in an arm-chair. Her mother was counting some of dragoons appeared, followed by a number of men money in her lap, pausing now and then to brush on foot, dressed in uniform, but unarmed. The away the tears that filled her eyes. child stopped on the road close to the hedge, and, Oh, mamma, what is the matter?" as the party passed by her, she heard a low sigh, “We are ruined,” replied her mother, “and and saw that one of the prisoners of war, for snch will have in future to beg our bread." they were, had fallen on the ground. He looked The child threw her arms round the poor woas pale as death and his eyes were closed. Martha man's neck, and exclaimed, “Oh, no, mamma, I'll bent over him, and said, " What is the matter, work for you !". poor man?"
“Poor child !” said madame Biget, sorrowfully, The fainting soldier did not answer, but one of looking at her daughter's slight, delicate frame. his comrades, who knew a little French, replied, " But, mamma, how has all this happened ?” "He's dying of hunger, like the rest of us, little “We owe my lord de Varenne one hundred
crowns for rent ; all that we possess would not pay “ Dying of hunger !" repeated she. And her it, and his steward told us this morning that we first impulse was to open her basket and give its must give up the farm." contents to the prisoner ; but a sudden thought “Instead of talking to that child, Catherine," checked her. “These cakes don't belong to me,” said her husband, peevishly, “ you ought to cook she said to herself. However, she took her own the dinner." cake and her piece of bread and gave them to the “The dinner is both cooked and eaten, dear," poor man, who was now somewhat revived, and said his wife, gently; "did not I give you your began to devour the food with the utmost eager soup just now?" ness. At the same moment several other prisoners “But your dinner and the children's ?" held out their supplicating hands: they looked so "Ah, they had some nice cakes which my sister pale and thin and wretched, that the child's eyes sent them; and as for me, my heart is too full to filled with tears.
Poor little Martha turned so pale, and trembled what my father owes.". And she thought sadly so visibly, that her father remarked it, and said, how happy the sum which that piece of useless "I'll answer for it, she has, as usual, given her finery had cost would have made her parents. breakfast away to some poor person.”
"How melancholy that little girl looks!" said Mamma-papa-don't be angry," said the the young lady, remarkivg Martha's presence for child, bursting into tears; " but I met some poor the first time. prisoners on the road ; they seemed to be dying of “She wants very much to speak to your father, hunger, and you know that God commands us to Mademoiselle Marie," said her nurse. feed the hungry, so I could not help giving them "To papa ? That won't be difficult. He is all the cakes."
quite near, for he walked hither with us. Papa ! “Naughty child !" cried her mother, angry at papa! Cyprien, do you call
, for your voice is the thought of what her children might suffer; stronger than minepapa !" she continued, ad"how dared you give away all that you had ?" dressing an officer, who advanced, talking to an
“God feeds the little birds, mother, and He will elderly man, dressed in brown, "here is a little not let us want," said Martha, in a tone of such girl who wants to speak to you.” And taking gentle persuasion, that madame Biget was quite Martha kindly by the hand, Marie presented her softened, and said : “Well, well, I have enough to her father. for ye all to-day.” And, giving the child a bowl Poor Martha ! she had arranged a little speech of vegetable soup, thickened with barley, she laid in her head, which was to have commenced with, by equal portions for the others. As Martha was “My lord, have pity on us!” But when she eating hers, she remarked that her mother had found herself standing before him, she blushed kept none for herself, and accordingly said : and trembled, and could not utter a single Mamma, you don't eat."
word. "I can't, child.”
Meantime, lord de Varenne looked at her closely, “Mamma," said Martha, after a pause, “ will and exclaimed : “ 'Tis the little damsel of the you permit me to go out for two hours ?"
cakes! What do you wish me to do for you, dear “ Whither do you want to go p".
child ?" he asked, smiling kindly. “Do you want " Please don't ask me until I return."
some more cakes to give to the prisoners ". “Let her go if she wishes it," said her father ; “Ah, no, my lord! It was something quite dif“I dare say there are some poor sick persons she ferentwants to visit. Kiss me, Martha; you are a kind "Well, my child, speak, don't be afraid. I saw child, and God will bless you."
you this morning perform an action, which I would “Good morning, dame Simonne,” said Martha, give the best farm in my possession to have seen as she approached a cottage door where an old done by Marie. I looked for you afterwards, but woman was sitting,
you were gone. Come, hold up your head and “* And good morning to you, Martha Biget; you speak freely. If what you want be in my power look tired, little one. Come in and rest yourself. to bestow, I promise now not to refuse it to her Have you far to go ?"
who this morning went without her breakfast to “To the castle, dame."
feed the hungry prisoners.” "Ah, you want to see the bonfires that are to At these kind words Martha fell on her knees, be lighted in honour of my lord's return." and clasping her hands, exclaimed: “Oh, my
" Then he is arrived ?" said the child, clapping father and my mother ! you will be saved! My her hands ; “ I am so glad, for I want to speak to lord,” she continued,“ my father owes you a hun. him."
dred crowns-he cannot pay it, on account of the The old woman burst out laughing. “It won't hail, and the rain, and be very easy for a poor child like you to get speech “Stuff and nonsense!” interrupted the man in of him to-day.”
brown. “My lord, if you listen to all that your "What shall I do ?” said Martha, despondingly. tenants choose to tell you, you will find that the business very pressing ?".
hail, or the rain, or the sun, will always prevent “Oh, indeed it is, dame. But who are these them paying their rent.” two children coming towards us? how beau- “Silence! M. Dubois,” said his master, sternly. tifully they are dressed !"
“If this little girl assures me that her father can" They are my foster-children, Martha--the son not pay, I fully believe her. The parents who and daughter of lord de Varenne. The moment have brought her up, must be worthy people. they return from town, they run to see their old Stand up, my child; go home, and tell your father nurse. Darlings !" she exclaimed, extending her and mother not to be uneasy. I will go to see arms to receive a boy of ten and a girl of about a them to-morrow. Meantime, here is something to year older.
replenish your basket of cakes.” And lord de “ Have you made a hot cake for us, nurse ?" Varenne put into Martha's trembling hands a asked the little boy, throwing his arms round her purse nearly filled with silver. neck.
The child felt as if she were dreaming. “Is “ Look at the beautiful scarf that papa has given it mine-all mine ?" she said. And her friend hav. me," said the girl, spreading out on dame Si- ing assured her that it was, she scarcely waited to monne's knees a silken scarf, splendidly embroi. thank and bless him, but darted off homewards at dered with silver and seed-pearls. Is it not full speed. Out of breath, she rushed into the lovely? Papa says it cost a hundred crowns." cottage, threw the purse into her mother's lap,
Martha, who had hid herself bashfully behind and exclaiming : "Take this ; my lord will come nurse's chair, ventured to glance at the scarf. himself to-morrow!"--fell nearly fainting on the
"A hundred crowns !" thought she; "just ground. She soon, however, recovered ; and in
" Is your
II.-FAMILIES AND HOUSES.
her parents' thanks and blessings found a sweet | Louis xviii desired to see her, and gave her a recompense for her conduct.
most gracious reception. Such is one of the anecdotes which a French The famine of 1817 exhausted all the treasury of writer has related of the early life of Martha Biget, presents which sister Martha had received. She whose subsequent career of benevolence corresponds found means, however, to distribute gratuitously with the promiseof her childhood. During the bloody to the poor, two thousand portions of soup every scenes of the French Revolution, she lived at Be- day. When the return of abundance put an end sançon, and her house was a place of refuge for old to the sufferings of the people, and when war had or sick people and children. She lived on brown given place to peace, sister Martha retired to end bread and milk, in order to have more to give away. her days in peaceful obscurity, and died on the 29th On the 23rd of March, 1805, a fire broke out in a of March, 1824, aged seventy-six years. small village near Besançon, Sister Martha (as How sweet it is to contemplate a career of beneshe was commonly called) hastened to the spot, volence in contrast with a life of selfishness. Esand did what she could to bring aid to the suffer- pecially delightful is it to do so when kindness flows ers. A cottage, inhabited by a woman and two from Christian principle, and is the fruit of love to orphan children of whom she had charge, burned God, the only motive which can be regarded with so rapidly, that despite of Martha's tears and en favour by the great Searcher of hearts. treaties, no one would venture to enter it. She offered everything she possessed as a bribe, but in vain. At length, feeble woman as she was, she rushed herself into the burning ruin, and, aided no
THE LATE CENSUS. doubt by the Divine assistance on which she relied, succeeded in rescuing the three helpless inmates. The number of the male population, found and On another occasion, in 1807, while occupied in distinguished on the morning of March 31, 1851, gathering medicinal herbs on the bank of the river was 10,386,048, and of the female 10,735,919: the Doubs, she heard a loud splash near her: it was women and girls thus exceeding the men and boys a child of nine years old, the son of a poor shep by 349,871. But as a number of the men were herd, who had fallen into the water. Martha, abroad with the army, or at sea, the females at without knowing how to swim, jumped in after home in Great Britaiu were in excess of the males him, and succeeded in rescuing the drowning child. by 512,361. This disparity in the proportion of Prisoners of war always excited her most active the sexes at home was the greatest in Scotland sympathy. There was at Besançon a sort of dépôt 110 females to 100 males; the least in England of sick and wounded prisoners, belonging to al. and Wales-104 females to 100 males. Fifty years most every country in Europe. Martha worked ago, when the first regular enumeration of the for them, begged for them, and nursed them in people was taken, the proportion of the sexes was their illness. Many a stout fellow was, through nearly the same. Thus, in 1801, there were her kind offices, restored to the friends who wept 103,353 females to every 100,000 males, and in for him on the bauks of the Tagus, the Oder, or 1851, there were 103,369 females to the same numthe Volga.
ber of the other sex. During the years 1813 and 1814, France was The inhabitants of Great Britain were returned desolated by the horrors of war. Sister Martha in 1801, with tolerable exactness, at 10,917,433; braved all the dangers of the battle-field, to carry and consequently the return for 1851, of 21,121,967, succour to the wounded, whether friends or ene- shows that since the commencement of the premies. She has been seen to approach them under sent century, or after the lapse of fifty years, the very mouth of the cannon, and after the the nation has grown numerically stronger, nearly bloodiest actions were ended, her place was in the in the proportion of two to one. The Irish have field-hospitals. On one occasion, in 1814, the entered the country in great numbers in the interduke of Reggio met her, and said: “I have val, settling in the metropolis, the sea-ports, and long been familiar with your name, madame; for the manufacturing towns; but at the same time, whenever my soldiers are wounded, their first cry a more considerable number of the purely British always is, 'Where is our sister Martha ?'" race have poured out of it, as emigrants to different
Shortly after this period she received what, to a parts of the world. During the five decennial disposition like hers, was the sweetest reward : periods, the average annual increase was about she succeeded in obtaining the pardon of a poor 117,518; 197,852; 216,150; 224,473 ; and 235,200. conscript who had deserted, and who had been led The annual rate of increase was the greatest out to be shot. Sister Martha, however, was not in the interval from 1811 to 1821. Since that left without worldly honours. In 1801, the Agri- period, though the population has vastly. aug. cultural Society of Besançon presented her with a mented, the rate of increase has declined, owing to silver medal, on which was inscribed, Homage to emigration, and the epidemics which have affected virtue. In 1815, the war minister sent her the the public health, as influenza, cholera, and other decoration of a cross; and the same year the em diseases. Supposing the rate at which the people peror of Russia sent her a gold medal. The king have multiplied through the five decennaries to of Prussia caused one of his ministers, prince Har- continue uniform, there will be at the lapse of denberg, to write her a letter of thanks for the another half century, or in the year 1901, nearly care she had bestowed on the sick and wounded forty-two millions of persons within our borders. Prussian prisoners, and the letter was accompanied According to the English life-table, half a geneby an offering of one hundred pieces of gold. The ration of men of all ages passes away in thirty emperor of Austria and the king of Spain sent years, and more than three in every four of their her decorations. On his restoration to his throne, number die in half a century. It is hence inferred, taking emigration into account, with all other the family is able, to a certain extent, to cut itself movements of the population, that of the twenty-off from all communication with the outward world, one millions now in Great Britain, not more than even in the midst of great cities. In English towns two millions and a half were in the country in or villages, therefore, one always meets with small 1801. Sapposing the present rates of mortality detached houses merely suited to one family, or not to be accelerated, about ten millions and a half apparently large buildings extended to the length will survive the year 1881 ; between four and five of half a street, sometimes adorned like palaces on millions will live out the century, or reach the year the exterior, but separated by partition walls inter1901 ; and some of the infants of the passing hour nally, and thus divided into a number of small high will linger to the year 1951, as the worn and shat houses, for the most part three windows broad, tered fragments of the existing generation, few and within which, and on the various stories, the rooms far between.
are divided according to the wants or convenience Passing from individuals to their aggregation of the family; in short, therefore, it may be proin communities, the first grouping which claims perly said, that the English divide their edifices attention as the most important and intimate, is perpendicularly into houses-while we Germans that of the Family, a social unit in the constitution divide them horizontally into floors. In England, of parishes, towns, counties, and the nation. Con every man is master of his hall, stairs, and chamsiderable difficulty has been felt in defining a family. bers; whilst we are obliged to use the two first in Though generally composed of parents or parent, common with others, and are scarcely able to secure children and servants, yet it may consist only of ourselves the privacy of our own chamber, if we an unmarried man and domestics, or of a single are not fortunate enough to be able to obtain a woman dwelling alone in a cottage. In taking the secure and convenient house for ourselves alone.” census, occupiers were regarded as representing In Paris there are twenty-two persons to a house, heads of families, that is, all resident owners who while in London the proportion does not amount to held the whole or any separate portion of a house, eight. It is greater in Plymouth, where there are so as to be responsible for the rent, whether ten persons to a house, but no other town in Eng. tenants or lodgers. The number of such families land, and only some districts in the metropolis, in England and Wales was 3,712,290, and in exhibit such proportions. Liverpool has eight Scotland 600,098, making a total of 4,312,388. persons to a house; Greenwich, Bristol, and Bath Comparing this return with the one at the com- seven; Manchester, Bolton, Brighton, Southampmencement of the century, the result is, that since ton, and Dover, six ; Birmingham, Sheffield, Notthat period upwards of one million eight hundred tingham, Derby, Reading, and most of the other thousand new lines of families have been established towns have five. in the country sonth of the Tweed, and two hun- A very different arrangement of persons and dred and thirty-six thousand on the north, not. dwellings prevails in Scotland, where the continenwithstanding the known proneness of the Scotch tal style of building is adopted, and large houses to migrate southerly.
are divided horizontally into "flats” which are let The inhabited houses amounted to 3,648,347 for to different families. Thus in Perth there are the whole of Great Britain, and were occupied in twelve persons to a house ; in Aberdeen rather the proportion of 5706 persons, in 1182 families, more; in Dundee fifteen ; in Edinburgh twenty: to 1000 dwellings. Though we have numerous in. and in Glasgow twenty-seven. But it is principally stances of overcrowding in our cities and towns, in the southern burghs of Scotland that this yet this evil has sensibly declined in England; grouping of a number of families in Hats under and the rule is general, for each family to have the same roof prevails. It is also found to some a separate tenement, the sanctuary of its joys, sor- extent in the towns of the two northern counties of rows, musings, and affections, secure from the intru- England. The practice of raising huge blocks of sion of vulgar curiosity and mischievous intermed- building in these districts, accommodating several dling. This is a social condition, not more favour- households, like the insula of ancient Rome, was able to personal comfort and health, than conserva- perhaps adopted in the first instance as a measure tive of domestic virtue, independence, and dignity of security, in those troubled times when war was of character. Dr. C. G. Carus, physician to the frequent between the Scotch and English, and has king of Saxony, who visited this country in 1844, been perpetuated after the occasion has passed in attendance upon his sovereign, has a passage away. But it is desirable that the practice should upon the subject, in an account of the tour, which be superseded, for domestic comfort and propriety is quoted in the report of the census. Though an will be best secured by each family being in possesinstance of hasty generalisation, it is interesting, sion of an entire house, having the sole command and substantially true. Speaking of the separate of the threshold, and of the whole space between character of English dwelling-houses, in opposition the ground and the sky. to the continental system, of families occupying Besides the vast majority of the population redifferent floors of the same building, he remarks sident in houses, there was a fraction temporarily upon the habit, as giving "the Englishman that located in public buildings, as barracks, prisons, proud feeling of personal independence, which is workhouses, lunatic asylums, hospitals, and other stereotyped in the phrase, ' Every man's house is similar institutions. The barracks amounted to his castle.' This is a feeling which cannot be en- 174 with 53,933 soldiers and officers; the prisons tertained, and an expression which cannot be used, numbered 257, with 30,959 inmates of all descripin Germany or in France, where ten or fifteen tions; the workhouses were 746 with 131,582 ocfamilies often live together in the same large cupiers of all kinds; the lunatic asylums were 149 house. The expression, however, receives a true with 21,004 persons; the hospitals for the sick value, when, by the mere closing of the house-door, were 118 with 11,647 persons; and other asylums,