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weakened by later years, making a most genial and parting with its ordinary tranquil loveliness, ashappy history of that day, from the hour when the sumes a boldness and commanding grandeur of sun left the morning land till he reached the even- character sueh as belongs to it at no other time." ing land, as the Germans, with their fine instinct We have seen it in spring and autumn, yet here, for poetic appellations, call, in common talk, the in preference to any description of our own, we caneast and west.
not forbear giving another extract from the same The hill and the park stand chief amongst the writer, who contributes to "The Land we Live In," natural beauties of the neighbourhood. The latter and that in more senses than one. “ It is viewed would take us too far from the banks of the river, with more delight in that sweet season when by which we are pledged to stay, and therefore the young leaves are timidly pressing forward on our notices must be confined to the former, which every spray, and the hill-sides are clothed in their has certainly the pre-eminence. Well, sit down for freshest verdure, and the endless variety of tint a moment and look at the prospect, and then look has not yet sobered down into a uniform sombre and look again. Of course the winding slip of green, and the multitude of leaves has not hidden silver on that broad sheet of many-tinted green the various objects that adorn the meadows and first strikes you. The river threads together all uplands; or later, when the sombre green has the beauties of the prospect, and gives it unity. | itself given way to a new and infinite profusion of But mark as well “ the pendant woods that nod- golden hues, and over all is spread a glorious rich. ding hang o'er Harrington's retreat, and sloping ness of colour, in comparison with which the splenthence to Ham's embowering glades ;” and then, dour of even Titian's palette fades into poverty." yonder, the Twickenham bowers; and then, the Scenery, famous houses, and old churches are softly swelling hills, and the long cultivated tract what we are in quest of in this our humble river which spreads in the far distance ; and finally, let tour. We must, therefore, make our way to Richthe eye pass on " to lofty Harrow now, and now to mond church, and an out-of-the-way place it is, where imperial Windsor lifts her haughty brow.” hemmed in and hidden by buildings without one
good access. The edifice has nothing architectural “What goodly prospect spreads around,
to recommend it; but there is something so retired Of hills and dales, and woods and lawns and spires,
and still about the little area in which it stands, And glittering towers, and gilded streams, till all The stretching landscape into smoke decays."
that we never pass through it without pensive
thoughts, to which the thickly-grouped tombs and We began, thinking we would not quote Thom- gravestones minister solemn admonitions. son, for everybody quotes him when writing Within the church there is one memorial which about Richmond: but we have fallen into the attracts universal attention. “In the earth below fashion in spite of ourselves ; or, rather, we have this tablet,” so it reads, "are the remains of James used his words as others do, because it is natural Thomson, author of the beautiful poems, 'The Seato employ the best that we have at command, sons,'' The Castle of Indolence, etc., who died at whether original or borrowed. And certainly the Richmond on the 27th of August, and was buried deep-toned but not over-colouring of Thomson's there on the 29th, O. s., 1748. The earl of picture is incomparably better than any sketch of Buchan, unwilling that so good a man and so our own, in Indian ink or sepia ; so we put his sweet a poet should be without a memorial, has words in place of our own. Yet do just dwell, for denoted the place of his interment, for the satisa moment, on the little accessories of the view faction of his admirers, in the year of our Lord that barge gliding along with graceful sail that 1792.". This common-place inscription will be boat skimming about like a gay water-bird-that perused with interest by every one who reads and cottage roof, all weather-stained, peeping out from loves the verses of this gifted bard; and surely amongst the dense foliage of the woods below, and they who read his poetry must love it. The ashes those curls of smoke, struggling amongst the of genius ennoble the spots where they slumber, and leaves, producing manifold pictorial effects. Sir those places of their rest inspire, with sacred Joshua Reynolds used to spend part of his summers emotions, minds wont to trace intellectual endowat Richmond; Gainsborough and Hofland often ments to their origin and to follow the spirit ennorambled about here ; all painters since have studied bled by original power to that other world for the hill prospect, and a few have mastered it and which the present only prepares. The infinite and mirrored it on their own canvass, but not many. eternal open upon us with affecting grandeur,
We like to visit objects, whether artistic or through those gates of the grave, beyond which natural, at different seasons. The weather, the these great intellectual torch-bearers of humanity atmosphere, and the hour have much to do with are now for ever gone. They see in a purer light scenery. We have often been at Richmond, and than ever---perhaps in a light altogether different have stayed there for some weeks, but have never from what they had or used before. Thomson happened to be on the hill at such a time as the was nature's own poet. His favourite theme was following description refers to, and therefore we nature. The race of the seasons, the successive insert it, with thanks to its author. “When, in aspects of the year-no one has given the true idea the summer, stormy weather does occur, or as the of them as he has done! We feel that we are rain is clearing off and the shadows from the his debtors for some of our purest intellectual pleaheavy clouds that are driving wildly over the sky sures, and we realize the debt and would express are rapidly chasing each other, or casting the larger the obligation, as we gaze on the half-defaced part into magnificent masses of gloom, while plate of brass which records his fame. bright gleams of sunshine lie in patches amid We picture the outer man as the visible copy of the shadows, and the wind is tossing that sea of the inner mental one. Thomson puzzles us, if the foliage into huge billows; then indeed the scene, following account be true.."He was of a stature
above the middle size, and more fat than bard be- dantly repeating the architectural idea of aspiration, seems :' of a dull countenance and a gross unani- and looking like a large collection of old-fashioned mated, uninviting appearance." We are afraid that, cruets and pepper-boxes. There are numerous after all, the pictures which fancy paints of the windows, great and small; and, to the east of the form and face of those departed master-spirits palace, there is a fair garden, with long walls, not whom we reverence, and those departed brother- far from the water's edge. spirits whom we love, are not unfrequently erro- King Charles I is here on the 26th of August, neous; yet we shall cherish our ideals of them 1647, with the prince Elector Palatine, and they, while we can, delusive though they be. But we with the duke of York and the lords, hunt in the are compelled now to think of the Bard of the Sea- new park, where they kill a stag and a buck, and his sons as corpulent, and rather heavy in gait and majesty, we are told, is very cheerful, and after aspect, silent too in mixed company, a taciturn wards goes to dine with his children at Sion House. man, little given to talk, but "cheerful among A little earlier, and there is masking going on select friends, and by them “tenderly and warmly before the king and queen, by lord Buckhurst loved.”
and Edward Sackville, and poor Charles is very So, carrying Thomson's true picture in our mind, busy forming a collection of pictures, of which he we go in quest of the house where he lived, and is peculiarly fond, for he is a man of much artistic find it in Kew Lanc, now part of the residence of taste. The plague rages in 1603, and hither the countess of Shaftesbury. There is the parlour come the judges and lawyers of the courts of in which he lived, with the old furniture that he chancery and exchequer, to hold sittings and plead used. And there is the garden in which he was
The death-scene of Elizabeth takes place, wont to saunter and bask in the sun,“ slippered, too, on this spot. Here she lies, on the floor, supand with hands each in a waistcoat-pocket;" and ported by cushions, silent but restless, full of where he was “seen one morn eating a wondering agitating thoughts about the past and future-a peach from off the tree.” And there is the sum- spectacle of magnificent misery in contrast with mer-house which he made his study, and which the serene departure of a soul full of faith and bears the inscription : “Here Thomson sung the hope. Tradition tells us of another scene in the Seasons and their change." Poor Savage used to history of the maiden monarch, associated with come and see him there; and there, too, Collins what we have now noticed, and also connected loved walk and talk with his gifted friend, with Richmond palace. In the chamber over the with how much of tender friendship his ode on the gateway she shakes the dying countess of NotBard's death well shows.
tingham, and bitterly upbraids her for her treachery Richmond is a place of antiquarian interest, not to Essex in the concealment of the famous tokenfrom its remains, but from its history. A frag- ring. These pictures melt away, to show us the ment, however, exists, which tells of other times, same high-spirited sovereign not very long before, and which we must visit ; nor shall we be unwill- keeping her court, surrounded by gallant nobles, ing to make it the occasion of a brief ramble dancing galliards, playing music, feeding her amidst the shadows of past days and things. We vanity, and rebuking Anthony bishop of St. David's have reached the west side of Richmond Green, for daring to say that age had furrowed her face, and here we find a plain old gateway, with an and besprinkled her hair with its meal.” In her escntcheon of Henry vil over the arch, and youth, we see the fierce Eric IV, king of Sweden, adjoining it a quaint-looking house of red brick, coming to lodge at Richmond, when on his expediand next to that an octagonal tower. These are tion as suitor for Elizabeth's hand. Within the scanty relics of the famous regal palace, which walls she is kept a prisoner by her sister Mary. witnessed many memorable scenes, and whose story Receding further, a view discloses itself of the is interwoven with our national annals.
gorgeous king-cardinal keeping house in the royal Standing by this gateway, a succession of dissolv- manor of Richmond, whereat the people marvel ing views come before us, beginning with what and murmur, saying, “ So a butcher's dog doth lie is least remote and most distinct, and ending in in the manor of Richmond.” Here he keeps open pictures of the distant past, faint and pale. First, house for lords and ladies, with plays and disguiswe have the sight of a large pile of buildings ings in royal style, though the plague is raging in in the reign of James II, dilapidated, neglected, London, and Henry in consequence is gone to crumbling away, with some apartments, however, spend his Christmas privately at Eltham. occupied, sufficient for the nursing of the unhappy Then comes a view of the founding of the palace young prince whom we all know as the Pretender. by Henry vii, and architects, masons, carpenters, The scene shifts, and then we see Richmond palace and painters are seen basily at work, while barges some few years earlier, less dismantled, forming bring a goodly store of material up the Thames for part of the possession of queen Henrietta Maria, the rising edifice. the widow of Charles I; albeit a process of strip- The appellation of Richmond is first given in ping away the adornments of the edifice is going commemoration of the king's earlier title as the on, for “ several boats laden with rich and curious earl of Richmond. Hitherto Sheen has been its effigies” are making their way from the banks of name in truth, a descriptive epithet-for schön, or the river, hard by the palace, to take the spoil to beautiful, as the word imports, is the neighbourWhiteball
. Now comes another view, supplied by hood in which it stands. That old title given to reports of parliamentary commissioners, in 1649, the spot is a memorial of the admiration which our and by Hollars' engraving. A stately structure old Anglo-Saxon forefathers felt, as they wound is seen by the water-side, with numerous towers along these river-banks or paddled on the water. and turrets, battlements and cupolas, and spires An older palace now comes in sight-a castle and chimneys—a perfect medley of forms, abun- a fortress grim and rude, only relaxing its terrible
expression a little, through architectural alterations been followed by a prolonged concert of affections which have softened its features. And now again and sympathies, softer and sweeter than any music. we see on the green a grand tournament. Sir There are associations here of other festive gatherJames Parker, in conflict with Hugh Vaughan ings, such as dinners for city companies, and, if for right of coat armour, is slain in the first en- the circumstance may be mentioned in the same counter. But pageants and shows keep passing sentence, dinners for the ministers of state; but all before us in these Tudor times with a bewildering this leads to thoughts of politics, municipal and splendor which it is useless to endeavour to de- national, to which, in a ramble like ours, we greatly scribe. Henry, y appears among the old gray prefer thoughts of congenial matches and comforttowers in chivalric pride and array ; behind him able homes. Moreover, something decidedly historises the shade of the second Richard; then that rical has lately connected itself with the Star and of Edward 111, who is left here on his deathbed Garter; for here Louis Philippe took up his abode, by his faithless courtiers, Alice Perrers only re- during a portion of his exile, to revolve, on the maining to the last, and she doing it for the sake verge of the infinite future, the history of his of the ring on his cold and stiffened finger. Dimly chequered life-finding the magnificence of Verthe form of his grandfather, the first of his name, sailles, St. Cloud, Fontainebleau, and the Tuileries, comes out among the towers and walls of this feu. which he called his own, suddenly exchanged for dal residence: dimmer still the shade of Henry I; the limited accommodation of a country inn. and all beyond is indistinct, save that, in the far But we must end onr gossip, and return to the distant past, the hills are green and woody, the river, where our boat lies tempting us to take a sky is blue, and the water clear and silvery. row up and down the calm sunny waters, bordered
So ends our series of dissolving views; and now, by such rich sylvan scenes, the whole enlivened by returning to our common method of description, gay crowded barks passing to and fro. Among we would observe that, at Richmond, Henry v them comes a stately city barge, very suggestive founded a house for forty monks of the Carthusian of lord mayor's processions on the Thames ; indeed, order, called the priory. Here the notorious Per so brilliant with gold and paint, and the scarlet kin Warbeck found refuge; here the corpse of coats of the rowers, wearing their broad silver James IV of Scotland was brought for interment; badges, that we could fancy ourselves meeting the here dean Colet built some lodgings, and then Venetian Bucentoro. We dare say the large party died in 1519; and here, too, cardinal Wolsey, after on board are bound for the Star and Garter, where his fall, found refuge, and in the afternoon "would we hope they will if merry be also wise, while we sit in contemplations with one or other of the most are drinking in the freshness, health, and beauty ancient fathers of that house in his cell,” listening which seem to float all round us here over river, to homilies on the vain-glory of this world—a earth, and sky. scene which would make a good picture.
The palace and priory, both gone, were the nucleus around which the village or town began
MY ENCOUNTER WITH A BUFFALO. long since to gather, and without which it now thrives and prospers as a place of large population, MiNE has been an adventurous life. Thrice have and which has also crowds of visitors. Hither I been shipwrecked, twice shot at, while once, by come the people of this and other lands, swarming the accidental discharge of my own gun, the ball along railway or river, through the marvellous carried away the peak of my cap. I have had ugly locomotive power of the same agency; and here, encounters with snakes, have been upset both from assuredly, they may find, in the scenes of nature horses and gigs; while on one occasion, when at and the recollections of history, not a little to im- sea, I fell out of a cabin window and was nearly prove the taste, elevate the mind, and affect the drowned; besides many other hairbreadth escapes, heart.
to relate all of which would occupy too much space. The large hotels of the Castle, and the Star and But I mean now to speak of one adventure which Garter, present powerful attractions, and from the occurred in 1840; one to which I can seldom recur back windows and spacious garden of the latter, without laughing and shuddering alternately. I now of European fame, you have a view of the laugh to think of the ridiculous figure I must have glorious expanse of wood and water which we at- cut in the eyes of idle spectators; I shudder to tempted to indicate at the commencement of this remember that my life was so nearly forfeited by sketch. The long, long row of carriages to be my temerity. seen on a fine summer day, closely locked together 'I was then a lad of barely fifteen years of age, in front of this mansion-like house of entertain and the circumstances were as follows. ment, show its own popularity, and evince the I was stationed for a few months at Penang, power of those charms of scenery which draw that delightful little Eden in the Straits of Matogether so many strangers. The spot is associ- lacca, where the climate is the finest in the whole ated with the remembrance of pleasant festivities Eastern Archipelago, the people the most hospitable and youthful holidays, and, in many cases, with the and friendly, the fruits the most delicious, the memory of that auspicious morning in human life flowers the most_fragrant, and the birds the best when a happy union, after being sanctified by the warblers in the East. One day, a lawyer of the holy rites of religion, has been further celebrated name of C-, who lived in the main street of Penang by the gathering of friends and the offering of the only street without a turning in the island, sincere congratulations to the happy pair. Married and which runs parallel with the harbour-had life cannot be all the way through just like the invited a few friends, chiefly officers of the native wedding breakfast at the Star and Garter, but we infantry corps stationed on the Island, to partake doubt not that often the key-note struck there has of a quiet dinner at his honse. Amongst the
favoured few my name was included ; accordingly, and we found ourselves in the open street. A moat the appointed hour, we assembled at the law- mentary gaze in the direction of the crowd conyer's table. In most parts of India, as well as in firmed our previous suspicion, and balls came the Straits, it is usual for young men at a bache- whizzing by in most unpleasant proximity to our lors' party to be sans façon. The heat is so persons. intense, sometimes, that even the thin white cam- At the instant I was about to turn, and take to bric jackets are felt an inconvenience, and are my heels for the sea, I witnessed a most extraordiaccordingly doffed. This was precisely the case nary phenomenon. A fat old Chinaman, who to with us on the present occasion. Well, the dinner all appearance was flying like ourselves from the passed off, and the dessert came on. We sat wait- vengeance of the marauders, suddenly took a most ing for the hour to arrive when the coolness of the astonishing leap into the air, and disappeared over evening would permit of our mounting our ponies, the wall of a neighbouring court-yard. Before I and taking a canter in the environs of George had time to conjecture how this sudden display of Town. The streets are at all times quiet in Penang, agility was effected, I had sufficient motives to put but more especially so between the hours of three my own to the test; for, not two yards in front of and five o'clock, when people for the most part are me, and evidently having singled me out as a capienjoying a siesta.
tal target, there came tearing down at full speed a On this occasion, however, while still seated at huge mad buffalo, equal in height and strength of the table, we were suddenly startle by the limb to any bison I had ever met with in the Wy. very unusual sounds of firearms, and the distant nard Jungle. There was the fire of anger and hootings of a multitude. What could it be? We madness in his eye, and his mouth was covered listened attentively; there was no mistake about with foam and blood. I could almost feel the heat the matter at all, the authors of the alarm, whoever of his hard breathing as I turned precipitately with they might be, were evidently nearing us, and that terror and fled for my life. If ever fear lent at a rapid rate. The firing was all the time wings to human feet, mine must have been decokept up smartly, not in volleys, but it resembled rated with as many as ever gave speed to a Merthe firing of the light infantry platoon. What cury. I dared not look behind, but still I heard could it be ? was the question again repeated. At and felt the infuriated thing, and every instant length we unanimously came to the conclusion that expected to feel his sharp-pointed horns piercing it must be au émeute, commenced most probably my back and lungs. From my friend's house it by the Malays and the Achenese, who were seeking was barely three hundred yards to the jetty ; but some blood-thirsty revenge, and would doubtless, then I had to turn to my right, and so doing the as we feared, massacre every one that crossed their buffalo would most indubitably have doubled upon path. At this moment a tremendous shout was and caught me in the very act of turning. This I raised at the top of the street in which the lawyer's saw at a moment's glance, and consequently there house stood, accompanied by a more rapid firing was nothing left for me but to make straight for than ever, while we could distinctly hear the bullets the fort, which was not more than four hundred whizzing along the street. There was now no yards from the jetty. Immediately before me was longer any doubt on our minds, and each one, seiz- a species of railing, which fenced off an exercise ing his hat or cap, made a rush down-stairs with ground for the artillery, and was of sufficient height the intention of retreating to the seaside; there, to prevent donkeys and cows from leaping over. if possible, to secure a boat; or, if not, to swim This fence was made of posts planted into the off to the shipping for refuge. Many instances ground at regular distances, through which a stout had lately occurred of vindictive Malays running rope was passed. Had I not been so hotly pressed, amuck; that is to say, after having committed a I could easily have stooped under the rope and so murder, rendered callous by the certainty of death, have escaped; but that was now out of the quesand urged on by a thirst for blood, they arm them- tion: my life depended upon the jump, and no selves with a kreose, and rush up and down the acrobat in the streets of London ever more astostreets, wounding every one who comes in their nished the multitude than I did myself on this ocway, until they are either shot or arrested. Be- casion, by the tremendous spring I took. I alighted sides this, a month had barely elapsed since some safely on the other side, but, without pausing a Malay convicts, transported to Ceylon, had risen moment, renewed my flight towards the sentry at against the crew and massacred them in the most the fort-gate, who, seeing my danger, was rushing barbarous manner. With these facts in our me forward to meet me. mory, no wonder that we were alarmed, as we too All this time, it must be remembered, the people well knew that we had but little mercy to expect never ceased firing at the infuriated animal, who at their hands; while, from the circumstance of was snorting and roaring under the pain of not less their having arrived at this point of the island, it then twenty bullet-wounds, as I afterwards diswas evident that they must have traversed the covered. How I escaped being shot myself, or at military quarters, and consequently that they had least wounded, is even more wonderful than my in all probability massacred every European and outstripping the buffalo in swiftness. The same native soldier. There was yet the little fort with Almighty protecting Hand that had been so often the European artillery, and the shipping in the before, and has been so often since, stretched out roads, which, provided our supposition was correct, to defend me, shielded me on that occasion in so afforded the only chances of escape. We had every marked a manner from harm. Still I ran on, till hope of reaching shelter, however, as the assailants at last I missed the sound of the pursuer, and, were approaching from a contrary direction. Down glancing hastily over my shoulder, had the unwe rushed, therefore, half-a-dozen steps at a time; speakable satisfaction of beholding the buffalo the passage and then the door were speedily cleared, charging at an empty carriage which was standing
near the jetty points, and whose pannels he smash- in this period more anniversaries of executions ed in such a manner as made my heart tremble, and assassinations than in all the rest of the year. when I thought what my ribs would have suffered On the 21st January, 1793, Louis XVI from his horns. It would seem that the buffalo executed; on the 30th January, 1649, Charles I, most valiantly made the leap, determined to have king of England, lost his head ; on the 8th Februa push at me at any rate; but his strength ary, 1587, Mary Stuart, queen of Scotland, and was too much exhausted from loss of blood, and on the 13th February, 1542, Catherine Howard, this, in addition to his own weighty bulk, disabled consort of Henry viri, king of England, were behim from clearing the barrier, so that he fell back headed. On the 13th February, 1820, the Duc de wards only to rise again with freshly maddened Berry was murdered ; on the 25th February, fury, and charge in an opposite direction.
1634, the duke of Friedland, and on the 15th There were at this time several ladies and chil- March, 44 B.C., Julius Cæsar, were also assassidren collected at the jetty--the usual rendezvous nated. On the 20th March, 1804, the Duc of an evening; and it may be readily conceived with d'Enghien was shot. On the 23rd March, 1801, what a thrill of terror they beheld this exploit, and the emperor Paul of Russia fell by the hand of an how, with screams and trembling, they rushed into assassin, as did also Gustavus 111, king of Sweden, boats and got rowed ont into the bay; after this on the 29th March, 1792; the emperor Albrecht, the buffalo changed his course, and charged, as I on the 1st May, 1308; and Henry iv of France have said, the palanquin-carriage. The concourse on the 14th May, 1610. These events diminish in had now hemmed the maddened brute completely a descending ratio from the month of March, and in; wherever he made a charge, he was rebuffed in later months they occur but very seldom and in at the point of the bayonet, or received another single instances. On the other hand, about the ball into his perforated body. At last, as a final end of February and at the commencement of the and desperate resource, and determined not to give milder season of the year, anniversaries of revoluin to his numberless tormentors, the noble but tions begin to multiply. The most modern coninfuriated animal plunged into the sea, and struck vulsions began in the spring, or received at least out for the opposite shore of Province Wellesley. their first impulses in this period of the year. The Here he was followed by boats and quickly des- first French revolution commenced in April, 1789. patched; and when they towed the carcase on What took place in the subsequent months of the shore again, it was marvellous to see what tenacity year '89 was but the opening of the bud, which had the brute had displayed, with bullets lodged in been visible as early as March and April. On the parts which in other animals would have been 21st March, 1814, the brisk revolution was finished fatal. Of course, my friends were delighted to which drove out the Bourbons without an appeal shake hands with me again, and to compliment me to arms, and restored the throne to Napoleon ; on on the prodigy of valour and presence of mind which the 26th February, 1848, the revolution triumphed I displayed in running away from a rabid animal; which drove away the second branch of the Bourand of course, also, my scamper with the buffalo bons, and for the third time reinstated a Bonaparte became a matter of a nine days' wonder, and the in power. The half-revolution which elevated the theme of many jokes so closely does the serious temporizing government of Louis Philippe of sometimes border
on the ludicrous-among the small Orleans into sovereignty was the only one which but hospitable and sociable community of Perang. broke out in the height of summer. I was struck, on reflection afterwards, with the The first German revolution, after more than a sudden manner in which the danger had arisen. hundred years' slumber of the nation, was witnessed Human affairs, indeed, I have noticed in my pas. by the loveliest spring-sun in the last days of the sage through life, are so ordered, that in the most month of March, at the opening of the parliament unexpected moments perils arise ; a constitution in St. Paul's church at Frankfort. Similar comof nature, which seems intended to teach us how motions of the German nation took place still habitually we depend for protection upon providen- earlier in this season of the year. The insurrectial aid.
tion in Bohemia, which was the commencement of the thirty-years' war, happened on the 23rd May,
1614. The Imperial Diet at Worms, which gave CRITICAL DAYS IN THE HISTORIES OF stability to the reformation, was held on the 17th NATIONS.
April, 1521. UNDER this title an ingenious paper appeared some Italy, also, must look for the anniversaries of her short time ago, in the “Stuttgard Morgen-blatt," revolutions to the spring of the year. The Siciwhich calls itself a "journal for the cultivated lian Vespers of the 30th March, 1282, the insurrecreader.” The object of the paper, which we here tions in Piedmont and Naples, in the year 1821, translate, is to collect, and group according to their and the latest Italian commotions-all broke out characters, the dates of great national crises and in this period. The repeated revolutions which events. Considerable pains evidently have been Spain fought out, in the years between 1808 and taken by the writer to bring the materials together. 1830, began likewise in the first half of the year. He does not theorize upon them, but merely The Greek revolution broke out on the 25th March, gathers and allocates his facts, and leaves to his 1821. The first Polish revolution, it is true, bereaders to judge for themselves whether there be, gan towards the end of the year 1830, but it or not, anything beyond natural causes concerned gained its importance in the bloody fightings of in the production of the coincidences.
the succeeding spring. A second revolution was The first half of the year, and more especially its also attempted at Cracow, on the 26th April, 1847. winter months, appear to have a fatal significance The open revolt of the North American colonies for the persons of princes and rulers. One finds from Great Britain began with the contest of the