Page images
PDF
EPUB

many for him (the accommodating coachman) this informed her that she was to keep her inside place time.

the rest of the way. This settled the matter. "There isn't anything of the sort," replied the “Come, Mr. Sutherland," shouted a voice from coachman bluntly; "and here's a gentleman,” the supper-room; "you are going to help us, arn't pointing to Arthur, who had come forward a few you ? Here's some good stowage; but you must steps, “ that can tell you so. He knows when and make haste about it; nothing like time present; why I put the woman inside."

it will soon be 'Time's up, gentlemen."" The young gentleman, thus appealed to, briefly “ Thank you,” replied Arthur ; "but I am not explained that at his earnest solicitation the poor going to take supper this evening.” The extra fare woman was accommodated with an inside place had dipped deeply into a purse not very well lined. when the storm came on. “She would have been If the “poor woman" had known the penance to drenched to the skin by this time," he added, "if which her young champion doomed himself as the she had retained her former seat on the top of the price of his generosity, and how, in the drenching coach."

rain which lasted all the remainder of the journey, "That doesn't signify," retorted the other, who he was fain to content himself with munching and was evidently one of the coach proprietors, upon mumbling a dry biscuit, just to aniuse his internal whom the Emerald had lighted somewhat unex- economy with the hope of something better to pectedly, and upon whose overbearing and defiant follow, she would not, I think, have passed the address the outward costume of a gentleman sat night so comfortably as, in her ignorance, she did. misfittingly, while his temper was probably rough- But however this might be, in due time, or within ened by the light load of the Emerald that night: half an hour of it, the Emerald drove up to the “it doesn't signify; if the woman goes inside, she office of the "Hen and Chickens," where, in the must pay inside fare, that's all ;” and returning early morning, a pleasant-looking, manly young to the coach door, he in a few words placed the mechanic was, among others, waiting the arrival. alternative before the traveller. *

A gleam of satisfaction passed over his countenance Without any further reply than that she was as he scrutinized the roof of the coach. unable to accede to the demand, the young mother “I am glad she didn't come through such a was about to step out into the soaking rain, when night as this has been,” he said to a fellow-workthe youth—for Arthur Sutherland could by no man by his side.

“She is delicate and timid, and means have lawfully claimed to be considered a wasn't well provided with cloakings, either; and man-gently interfered. “You surely do not mean the poor babyto turn the poor woman and her baby out into the “Here, Alex;" the voice of his wife from the rain, sir? It may cause her death to be exposed to open coach window stopped short the young man's it through the whole night. I dare say she is not colloquy; and he hastened to open the door. much used to travelling; and she has nothing to

“ Bless

you, Edith! you here? I thought you wrap round her but a thin shawl."

wouldn't have come in such weather, and I didn't "I can't help that," said the proprietor, sharply, think to look for you inside, anyhow." for he seemed to think the interference of the young “Oh, I wanted to get home so badly," said the traveller a piece of gratuitous impertinence to be young traveller, putting her infant into its father's resented; "the young woman should have taken arms; whereupon it began to kick and crow" care of that herself."

good-un," as he said afterwards; "and besides,” “I did not think of its being such a night when she added, " it didn't seem like rain when we left the coach started,” the woman said, in a soft gentle London, or perhaps I mightn't have come.” voice; "and if I had known it, I had nothing "Well, I am glad you were able to get an inside warmer to put on; but I dare say I shall do very place." well,” she added, resignedly; "at least, if it wasn't " I shouldn't, though,” said Edith, "if it hadn't for the poor baby.” And, wrapping this object of been for a young gentleman- ;" and she looked her solicitude as warmly as she could in her shawl, round to thank her friend afresh, just in time to she was stepping from the coach, when the young see him turn the corner of New-street. “There! man again interfered.

I am vexed,” she said ; and on her way home, like " It is a great shame," he said, indignantly; a dutiful wife, she gave her husband a true and full " and I shouldn't have expected

account of her incidents of travel, from the Bull " I should like to know what business you have and Mouth in London to the office in Birto interfere sir," said the proprietor, hotly: "you mingham. had better pay the inside fare for her yourself, if A few weeks afterwards, one Sunday mornyou think so much about it."

ing, as Arthur Sutherland, with his sister, was Very well, I will then," returned the young walking towards church, he passed a respectable

please to keep your seat, my good woman, young couple, in one of whom he recognised the and I'll make it all right.”

poor woman" his travelling companion. It was “I couldn't think of it, sir,” she said ; but be plain that he too was remembered, for in another fore she could frame a remonstrance in suitable minute the man had turned and was at Arthur's words, the proprietor and her young champion had elbow. both disappeared ; and while she was hesitating “Excuse my freedom, sir," he said; "but I what to do next, the coachman came forward and wish to thank you for your kindness to my Edith

my wife, I mean that terrible night she came * As the reader may reasonably doubt whether any person

down from London." in such circumstances could act so brutally, the writer has to " Don't speak a word about it," replied the youth; say that he was on the coach-top that night, and witnessed the scena described, and has given a mild version of the gentle "I am glad I was able to give a little assistance man's" behaviour.m;

but it isn't worth mentioning. I hope your wife

a

man:

didn't get any harm; for she had some of the posed of hair stripped from their own bodies. storm, as it was.”

With this material, which they tear off by means “Not the least in the world, sir; but she might of their pincer-like ovipositor, they first form a soft have got a good deal if she had come all the way couch on the surface of some lent; they then place outside of the coach. She had been to London to upon it, successively, layers of eggs, and surround see her friends, and hadn't more than enough left them with a similar downy coating; afterwards, to pay her fare down. I think you was money out when the whole number is deposited, they cover of pocket, sir," the man added, after a little hesita- the surface with a roof of hairs, the disposition of tion; "and if you wouldn't be offended at my which cannot be too much admired: those used for offering to pay back again

the interior of the nest are scattered without order, Not a word about it, my good fellow; I couldn't but those that are placed externally are arranged think of it

with as much art and skill as the thatch of a cot" Then, sir, I must thank you for it, and hope to tage, and as effectually keep out water; one layer be able to return the kindness some other way;" of these hairs partially overlaps another, and, all and the man rejoined his young wife.

having the same direction, the whole resembles a " That's young Sutherland,” he said. “His well-brushed piece of shaggy cloth or fur: , When father's a regular screw, they say ; but this one the mother has finished this labour, which often has got a good name, as far as he can do anything. occupies her for twenty-four hours, and sometimes If the old gentleman had been on the coach that for even twice that period, her body, which before night instead of the young one, you might have was extremely hairy, is rendered almost wholly been wet through fifty times before he would have naked; she has stripped herself to clothe her said a word for you, Edith.”

offspring, and having performed this last duty of “What new friend have you picked up now, her life, she dies." Arthur!" asked his sister when the short confer- Many have seen the chrysalis of the butterfly ence was ended; "and what is that about the hanging by its tail to a leaf of the hawthorn or a coach ? I guess now why you had to borrow of me rose-bush, without perhaps considering how the the day after your journey, to make up your book, caterpillar accomplished the business of suspending as you said."

himself by the tail by means of silk span from his “Well, never mind now, Jessy ; I'll tell you all mouth while encased in a skin which must be cast about it another day,” said Arthur.

off before the process is finished. Let us see how [TO DE CONTINUED.]

he sets about it. "When the caterpillar has selected an object to which it proposes suspending itself,

the first process is to spin upon it a little hillock INSECT CURIOSITIES.

of silk, consisting of loosely interwoven threads

it then bends its body so as to insinuate the anal AMONG the many marvels which are continually pair of prolegs amongst these threads, in which before our eyes, there are few more worthy of ob- the little crotchets which surround them become servation, or which more forcibly illustrate the so strongly entangled as to support its weight condescending wisdom and beneficence of the great with ease. It now hangs perpendicularly from its Maker of all things, than the wonderful instincts, if silken support, with its head downwards. In this instincts they are to be called, implanted in the position it often remains for twenty-four hours, at minutest creatures, to enable them to provide for intervals alternately contracting and dilating itself. their hourly wants, and to secure the welfare of At length the skin is seen to split on the back, their progeny, which, in the case of insects, for the near the head, and a portion of the pupa appears, most part come into existence after the death of which, by repeated swellings, acts like a wedge, the parent. We demur somewhat at the word and rapidly extends the slit towards the tail. By “instinct,” because, from occasional observation of the continuance of these alternate contractions and the doings of these little creatures, and from what dilatations of the conical pupa, the skin of the caterwe have read of the observations of others, persons pillar is at last collected in folds near the tail

, like of very good authority, we feel inclined to question a stocking which we roll upon the ankle before the appropriateness of the term. It is our object withdrawing it from the foot. But now comes the at present to bring together a few of the charac- important operation. The pupa being much shorter teristic performances of the insect race, some of than the caterpillar, is yet at some distance from which have passed under our own notice, while for the silken hillock upon which it is to be fastened ; others we are indebted to the writings of a cele- it is supported merely by the unsplit terminal porbrated naturalist, Mr. Rymer Jones, from whose tion of the latter's skin. How shall it disengage second volume on the "Natural History of Ani- itself from this remnant of its case, and be susmals we shall make a few abbreviated selections. pended in the air while it climbs up to its place ? We shall confine our instances to facts which we Without arms or legs to support itself, the anxious have personally observed, and to others already spectator expects to see it fall to the earth. His recorded but not generally known.

fears, however, are vain; the supple segments of The most casual observer must have remarked the pupa's abdomen serve in the place of arms. at times, in field or garden, upon the leaf of an oak, Between two of these, as with a pair of pincers, it or some fruit-bearing tree, a brownish patch of a seizes on a portion of the skin, and bending its downy texture, looking not very unlike a mole on body once more, entirely extricates its tail from it. the human skin. Did he ever imagii that this It is now wholly out of the skin, against one side was a moths’-nest P "Several kinds of moths," of which it is supported, but yet at some distance says Rymer Jones, “construct very beautiful and from the leaf. The next step is to climb up to the curious nests, impervious to wet, and entirely com- required height. For this purpose it repeats the same ingenious maneuvre : making its cast-off skin game as he catches himself; nevertheless, he is serve as a sort of ladder, it successively, with dif- unable to hunt even the slowest-paced insects, ferent segments, seizes a higher and a higher por- for not only are his movements excessively tardy, tion, until in the end it reaches the summit, where, but, from the construction of his legs, he is only with its tail, it feels for the silken threads which are able to move backwards. But as he cannot go to support it. But how can the tail be fastened to in quest of his prey, it must come to him-so he them? This difficulty has been provided against employs a stratagem by the effect of which the by Creative Wisdom. The tail of the pupa is fur- game positively falls into his jaws. Selecting a nished with numerous little hooks pointing in sandy soil, and choosing a situation beneath the different directions, and some of these hooks are shelter of some wall or tree, so as to be protected sure to fasten themselves upon the silk the moment as much as possible from rain, the ant-lion prothe tail is thrust amongst it. Its labours are now ceeds to excavate a pit, which he accomplishes nearly completed; but one more exertion remains : by throwing out the sand with his long jaws, it seems to have as great an antipathy to its cast- walking backwards round and round until a deep off skin as one of us would when newly clothed, conical excavation is formed in the loose sand, at after a long imprisonment, to the filthy prison. the bottom of which he buries himself

, remaining garments we had put off. It will not suffer this quietly concealed, with the exception of his jaws, memento of its former state to remain near it, and which are kept half open and ready for action. No it is therefore no sooner suspended in security than sooner does a thoughtless insect approach the fatal it endeavours to make it fall. For this end, it pitfall, than the loose sides giving way beneath its seizes with its tail the threads to which the skin is feet, the unfortunate traveller is precipitated to the fastened, and then very rapidly whirls itself round, bottom of the ant-lion's den, and falls at once into often not fewer than twenty times. By this ma- the jaws of its destroyer. The insect sometimes nouvre it generally succeeds in breaking them, perceives the danger, and tries to lay hold of the and the skin falls down. Sometimes, however, the grains of sand at the border of the dreadful gulf: first attempt fails : in that case, after a moment's some yield beneath its feet, and it sinks lower and rest, it makes a second, twirling itself in an oppo- lower still; at last, with desperate efforts, it sucsite direction ; and this is rarely unsuccessful. Yet ceeds in getting hold of some piece of earth more now and then it is forced to repeat its whirling not stable than the rest, whereby it holds, or even atless than four or five times; and Réaumur has tempts to regain the top of the dangerous steep; seen instances where the feet of the skin were so but the bandit has still a resource to enable him to firmly hooked that, after many fruitless efforts, secure his escaping prey : with the top of his flatthe pupa, as if in despair, gave up the task and tened head, which he uses as a shovel, he throws suffered it to remain. After these exertions, it up a deluge of sand, which, falling in showers upon hangs the remainder of its existence in this state, the miserable victim, already exhausted with its until the butterfly is disclosed."

futile efforts, soon brings it to the bottom, there to Some larvæ, in an equally ingenious manner, become an easy prey to the ruthless savage. suspend themselves horizontally, by means of a It is interesting and amusing at times to watch girth of silk wound many times round their bodies. the motions of a working bee in its busy pursuit Others, the leaf-rolling caterpillars, roll up a porafter the two things which constitute its treasures, tion of a leaf of a plant in the form of a cylinder, the pollen and the honey. The visit which it pays in the interior of which they spin their cocoons and to each flower is of very short duration, and, accord. pass their pupa condition. The work is managed ing to our experience, it invariably helps itself to thus : the little labourer first begins by spinning pollen first, and to honey, if there be any, which is silken threads, which it fastens to the edge of the not always the case, afterwards. Honey, indeed, leaf by one end, whilst the other is attached to a in the proper sense of the word, it does not get at distant part of the leaf's surface; she then pulls at all from the flowers ; but it sucks a sweet fluid, these cables one after another with her feet, so as which is afterwards elaborated into honey in its at each effort to bend the edge of the leaf a little own stomach, and thence regurgitated into the inwards, in which position she fastens it by means waxen cells of the hive: we may add, moreover, of additional threads. This operation is repeated that the bee does not collect the wax, as some supagain and again; and as the ropes are thus pro- pose--the wax being nothing more than a secretion gressively shortened, the leaf becomes gradually from its own body, a provision of nature for the folded more and more, until at length it is bent exigencies of its architecture. The bee appears to into a roll, and securely tied in that position by sweep the pollen together, making besoms of its innumerable silken filaments of sufficient strength hairy hind-legs, and then in a manner to dredge it to resist the resiliency of the material employed. into certain small receptacles on the outward sur

The above instances of ingenuity, which, were it face of its thighs. This is not always a silent pronecessary, we might multiply a hundredfold, show cess, but is mostly accompanied with a subdued the insect providing for its self-preservation, or for hum, while the performer straddles and fidgets the preservation of its offspring. Let us glance as about, sweeping the whole calyx of the flower by briefly at the singular measures which some of them no means in a neat and cleanly fashion, and leaving adopt, and the management they display in procur- a portion for the next comer. The sucking process, ing food. The ant-lion, which in its perfect state however-by which it is to be supposed he pumps closely resembles the dragon-fly, is in its larva condi- the sweet fluid which is to become honey, into his tion more like a spider in the shape of its body: it has stomach—is always one of profound stillness, and it a small head, a very moveable neck, and jaws like is to be hoped of enjoyment as well. It happens a strong pair of callipers, toothed along their inner sometimes that the industrious and thirsty gentlemargin. . This creature will feed only on such | man is balked, after having secured the pollen, in

his attempts to get at the delicious nectar ; but if | piece too large for him to remove. He now called he is perplexed, it is but for a moment: if he can- a companion to assist; the two together dragged not get at it one way, he tries another. Look at it to the mouth of the hole, where they ensconced him engaged with a larkspur in full bloom. There themselves safely, and then, with bodies half prois but little pollen, or bee-bread, to be got from truded, set to work to reduce the mass to adthis flower, and he has soon done with the open missible dimensions, a task which it took them blossom; but the larkspur wears a long and slightly twenty minutes to accomplish ere the last crumb curling horn in the rear, which sticks out like an was safely housed. old gentleman's pigtail in a picture; and in that, The destructive insect called by gardeners “ the at the very extremity of it, is the fluid which Mas. American blight," but known by naturalists as the ter Bee is in search of. To reach it at the natural aphis, must be familiar to every owner of a garden opening is out of the question. The orifice would or an orchard. Were it not for its mortal enemy, not admit the smallest pin's head, and the tube is the larva of the coccinella (lady-bird, or lady-cow), two-thirds of an inch long. What does he do? its destructive ravages would be infinitely greater He quietly crawls round to the end of the tube, than they are. The aphides cluster round the and by means of some apparatus with which a kind tender shoots of fruit-trees, and, thick as sheep Providence has furnished him, drills a small hole in a fold, are incapable of flight. Among them in the extremity of it, inserts his pumping engine, comes the coccinella like a wolf, and slaughters and drains the vessel dry. We are not aware that them by hundreds. But the most curious fact this curious circumstance has been remarked be in connexion with these aphides is the relation fore; but we have watched the operation many existing between them and the ants. Goëdaert, times in our own garden. Upon plucking the an old naturalist, affirms that these insects are the flowers thus rifled, and examining them, we found progeny of the ants, an error still prevalent among the holes neatly drilled, the soft fibre of the flower the lower classes. There is no doubt a warm atbeing removed in the operation, the hole being tachment existing between the ants and the aphiclean, without jagged edges, and not larger than des; but, on the part of the former at least, it is would be made by the puncture of a shirt-maker's of an interested character-a pure example of needle. Any person who is sceptical as to the cupboard love.”. The aphides secrete a sugared object of the bee in this proceeding, may, by fluid, and it is this of which the ants are fond. biting off the ends of a few of these larkspur The ant ascends the trees, says Linnæus, that it tubes, taste very perceptibly the saccharine matter may milk its cows, the aphides; and its proceedwhich attracts him. Is this also an instinct ? ings amongst its cattle, which may be easily

The "cricket on the hearth” is the sentimental watched by any attentive observer, have been thus and poetical favourite of a good many people who graphically described :-" The aphides, when no are not obliged to be bis near neighbours, while he ants attend them, waste the sweet fluid which they is the nuisance and plague of a very numerous produce, and, by a certain jerk of the body, which class whose fireside comforts, when they have any, takes place at regular intervals, they ejaculate it to are on the kitchen floor. Whether we look upon a distance ; but when the ants are at hand, watchhim as a pet or a plague, we are certainly not in the ing the moment when the aphides emit their fluid, habit of attributing to him anything like sagacity they seize and suck it down immediately. This, or forethought. We see him and his tribe by hun- however, is the least of their talents, for they abdreds, walking by night, along with silly cock, solutely possess the art of making them yield it at roaches, into a dish of stale beer, to drink and pleasure; or, in other words, of milking them. drown ingloriously-or jumping headlong into a On this occasion their antennæ are their fingers ; basin of scalding tea, to perish in a boiling bath with these they pat the abdomen of the aphis on or grubbing about in the ashes beneath the fire, at each side alternately, moving them very briskly the risk of being crushed by a hot cinder. But the till a little drop of the honeyed fluid appears, which cricket is not altogether a fool. Sitting the other the ant immediately takes into its mouth and day by the kitchen fire, to dry ourselves after a swallows. But this is not the most singular part sudden shower, we noticed Mr. Cricket popping up of the history. Ants make a property of these his head from a crack in the hearth-stone. "We cows, for the possession of which they contend thought perhaps he might be hungry, and dropped with great earnestness, and use every means to a few small crumbs near his hole. Our shadow keep them to themselves. Sometimes they seem startled him, and he disappeared for an instant. In to claim a right to the aphides that inhabit the a moment or two, however, he came boldly forth, branches of a tree or the stalks of a plant; and if walked to the largest crumb, seized it and carried stranger-ants attempt to share their treasure with it to his hiding-place, returning immediately, until them, they endeavour to drive them away, and he had fetched them all

. We tried him again with may be seen running about in a great bustle, and larger pieces--several much larger than himself. exhibiting every symptom of inquietude and anger. Most of these he carried off with perfect ease : but Sometimes, to rescue them from their rivals, they mark the perfection of his instinct; the hole in take their aphides in their mouths: they generally the stone from which he emerged was barely large keep guard around them; and when the branch is enough to admit of his passage ; when he carried conveniently situated, have recourse to an expesmall pieces of bread he ran rapidly down the hole dient still more effectual to keep off interlopers. head-foremost; but with larger pieces, he invariably They inclose it in a tube of earth and other mategot into the hole backwards, pulling the bread rials, and thus confine them in a kind of paddock after him, evidently to avoid the possibility of block near their nest, and sometimes communicating ing up the hole, and thus preventing his own es- with it. One species common in our meadows, the cape in case of alarm. At last there remained one ) yellow ant (formica flava), which is not fond of roaming from home, and likes to have all its con. cranny between the bricks of the kitchen chimney ; veniences within reach, usually collects in its nest and we have seen him sally forth before now, lured a large herd of a kind of aphis that derives its nu- by the smell of extra sweets and aroused by the triment from the roots of grass and other plants warmth of extra roasting, to claim his share of the (aphis radicum). These it transports from the Christmas pudding. The flesh-fly, too, no favourite neighbouring roots, probably by subterranean gal- with housekeepers, hybernates in huge battalions. leries excavated for the purpose, leading from the We chanced some winters back to have occasion to nest in all directions; and thus, without going disturb a set of folding shutters to a parlour ont, it has always at hand a copious supply of food.” window, which had been long unused. We were The aphides share the care and solicitude of the startled by observing that the plastered wall of the ants equally with their own offspring, the latter recess for the reception of the shutters was in aptaking every care of their eggs, and tending them pearance painted jet-black. On taking a candle, as assiduonsly in all respects as a farmer would his however, to examine more distinctly, we made the young lambs or his cattle.

unwelcome discovery that the whole area of six What a vast and inconceivable amount of living feet in length by eighteen inches in width was one enjoyment is comprised in the insect world! Of the compact colony of flesh-flies in a dormant state, number of these minute creatures, the mind fails clinging layer upon layer three deep. Fortunately to grasp the most remote idea. It has been proved they were all palsied or petrified with cold, and by a celebrated naturalist, that a single aphis in its were easily swept into a washing-basin, which they short life may be the parent of a progeny more more than filled, and not one of them ever woke than fifty times as numerous as the whole number to buzz again. The window of the room had of the human inhabitants of the globe. There are been left open till sunset every day during sumother tribes of equal fecundity; but this marvel mer and autumn, for the sake of ventilation, for lous fruitfulness is counterbalanced by swarms of many years, and it is more than probable that this deadly enemies, to whose ravages all in their turn convenient nook had long been a favourite winter. have to submit

, and by the sweeping gusts of ing-place for flesh-flies. The corresponding recess autumn and winter, which prostrate countless le- on the other side of the window did not contain gions at a breath. There is something melancholy a single one. in the contemplation of the prodigious havoc com- But we are warned by the bounds we have mitted upon the insect races by the first cold blasts already reached, to cut short our remarks on insects of autumn, and the sight of the once happy swarms for the present. Perhaps we may resume the subreduced to a state of half-animate helplessness. In ject another day. October, 1850, in walking from the sea-wall at Harwich as far as the Breakwater, we found the margin of the sea for near a mile in length covered with myriads of crane-flies, vulgarly known as

THE RESULTS OF BIBLICAL CRITICISM. father-long-legs. A strong cold wind was blowing an interesting article on “ The Text of Scripture," from the German ocean, the effects of which had in the “North British Review” for August last, already crippled the whole host so effectually that thus eloquently points out how little Christians they were unable to move out of the way, and have to fear from the minute researches of critics numbers perished at every step we took. It was in this field of inquiry : impossible to set down the foot without crushing " It is a matter of congratulation that here, as them by dozens. In some sheltered nooks, under elsewhere, the Bible has passed triumphantly the seats, or in crevices in the bank, they had through the ordeal. English infidels of the last crowded so densely for warmth and refuge, and century raised a premature pæan over the discovery their long legs had become so entangled together, and publication of so many various readings. They that thousands might have been lifted in a mass. imagined that the popular mind would be rudely Thus they continued for several days, until a and thoroughly shaken, that Christianity would be change of wind carried them out to sea, where in placed in imminent peril of extinction, and that the all likelihood they formed an acceptable meal to a church would be dispersed and ashamed at the sight shoal of whiting then affording employment to the of the tattered shreds of its Magna Charta. But fishermen of the place. Again, in the early days the result has blasted all their hopes; and the of September of last year, while making holi- oracles of God are found to have been preserved in day at Southend, we observed a similar pheno- immaculate integrity. The storm which shakes menon in connexion with the coccinellæ, or “ lady- the oak only loosens the earth round its roots, and birds.” Innumerable swarms of these pretty little its violence enables the tree to strike its roots deeper creatures, apparently in a state of stupified inac- into the soil. So it is that Scripture has gloriously tivity, were clustered about the stones and stakes surmounted every trial. There gathers around it of the shore, and the wooden piles of the long pier, a dense“ cloud of witnesses," from the ruins of thousands being submerged by every breaker that Nineveh and the valley of the Nile; from the slabs fell upon the beach, and the host perishing by mil. and bas-reliefs of Sennacherib and the tombs and lions at the rise of the tide. It would appear to be monuments of Pharaoh ; from the rolls of Chaldee a law of nature that the survivors of the interne- paraphrasts and Syrian versionists; from the cells cine slaughter which all summer long is going on and libraries of monastic scribes and the dry and between the insect tribes, should be devoured in dusty labours of scholars and antiquarians. Our their turn when the combat is over.

present bibles are undiluted by the lapse of ages. Still vast numbers, of the domestic insects espe- These oracles, written amidst such strange diversity cially, contrive to brave the rigours of winter. The of time, place, and condition-among the sands and common house-fly sets up his winter quarters in a cliffs of Arabia, the fields and hills of Palestine, in

« PreviousContinue »