« PreviousContinue »
northern shore of Bass's Strait, at Port Philip, its gold-yielding region. The discovery of this returning by a different overland route. In 1927, province may be said to be due to him, since, Allan Cunningham travelled in an opposite direc- though already occupied by some Van Diemen's tion, or to the northward of the existing settle- Land graziers, and visited by agriculturists from ments, opening the undulating pastoral tracts New South Wales, these parties sought to keep between the river Hunter and Moreton Bay. Cap- their knowledge secret, in order to monopolise the tain Sturt, in the following year, made the journey fine sheep-walks, whereas Sir Thomas Mitchell at already noticed to the basin of the exhausted Mac- once gave the public the benefit of what he saw. quarie, and, advancing further into the interior, He was the first European acquainted with the came to the banks of a new stream, the Darling, famed mount Alexander, the mount Bung of his five hundred miles from Sydney. The whole coun- maps, riding up to the summit with ease, admiring try then was in a miserable condition through the the view, little thinking, however, of the glittering drought, and scarcely habitable from the distress prodnct which lay buried in the neighbouring of the season. The natives were remarked wan- creeks and gulleys. Long patches of open plain, dering in the desert, afflicted with cutaneous dis- interspersed with forest hills and low woody ranges, orders, owing to the badness of the water which formed a pleasing landscape. Troops of kangaroos they were obliged to drink; and numbers perished. and flocks of emus occupied the grassy downs, the Birds were noticed sitting motionless upon the latter so unconscious of danger as to approach the trees, apparently gasping for existence, amid the horses, as if impelled by curiosity. But no signs glare of torrid heat. The wild dog was seen of human life were then visible in the district prowling about in the day-time, unable from destined within twenty years to be studded with debility to avoid the travelling party; and whilst encampments, to swarm with gold-diggers, glare minor vegetation was altogether burnt up, the very with their watch-fires, and resound with the discordtrees were absolutely drooping from the depth to ant tones of avarice, greediness, revelry, and passion. which the drought had penetrated the soil. Seve- In an opposite qnarter, or on the western coast, ral of the adventurers were affected by ophthalmia, lieutenants Grey and Lushington, in 1837-9, enproduced by the reverberated heat from the plains deavoured to lead a party inland; but the country which they traversed, where the thermometer stood proved impracticable. A succession of disasters, in the shade at 3 P.M. at 122°, and from 98° to with the heat of the climate, the want of water, 102° Fahrenheit at sunset. In 1830, Sturt de- and the hostility of the natives, defeated the expescended the Morrumbidgee to the point where its dition ; and with difficulty those engaged in it, after waters merged in a larger stream, the Murray. the wreck of their boats, found their way along an Pursuing its course, he came to the confluence of inhospitable shore to the Swan river. Fatigue and the Darling with it, and finally to its own dis- thirst proved fatal to one of the number, and all charge into a great lake, which received the name were reduced to the last stage of exhaustion. Mr. of Alexandrina, gazing from its southern shore Grey relates, on meeting with a small hole of soft upon the ocean at Encounter Bay. By this de mud :-“I first of all took some of this moist mud scent of a very tortuous channel, in the course of in my mouth, but finding a difficulty in swallowing which about two thousand miles were traversed, it, as it was so thick, I strained a portion through a and great dangers encountered from sand-banks handkerchief. We had thirsted, with an intense and and savages, the indefatigable officer ascertained burning thirst, for three days and two nights, dur. the discharge of the westerly-flowing waters of ing the greater portion of which time we had been the colony, and became entitled to the honour of taking violent exercise under a fierce sun. To condiscovering overland the present province of South ceive the delight of the men when they arrived at Australia.
this little hole of mud, would be difficult. Each, Three exploring tours conducted by Sir Thomas as he came up and cast his wearied limbs on the Mitchell, in 1832-5-6, verified previous observa- ground beside the hole, uttered these words– tions, accurately determined positions, and brought " Thank God!” and then greedily swallowed a an extent of new territory within the bounds of few mouthfuls of the liquid mud, protesting that knowledge. His second journey was marked by it was the most delicious water, and had a peculiar the melancholy fate of Mr. Richard Cunningham, flavour which rendered it far superior to any we the botanist, who diverged from the party to follow had ever tasted. But it required some time before his favourite pursuit, lost his way, fell into the their faculties were sufficiently recovered to allow hands of the natives, and was barbarously mur- them duly to estimate the magnitude of the danger dered. The particulars of the death of " a white they had escaped. The small portion of muddy man, gentleman," were afterwards obtained from water in the hole was soon finished, and then by the aborigines themselves, who were not actuated scraping it out clean we found that water slowly by mere ferocity to the deed. On meeting the began to trickle into it again. The men now laid natives, the hapless wanderer had made signs that themselves down, almost in a state of stupefaction, he was hungry. They gave him food, and he en- and rested by their treasured pool. I felt, however, camped with them for the night. But the circum- that great calls upon my energies might still arise, stance of his repeatedly getting up during the and therefore, retiring a little apart with the native, night, and other actions of an agitated mind, I first of all returned hearty thanks to my Maker, natural to his position, but not understood, roused for the dangers and sufferings he had thus brought the suspicions of the blacks, and he became the me through, and then tottered on with my gun, in victim of unfounded alarm. The third journey search of food." All experience sustains the conbrought the traveller into the country which he clusion that the greater part of Western Australia, denominated Australia Felix, from its sylvan scen- with the central region, is unfitted for the abode of ery, now the most important part of Victoria, as civilized man-a dreary wilderness destitute of the elements of fertility, of which the common features stars and planets ;-such were the paraphernalia are sand-hills, bare rocks, and tracts of dense carried by our travelling lecturer. But however scrub, or brushwood. In 1841, Mr. Eyre traversed ridiculous or insignificant these curiosities looked, the sea-board from the western limit of South they produced, when set in proper arrangement Australia to king George's Sound, upwards of a and action before an audience, an instructive phanthousand miles, enduring through the latter half tasmagoria. of the journey the most distressing privations, in The ordinary lecture upon astronomy would which he was attended only by a native boy. The proceed somewhat in the following way. A scant country was found to be generally devoid of timber, audience has assembled in the school-room of a being barren table-land densely clothed with scrub, provincial academy: A plain, roughly-constructed without a river or a river-course for six hundred wooden apparatus, intended to illustrate the motion miles, and fresh water only to be met with after of the earth, stands in obscurity in front of a long intervals.
glazed-calico medium painted all round with the At this period count Strzchecki, a native of signs of the zodiac, and dimly illuminated from Prussian Poland, alike eminent for science and behind by the indispensable magic-lantern. The philanthropy, was diligently exploring in detail dark shadow of the lecturer can be seen only by New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land, a task the fitful light thrown on the scene. He diswhich involved five years of continued observation, courses on his sublime theme in a thoroughly during a tour of seven thousand miles performed monotonous and mechanical manner, and elucidates on foot. His “ Physical Description" of the two science merely in the elementary way. He is not countries gives the result of his labours, a work overburdened with enthusiasm, for, unfortunately, which will long remain a text-book in relation to his business is to huckster the stars for daily bread. them. This nobleman, in the year 1840, discovered A sleepy silence prevails among the auditory, the district called Gipps' Land, after the governor broken only by the unmusical voice of the itinerant, of that name, now an important section of the and varied by the rattling of the slides through the Victoria colony, and a region of magnificent prai- aforesajd magic-lantern, the uneasy shuffling of ries. It was then so difficult of access, owing to feet, the whispering of the school-boys, and the being walled in by ranges covered with scrub, in- loud and frequent snoring of the village school. terwoven with grasses, and encumbered with fallen master. At last, the lecture is over ; the people trees, that the discoverer was obliged to abandon drowsily go away; the poor astronomer picks up his pack-horses and collections in order to get out his scattered worlds, tumbles them, together with of it by the route adopted. It required twenty-six sundry erratic planets and comets, into a box, and, days of hard labour to cut a passage, at the rate of slinging the latter across his back, trudges away, two or three miles a day, during which the party probably the same night, bound for the next town was in imminent danger of perishing by famine and or village on his route. Such was the routine pur. exhaustion.
sued by our venerable friend for many a year, before lecturing had attained that brilliancy and
efficiency which it may be said to have done in our A LECTURER OF THE OLD SCHOOL.
own day. A FEW years ago there died, in good circumstances Mr. Bird was born of humble parents, in a little and at an advanced age, Mr. John Bird, for ap- town in Lincolnshire, towards the close of the last wards of thirty years an itinerant lecturer on as- century. When first his strong natural abilities tronomy. He had in the course of his chequered and untutored study of celestial phenomena were career professionally visited nearly every town in discovered, namely, in the year 1814, he was a the United Kingdom. His engagements were journeyman carpenter, living with a wife and always numerous, and he was looked up to by the young family in the town of AM, in Berkshire, tribe of itinerant lecturers who followed in his wake to which place he had migrated. A leading tradesas a sort of Coryphæus. He travelled latterly in man in the place, himself an amateur in science, his own plain, respectable-looking four-wheel chaise, became the accidental means of eliciting the pecudrawn by a nseful hack; and on making his period- liar genius of Bird and bringing him into notice. ical appearance in a town, he almost invariably won This liberal-minded individual discovered in the the respect of the inhabitants, by his mode of pro. journeyman carpenter, at work upon a new stairpitiating their patronage. His obese, burly figure, case in his house, a mechanic of a superior order, encased in unexceptionable broadcloth and kersey. By self-taught means, Bird had made an astronomere ; his large, good-humoured face, radiant with mical machine, such as a mathematical mind smiles; and, in later years, his venerable head and only could accurately construct. It was what is powdered hair, were externals that seldom failed to technically named by astronomers a Tellurian. obtain him a respectful and even friendly reception. The poor carpenter had lathed his machine into He carried his astronomical apparatus in the box shape simply by the help of an old print on a of his chaise, and that capacious receptacle was leaf of Ferguson's Astronomy. When his patron stored with a collection of mysterious mechanism was first shown the model, he was at once struck calculated to excite the wonderment of anybody with its ingenuity, and the more so that an unwho might happen to look into such a Pandora's taught mind should have been able to accomplish box. But the strange materials in question were, what ordinarily could only be done by the help of in fact, articles connected with the illustration of scientific knowledge. Bird was induced to pub. the science of astronomy. A magic-lantern, an licly exhibit his model, and it was pronounced orrery, lots of small oblong boxes containing astro- perfect in all respects ; the dial-plate proved to be nomical slides, a set of tin vessels resembling mathematically divided, and to consist of the redomestic pipkins, but which were substitutes for quisite number of concentric circles, which are
necessary to the explanation of zodiacal position and Oxford and Cambridge. Astronomical science was solar and sidereal time.
in a backward state at both seats of learning, nearly The only publicity Bird had hitherto obtained half a century ago, and the circumstance will in consequence of his supposed occult inventive account for the selection of a lecturer who did not powers, came from a party of his brother mecha- profess scholarship or classical acquirements. But nics, who had surrounded him, at a country road although our self-educated astronomer bad attained side inn, and amused themselves by what is called neither Greek, Latin, nor the mathematics even, “ bringing out” their comrade. Their absurd as taught at college, he secured at the universities reception had modified the vanity of the latter, for all the success he could have wished. The collethe workmen no more understood the explanations gians attended his lectures, and the heads of given of the use of a. tellurian, than they did the houses” gave him complimentary testimonials, principle of flying in the air. They merely laughed little short of the usual university titles. It is and joked at their comrade for his folly in setting proper here to notice how considerable has been up as a sort of a magician, as they termed it. the advance in the study and knowledge of astro
Encouraged by the reception of higher minds, nomy at the universities, since the above occur. Bird cared little now for the past ignorant opposi- rence. The discovery of new planets, the abtion. Not satisfied with having made one astro- struse calculations by which the stellar observanomical instrument, he believed himself capable of tions were assisted, and the wondrous secrets of still better things, and his whole thoughts were the heavens unveiled to human eyes, have been bent on the construction of an orrery. At this due to the encouragement of the study of idea he worked night and day, assisted by the celestial phenomena at Oxford and Cambridge. advice and pecuniary aid of his patron. In the Mr. Adams and professor Challis are living incourse of a few weeks there came out of his hands stances of erudite collegiate students of astronomy. a noble and valuable piece of mechanism, designed Their discoveries, therefore, brilliantly testify to to give motion to the spheres, in miniature imita- the close attention that has been given of late years tion of the eternal principles of celestial phenomena. to the above science in the universities. Contrast This was the proposed orrery. At the time there a report of the Royal Astronomical Society for did not exist half-a-dozen such instruments, pro- 1853 with one for 1823, and it will be perceived bably, in the world. But it should be noticed, en what advances have been made in this respect. passant, that the orrery was still deficient in some But to return to our lecturer. He certainly had minor particulars. Although the machinery was little learning; his qualifications consisting in recomplete, the objects which it would have to work verent admiration for, and enthusiastic ardour in were wanting; The planets must be represented pursuing and illustrating, astronomical truths. by illuminated figures of some kind or other. But Moreover, he possessed an inventive mind, a rehow could the effect be produced ? The ques. tentive memory, genuine natural humour, versation sorely puzzled the head that had accomplished tility, and readiness. There was, however, a want so much.
Bird at last, having exhausted his own of refinement in his speech and manner. Still, ingenuity upon the point, called into requisition notwithstanding these drawbacks, in those days his that of his patron, and the latter, after due con capacities were sufficient to insure him the reputasideration of the difficulty, saw his way out of it, tion of a public favourite. His lectures were always and put Bird's mind at rest by showing him bow extemporaneous; which could not be said of many the planets were to be subjugated to his will. He other lecturers who had started up, and were obsent for a tinman. A set of square hollow tubes liged to acknowledge him as their Mentor. Mr. of tin, perforated at the face, were made. These, Bird, in truth, raised a host of imitators, though illuminated from within by little oil lamps, and none of them possessed the originality of his mind. fixed on the several arms of the orrery, of course
The relation of one or two anecdotes will serve were capable of producing on a calico medium, in to show the excellent estimation in which Bird the dark, the much desiderated transparencies. must have been held in his day. He was chosen
But to come to our hero's débút." An evening to be the astronomical preceptor of the marquis of was publicly named for the delivery at the Town Douro, now duke of Wellington. In the archives Hall of a " lecture on astronomy," (then quite a of that great family may still exist a document, in novelty in the provinces), by a working.man, who itself a curiosity, namely, a poem written by Jolin would also exhibit some apparatus of his own in- Bird, lecturer, and teacher of the use of the globes, vention, illustrating the sublime science. In due in tribute to the military greatness of Wellington, course the eventful night arrived. Bird, attired While the marquis of Douro was yet a boy, and in a borrowed suit of sables, made his appearance living at Strathfieldsaye, Bird attended periodically before the large auditory that had assembled on to give instruction to the duke's family. The poem the occasion. He gave, if not a lecture par excel. was printed, and respectfully submitted to Bird's lence, at least a clear and practical sort of exposi- youthful pupil. By the latter the poem was duly tion of the known facts of the science. His lan- | handed to his illustrious parent; and the author guage was plain and homely, but nevertheless he afterwards received a graceful mark of the duke's was understood and fairly appreciated. The suc- consideration, in the gift of a pair of valuable cess of the débût was undoubted, and it determined globes, bran-new from Cary's shop in St. Jamesfor the poor carpenter a vocation which he followed street. Bird was also honoured with the patronthrough life.
age of William the Fourth. He occasionally lecWe must now suppose Bird fairly launched in tured before the royal family at the Pavilion at his new profession, and follow him into the midst Brighton. We remember, indeed, a characteristic of its vicissitudes. Amongst his engagements story told in reference to Bird's visits to the homes were two that emanated from the universities of of royalty. He usually in the season of Lent proceeded from Brighton to Kew, being commanded Heretofore, the governorship of the Cold Bath to attend at the duke of Cumberland's. Upon one Fields prison, in common with other similar penal occasion, on arriving at Kew palace, Bird, who was establishments, had been in the hands of police remarkably obese and short-winded, was shown officers, who were sometimes guilty of shameful into a room and kept waiting some hours, but venality, and were often in secret confederacy with refreshment was brought in by a powdered lacquey the most notorious thieves of the time; so that, in scarlet livery, and the visitor was left to him- through the dearly bought indulgences extended self. While heartily partaking of the sumptuous to them, the prison became a comparatively plearepast and sipping his sherry, all intent upon his sant retreat, rather than a place of punishment, entertainment, he felt a sharp slap on the shoulder, during the term of their frequent incarceration. and at the same moment heard a youthful voice Convinced of the impossibility of effecting any gleefully exclaiming behind him. The intruder thorough measures of reform under such a régime, was prince George of Cumberland, now the reign- the justices resolved upon a radical change in the ing king of Hanover. The prince, on entering the management, and accordingly selected a gentleroom accidentally, and recognising his stout pre- man of the military profession, in the person of ceptor, accosted him with, “ Ah! Mr. Bird, is this captain Chesterton, to discharge these arduous you? I must take you at once to mamma; for I functions. know that you are expected.”. Accordingly, as From the dark picture which he gives of the Bird himself would represent it, he was led by the gross immoralities and abuses of gaol management hand of the young prince through a suite of superb at the period of his accession to office, we will rooms, into the presence of the duchess of Cumber- make a few selections—fully sufficient, however, to land, introduced with the utmost naïveté, and soon excite sentiments of astonishment and disgust in found himself as much at home in the privacy of the minds of such of our readers as may favour Kew palace, as if he had been at his own house. them with a perusal. "I took possession of the
Such of our readers as have travelled much in prison," says our autobiographer," when the whole England, will have noticed how the lawns of coun- machinery betokened the most appalling abuse; try mansions are frequently furnished with sun- and I found everything around me stamped with dials. Many of these were erected under the iniquity and corruption. Those best acquainted superintendence of Mr. Bird. His early trade of with the prison were utterly ignorant of the frighta carpenter, and peculiar knowledge of science, ren- ful extent of its demoralization. It is, indeed, dered him the cleverest setter-up of these objects melancholy to reflect, that well-paid functionaries then to be found, and in this peculiar business, should have entered into so unhallowed a combiwhich he connected with that of lecturing and nation to enrich themselves at the cost of all that teaching, he obtained considerable patronage. His was humane or even remotely decent. The prohumble but useful career terminated in 1840, and curement of dishonest gains was the only rule ; is well calculated to teach a working man how and, with the exception of one or two officers, too much of self-elevation can be accomplished by the recently appointed to have learned the villanous diligent use of natural abilities.
arcana of the place, all were engaged in a race of frightful enormity.
* It is impossible for the mind to conceive a PRISON SCENES TWENTY YEARS AGO. spectacle more gross and revolting than the inter
nal economy of this polluted spot. From one end ALL who are conversant with the lives and benefi- of the prison to the other, a vast illicit commerce cent labours of a Howard and a Fry, will retain a prevailed, at a rate of profit so exorbitant as none vivid impression of the appalling state of our but the most elastic consciences could have devised prison economy at the time when these philanthro- and sustained. The law forbade every species of pists exposed its revolting secrets to the shudder- indulgence, and yet there was not one that was not ing world. A reformation of the penal discipline easily purchaseable. The first question asked of a of the country was at once loudly demanded ; and Prisoner was, had he money, or any thing conlegislators, philanthropists, and jurists set them. vertible into money; or would any friend, if writselves to the herculean task of cleansing those ten to, advance him money ;' and if the answer pandemoniums of disorder, cruelty, and crime, in were affirmative, then the game of spoliation comwhich the outcasts of society were collected. It menced. In some instances, as much as seven or appears, however, that the amelioration thus eight shillings in the pound went to the turnkey,' effected was in numerous instances most super- with a couple of shillings to the 'yardsman'-a ficial and partial; for, according to a sketch of the prisoner who had purchased his appointment from iniquitous system prevalent in the house of cor- the turnkey, at a cost of never less than five rection at Cold Bath Fields only about twenty pounds, and frequently more. A fellow called years ago, (which has just appeared from the pen the passage-man' would put in a claim for some. of captain Chesterton, the governor of that prison), thing also, and thus the prison novice would soon it would seem that the abuses and corruptions could discover that he was in a place where fees were exscarcely have been more flagrant at any former orbitant and charges multiplied. If he should be period. This gentleman, whose previous life had singularly untutored in the habits of such society, been marked by strange vicissitudes and adven- he would not long retain a vestige of his property; tures as an officer in the Spanish American wars of and, if a sense of injustice led him to complain, he the early part of this century, received his appoint was called 'a nose,' and had to run the gauntlet of ment in the year 1829, having superseded a gover- the whole yard, by passing through a double file of nor whom the magistrates were compelled to dis- scoundrels, who, facing inwards, assailed him with miss in consequence of his glaring mismanagement. short ropes or well-knotted handkerchiefs. If however, he were a swell-mobsman, or one who might arrive in town with merely a few shillings promptly assimilated himself to the ways of ne- in his pocket!" One of the wretches, turning farious society, he would, by a sub-current of traffic lazily in his crib, and yawning as he did so, ex(paying tribute to the turnkey), amass in a few claimed with an oath, "I'd rob my own father if months an unusual per-centage upon the money I could get a shilling by him!"-a sentiment that invested. The poor and friendless prisoner was a was loudly cheered by his fellow vagabond. The wretchedly oppressed man. He was kicked and discussion thus overheard awakened in the goverbuffeted, made to do any revolting work, dared not nor's mind a deep interest on behalf of the brave complain, and such was the amount of savage young champion for probity. On inquiry, it was usage, combined with starvation (for even his found that he was a manufacturer and hawker of prison fare would sometimes be sacrificed to fraud brooms and brushes; and, ascertaining that 15s. or theft), that timely intervention only saved a few on his discharge would enable him to buy sufficient despairing wretches from suicide.”
materials again to pursue his trade, the visiting It may well excite the surprise of the reflecting | justices kindly presented him with that sum. , reader, how these scandalous proceedings could few months afterwards, captain Chesterton met altogether escape the notice and knowledge of the him in Hatton Garden, bearing a pole well stocked magistrates, in their periodical or casual visits to with brooms and brushes, and, with grateful exthe prison. It appears, however, that ample pro- pressions to his friend, he declared himself to be a vision was made for any such contingencies, by the thriving and contented man. establishment of a system of preconcerted signals ; Though long checkmated and defeated in his so that the unexpected visitor, on advancing from excellent designs, by the powerful combination one part of the establishment to another, would arrayed against him, an unexpected ally at length usually find an outward order, well calculated to lull appeared, in the person of a prisoner bearing the all suspicions of the irregularities that existed be assumed name of Thompson. This individual had neath the surface. The doors of cells opening been an officer in the Indian army, and had reduced into eight yards might be thrown wide open, to himself to beggary by gaming and intoxication. exhibit clean basements garnished with lime white, In this abject plight, however, he still retained and little would the complacent justice imagine many traces of the gentleman, and was, moreover, tliat almost every cell was hollowed out to consti- devotedly attached to his aged mother. It was tute a hidden store, where tobacco and pipes, tea indeed a letter of his, addressed to his parent, and coffee, butter and cheese reposed, safe from in- breathing the most beautiful and affectionate senquisitive observation; frequently beside bottles of timents, that, coming beneath the governor's eye, wine and spirits, fish sauce, and various strange first excited' his sympathy for the fallen man. luxuries. As soon as evening arrived, when all Finding, by frequent intercourse with him, that he apprehension of official intrusion was dismissed, the was worthy of confidence, the perplexed governor orgies of the depraved inmates commenced, during intrusted to him the anxious desire he felt to reform which, amid smoking, drinking, and singing, reci the prison management. His zealous co-operation tals of villanous exploits, and every species of pol. was promptly secured, and a multitude of imporluting conversation took place unchecked. Thus, tant facts were communicated, which aided him any individuals of comparatively undefiled minds, materially in the formation and working of his coming within their demoralizing influence, would plans. At the suggestion of his new coadjutor, find it almost impossible to escape contamination. the governor paid occasional visits to the homes of
So thick was the veil of artifice and secrecy prisoners, where, by tact and kindness, he obtained thrown over these prison irregularities, that even much information relative to the large pecuniary the new governor himself could only slowly and bribes which on various pretexts were extorted from stealthily penetrate the mystery of wickedness their distressed relatives by the turnkeys. “One working everywhere around him ; while the sub- poor woman," says our author, “ assured me that ordinate functionaries, instead of aiding him in his she had parted with her last farthing, and pawned investigations, did their utmost to delude and ree her last remnant of clothing, to satisfy these insasist him in his reformatory schemes. Thus, for a tiate wretches; and in the agony of her reflections long period, he had to contend single-handed she exclaimed wildly, 'Oh! what monsters those against a host of confederates bent upon the main men are! what hearts of stone they possess !''. tenance of their illieit privileges. One method Such a state of vicious society as this seems indeed to which he was compelled to have recourse in to foreshadow in some measure the condition of lost order to obtain information, was to glide softly spirits, and makes one realize the meaning of the through the passages in the evening, and listen aspiration, “Oh, gather not my soul with sinners, to the private conversations of the prisoners, who nor my life with bloody men." generally slept together by threes in each cell. On The dishonest turnkeys were dismissed; and this one of these eaves-dropping expeditions, the gover- summary measure struck consternation and alarm nor found a young man, of really honest principles, into the heart of the clique, and at the same time contending with two hardened criminals for the exposed Thompson, whose concert with the goversuperior advantages of integrity. He was in nor had been long suspected, to their hatred and prison for theft, but protested that had it not been vengeance. Indeed, not many days were suffered for the impoverishment and distress occasioned by to elapse before a fierce assault was made upon himn. a severe illness, he would never have stolen. His “One evening,” says our narrator, "loud cries companions scoffed, of course, at his scruples, and were heard from a room containing about thirty advocated general spoliation; when, in a tone of prisoners. I was in the garden and heard them, indignant remonstrance, the young man said, and rushed with two or three officers, whom I sum
Surely you would not rob a poor countryman who moned to my aid, in order to ascertain the cause.