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public. * These two volumes, although abounding marches and surprises. This arises from the with faults in structure and style, and thoroughly nomade condition of the inhabitants and the naimbued, as was to be expected, with the military ture of their ambushes and strongholds. The spirit, afford us considerable insight into the wild, favourite mode of operation against this floating hazardous, feverish, desperate, and reckless life and fugitive population is by razzias upon their which the author aims at depicting from personal corn and cattle, in which their resources almost observation and experience. "If we venture to col entirely consist. The Count de Castellane thus lect and arrange a few of these scattered and attempts to extenuate and justify the practice :snatchy pictures for the contemplation of our "The African razzia," he says, " which has been peace-loving readers, it is not from any love of the such a fertile theme for the declamation of great scenes themselves or with any fear that they will orators, which has been called organized robbery, inspire admiration, but rather with the hope that what is it but simply a repetition of what takes they may foster in us a deeper hatred of that war place in Europe under another name? In Europe, spirit which inflicts upon humanity such terrible when once masters of one or two great centres, a sufferings.

whole country is yours. But in Africa it is différe At the period of the count's first arrival, in ent;, for how can one get hold of a population 1843, the city of Algiers was reposing in tranquil which has no fixed residences, and which is attached beauty and in seeming prosperity along the hill only to particular places for a season by its mov. side on which it is built. While the listlessness able pickets and tents? What force, what punand gravity of the Mussulman race had taken re- ishments, what invasion can conquer men without fuge in the upper quarters, where the labyrinthine cities and without houses, who, like the Scythians, streets are so narrow that two persons find it diffi- carry their whole property with them? There is cult to walk abreast, the lower city was astir with no means of doing it, but by taking away from all the signs of European life and activity, and a them the corn that feeds and the flocks that clothe bustling crowd of the most motley description was them. Hence the war against grain and cattle seen hurrying in all directions. The scene of war the razzia." was far beyond the walls of the city. The capital This passage, however, does not contain the and the principal towns of the provinces lay whole of the dreadful truth; some of the worst beneath the shadow of the flag of France; but features of the practice are omitted. Besides planbeyond the range of the cannon or the musket, the dering the property of their prey, the assailants open country generally was still in the possession usually endeavour to kill all the male portion of of the warlike Arab tribes, led on by their redoubt. the tribe that come within their power, to burn able chieftain, Abd-el-Kader. The count was and destroy whatever cannot be removed, and carry impatient to find himself among the camps of the off the women and children as prisoners. No party interior, and longed for the changeful and perilous of Indian Mohawks could plan and execute these excitements of the bivouac. There is something expeditions with more secrecy, cunning, and swiftterrible, almost demoniacal sometimes, in the eager ness than the well-seasoned French soldiers. ardour and zest with which the French soldier is But let us look upon some of these nocturnal represented as panting for the work of combat and surprises. Here is a brief description of one, with slaughter.

the precautions enforced to prevent their approach On leaving Algiers, Castellane proceeded to being detected by the vigilant Arabs. At two Blidah, the temporary head-quarters of general o'clock in the morning the party was to be under Changarnier. This little city, known among the arms, and on their route immediately afterwards. Arabs, from the extreme beauty of its surround. Before their departure, the following instructions ings, as "the little rose,” is gracefully situated in were given to the officers commanding companies the midst of orange groves, whose perfumes betray composing the first column. 'Absolute silence. its locality to the stranger long before he arrives Coughs to be smothered in the folds of a turban. at it. Here the celebrated general occupied a very No pipes. Shots on the march not to be returned ; modest abode, fitted up in a Spartan-like style, silence to be more strictly kept in case any should and where his hospitality always afforded a wel be heard, and pace quickened. The first object, to come to travellers. The count was received with take prisoners ; kill only at the last extremity. great kindness, and was treated as a personal friend After prisoners, the capture of cattle is most im. from the moment he had crossed the threshold. portant. The razzia succeeded beyond all hope. He found, to his delight, that the general was on It seemed for a moment, however, to have failed. the eve of setting out on the expeditions in which Our guide either lost his way or deceived us. Just the count was to accompany him, so that from the as we were about to shoot him for his mistake, or period of his arrival at Blidah our author's time rather for his treason, we fell upon a peopled diswas chiefly spent in preparing for an early depar- trict; and, thanks to the measures taken by our ture.

commandant, we made, despite our small number, · We need hardly remind our readers, that in considerable captures. At eight o'clock in the Algerian warfare there are no great battles fought morning we rejoined the colonel, bringing with us between the collected forces of the two belligerent thirty-four prisoners, 117 oxen, ten horses, mules, parties, the issue of which seals the fate of the thirty asses, and 1500 sheep and goats, having country, and decides in whom the sovereignty is killed besides about twenty Arabs. There was to be vested. The war consists rather of a per. abundance for three months. Joy was on all faces, petual campaign of skirmishings—a succession of and our ordinary dinner became a festival.” exterminating expeditions—a series of stealthy Take another example of these midnight maraud

ings and mournful aggressions upon unarmed peo* London: Hurst and Blackett. 1853.

ple, in which the shades of the picture are of a darker

and more lurid hue. “At half past eleven the tempers these revolting and scathing severities, men, roused out of their sleep, were under arms. we ought in justice to mention, on the testimony Five hundred picked infantry without knapsacks, of our author, that in these razzias the French some troops of cavalry, and the goum (irregular are accustomed to put aside a certain number of Arab cavalry), composed the force, which at break oxen, sheep, and horses, which are afterwards reof day was to fall upon the insurgents. The most turned to the principal families of the conquered perfect order, the profoundest silence, were ob- tribe. By means of the succour thus afforded, served during the march. As the morning twilight owing to the feudal relations subsisting between came on we had reached that part of the country the chief and the subordinate families, the whole where the enemy had taken refuge; and our sol tribe participates in the gift, and is preserved from diers could already distinguish their tents in the destruction. valley and on the slopes of the hills. The surprise Sometimes, when provisions were getting short had a perfect success. The instant before the in the French camp, companies were sent out to soldiers could hardly put one foot before another; discover and carry off grain from the subterranean they were now ready for a ten hours' hunt without granaries in which the Arabs conceal and garner thinking of fatigue. Orders were rapidly given. it. On these occasions the assistance of the The only outlet through which the Arabs could friendly tribes was generally secured, old men, escape was shut up. . . ... The first douars were women, and children joining the foraging party, soon reached, when cries of alarm and shrieks of with wretched little donkeys and mules, and terror filled the air, and shots were rapidly ex. woollen sacks. The mode of proceeding in these changed, and the whole valley was in a state of enterprises is thus described by the Count de panic, men, women, and children rushing to the Castellane : “Having reached the place where sole issue whence they could escape. There they pits were known to be, the ground was sounded found the chasseurs and goum. On this spot the by ramrods, and as soon as any spot partially sank hissing and whizzing of balls was for awhile inces or gave way, or felt bollow, the spade was resorted sant, and great numbers were cut down by the to, and an aperture soon effected through which sabres of the chasseurs. A hundred and fifty a man might slip, who usually found corn and bodies were in a few minutes strewn over the barley in abundance. In every tribe the same ground. Flocks, women, and children, with some family make these pits, as they are thought to Kabyles, were driven back in the direction of the have preserved by tradition from their fathers the infantry, and the whole razzia was soon assembled particular art of doing so. The soldiers took great in the centre of the valley."

pleasure in these expeditions. The fortunate disIt would be strange indeed if, even in connection coverer of a pit received as a reward ten francs. with scenes of rapine and carnage like these, some The soldier who went first into the aperture was relentings of humanity and touches of tenderness obliged to fill the sacks in a stooping position ; did not occasionally appear, to show that the hearts when, the pit being widened, his comrades helped of the men thus employed are not utterly petrified him; and when they came out from underground against every appeal of suffering and anguish. they were covered with sweat, dust, and dirt, but Many such redeeming gleams of feeling shine out were as happy as possible ; for they knew well the from the midst of the sickening and harrowing great importance of keeping their horses in good details of these volumes. An example is related condition." as occurring after the sanguinary onslaught just An extraordinary amount of vigilance was nereferred to. Among the prisoners was an inter- cessary to be observed by the French soldier, in esting little girl of between five and six years of order that he might guard against midnight surage, whose mother had just been shot and her prises from his foe. “Passing the night on guard,” father killed by the sabre of a chasseur. Thus says our author, “awakens only the idea of a cer. suddenly orphaned, and left alone and unprotected tain number of men sleeping at two or three hun. in the world, the poor child was walking

along in dred paces distance, with a small band in advance, dreary loneliness and terror, large tears falling one of whom walks up and down with a musket on from her eyes. A rough serjeant softened towards his shoulder. It is thus we are represented in the her, and being able to speak a few Arab words, theatres at Paris; but in Africa the night guards tried to console her. He carried her awhile on are as unlike this picture as possible. No one his back, and as soon as a mounted chasseur passed sleeps ; every one watches. If the rain falls, if by, confided her to his care, that she might finish the north wind blows ice in your face, there must the march without fatigue. On arriving at the be no fire to warm the limbs fatigued by the day's bivouac, she was quite fêted. The surgeon sought march. A fire might betray the post. “Every one her out, doctored her foot, and took every possible must be on the alert constantly, close to his arms; care of her. In a short time the good-humour and those who are on sentry, crouching like wild and drolleries of the little creature made her the beasts among the bushes, spying out the slightest darling of the whole company. At length the movement, listening to catch the slightest sound, captain resolved to adopt her. Having a married are all glad to do this to keep their eyes, heavy sister in France, who had no children, he in the with sleep, from closing. The safety of all may following year, on his return, took the child with depend on their wakefulness. Further, should the him, where, as usual, she delighted every one. enemy attack, no firing ; the bayonet is for deShe was sent to school and received an excellent fence; no false alarms; the sleep of the bivouac education, and at the time our author wrote was' must on no account be disturbed. Such is the growing up into a beautiful and accomplished point of honour." girl.

It was not always that the French columns, with As another illustration of the politic mercy that all their tiger-like stealthiness and night-shrouded

marchings, were able to surprise the wary tribes. recently, constituted the rule and not the excepGenerally their progress through the territories of tion in the history of French occupation. But the hostile clans was most fiercely and stubbornly little time was spent in garrison ; nor, according contested, foot by foot; and when the invaders to the count, had the soldiers much relish for å had to pass through wooded ravines, or along ex- mode of life so dull and insipid. Their delight was posed mountain ledges, the disturbed Arabs hovered to be prowling about the land in quest of prey and like flocks of vultures around their path, and shot excitement. Efforts, however, have been made by them down by hundreds. Take a glance at one the military authorities to relieve the tedium of scene detached from this panorama of horrors : it life at the outposts. Among other measures of a is the account of a desperate contest that raged for commendable character is the formation of military three days, with scarcely any intermission, while libraries, consisting of about 400 volumes each, the French were defiling through the fearful and embracing works on science, history, literature, ravines of Oned Foddha. Perpendicular shelves and the fine arts, mingled with productions of a of rock overhung the bed of the river, surrounded more popular class. The effect of this provision by majestic trees; the company of carbiniers upon the habits and tastes of the soldiers is said to of the Chasseurs d'Orleans was ordered to carry be of the happiest kind; not only filling up prothese rocks. Full of ardour, they sprang forward; fitably much of the leisure time at their disposal, but the declivities were fearful, and eight days' but also, in many cases, leading to the cultivation provisions are no trifling load. M. Ricot, their of studious habits and preserving from low and lieutenant, who had rushed forward without trou- grovelling pursuits. We recognise with pleasure, bling himself as to whether he was followed or not, also, the attachment which the soldiers had to some was the first to reach the plateau. He was imme- of the dumb animals of their convoy. A donkey, diately struck by two bullets in the chest ; lieute captured from the Arabs at the battle of Isly, was nant Martin and two carbiniers hastened to pro- an especial favourite: he had so droll a physitect him, but were killed on the spot. M. Rouffiat, ognomy that the whole column knew, loved, and the last of their officers remaining, advanced to caressed him. A great red bow of riband adorned their assistance, but was stopped by a frightful his head, and he was always at the head of his wound. The company was now without officers, convoy, as he could not bear to be passed by anoan avalanche of bullets was showering down on ther. There was also, we are informed, not a them, and not a head or guide of any sort to direct single troop or company where there was not some them. At last the carbiniers were brought back, pet dog fondled like a child. A little one, called bearing away with difficulty M. Martin, who still Tic Tac, seems to have been a special favourite. breathed. As for the remainder, they were torn "Never,” says the count, " did I see so charming to pieces before the eyes of the column, amidst the a little brute: its tricks and drolleries had no end. savage shouts of the Kabyles." War! war! how On a long march, the tiny animal would bark and dreadful are thy horrors, as shown in such a picture bark, and so effectually louden its little voice, that as this!

some trooper would at last stretch down his foot, Nothing, it appears, tended to exasperate the and in two bounds Tic Tac would be in front of French soldiers so much as the mutilation and his saddle, triumphing with most impertinent aris. profanation of the remains of the fallen. They tocratic barks, quite at his ease, over the poor inwillingly and daringly risked their lives in the fantry dogs pattering with weary feet and lolling canse for which they fought, but the idea of having tongues along the dusty or muddy roads. If negtheir corpses dishonoured filled them with fury, lected in the distribution of provisions, he would and often, after beholding such spectacles, extorted place himself before the distributor, in the attitude from them mutual pledges to give no quarter to of a soldier presenting arms, and it was impossible the Arabs. To avoid falling into their hands, to resist his grimaces. Every one gave a bit of therefore, all sorts of stratagems and precautions his biscuit to Tic Tac.were adopted to dispose of their dead. Sometimes No palliatives can blind us, however, to the they were buried in a deep grave in the interior of enormous evils and wrongs inflicted upon the dissome deserted Arab house, after which the building tracted and bleeding country, to which this volume was fired to conceal the newly-disturbed earth; relates ; nor have we ever heard any arguments sometimes they were placed in the sepulchres of which have satisfied us of the wisdom and policy, the country; while, on one occasion, a detachment to say nothing of the right, of France in attempt. of sappers and miners was employed to dam and ing to retain this most unprofitable colony. Many drain a river, and dig a deep hollow in its bed, of her wisest and most patriotic statesmen and where the slain of some recent conflict were sor- publicists have pronounced against its continued rowfully deposited. From the same motive, the occupation. The prodigious cost incurred during wounded were always carefully guarded and borne nearly a quarter of a century is never likely to be away from the scene of contest, though often at repaid by any corresponding advantages. The great cost of life. Tied in little iron chairs, they sacrifice of life, too, has been enormous. Accordwere suspended to the sides of mules, or, where ing to an estimate made in 1845, by count St. amputation had taken place, were stretched on Marie, France had lost during fifteen years, by litters composed of branches of trees; and as they sickness and warfare, not fewer than 547,500 men thus travelled over rough paths and down steep from the flower of the nation. In the same period, declivities, shaken at every step of their bearers, the same writer calculates that the ordinary exthey endured excruciating agonies, though gene- penses of the military and civil service, above what rally with a brave uncomplaining patience. would be incurred if the army were in France,

Such are a few glimpses of military life in have amounted to 150 millions of francs, which Algeria, while on the march, which, indeed, until however, after all, he says, only represent about one-fourth of the enormous sums actually expended that the exportation of arms of any kind from on the colony. The commercial set-off against Japan is punished with death. this drain on the resources of the mother country is Between the two cases containing the abovea mere bagatelle. Yet all this sacrifice of life and mentioned specimens stands a grotesque-looking money was endured, in order to retain a maneuvring figure, representing, as the catalogue informs us, field for a huge army, and to provide a ready out- a Japanese hero of the size of life, clad in complete let for troublesome and dangerous men, who here armour, very Chinese in the shape of his eyes and found a field for their energies, and most frequently the general character of his face, and of a delicately. a premature grave.

fair complexion ; a circumstance which strikes us as somewhat singular, since geographers represent

the natives of Japan as a tawny race: yet the THE JAPANESE DEPARTMENT IN THE tion wonld lead one to suppose that the figure

Chinese exactness of the other objects in the collecDUBLIN EXHIBITION.

before us was intended as a faithful copy in all In these days of rapid transit, when time and points. space seem almost annihilated, and distant coun- Another case, contiguous to the others, contains tries are brought so near that the merest child a beautifully-japanned cabinet of papier mâché, amongst us knows more of the geography of India inlaid with pearl in various grotesque figures, the or China than the most erudite of our fathers could top of which is open, fitted up like the interior of boast of knowing of the sister kingdom a few a temple, and so strikingly similar in almost every centuries ago, there are few spots in the world respect to the modern Roman Catholic chapels, that have remained unexplored by the Saxon race. that it might be intended for one of them. There To the north-east of the Chinese empire, however, is the altar, with its carving and gilding, its tall there lies a long range of islands, inhabited by a candlesticks and small ornamented vessels, even to people interesting from their antiquity, their moral, the censer-pot, the priest standing with bowed ity, and the high degree of perfection to which they head on the steps of the altar. The open and tall have carried many branches of manufacture, but structures, too, at the sides of the temple, might from whose shores other nations are so jealously well pass for confessional boxes. Nearly the whole excluded, that comparatively little is known re- interior is a mass of carving and gilding, and it specting them. Probably, the youngest of our has the same appearance of glitter and show that readers will anticipate us, and say that we refer to is exhibited in the modern temples of Roman the Japanese empire.

Catholicism, to catch the eye and please the An exhibition of articles from this country has fancy of its votaries. Were it not that we have been, of course, a thing hitherto unknown to us; read a description of Japanese worship, we should and it was, therefore, with feelings of deop interest have been tempted to believe that the model before that we recently, on a visit to Dublin, directed our us really represented one of the Romish chapels steps to that part of its exhibition which contains established in that country in the days of Xavier. the unique collection contributed by the govern. The following extract will explain this fact, as ment of the Netherlands. Holland, as most of well as account for the rapid progress which Chris. our readers are aware, possesses the privilege, tianity, so called, made on its first introduction in denied to other countries, of sending annually a Japan :-"The mission of the Jesuits was for a few articles of commerce to this exclusive island ; time singularly successful. There were two circumhence its opportunities of collecting the objects stances which greatly facilitated this success: one now under our examination.

was, that the sick, the poor, and the infirm were The contiguity of Japan to the Chinese empire held by the native priests to be accursed; poverty, will suggest the supposition that there must be a infirmity, and sickness were pronounced a curse, great similarity in the character and style of the and their victims accursed by the god of Japanese manufactures of the two nations ; and this is mythology; therefore, when the Jesuits preached strikingly the case. The first object that meets the love, and the benevolence, and the charities of the eye upon entering is a large case, essentially the gospel

, the whole of that class of the populaof a Chinese character, containing some beautiful tion at once rushed into the arms of the church. specimens of crape shawls, exquisitely carved chess- But, besides this, there was another facilitating men, large fans made with feathers from the wings cause: the religion of Japan had many analogies of the Argus pheasants, some rice paper paintings, with the religion of Rome: the divinities of and some of the elaborately-carved perforated con. the Japanese comprehended a mother and son, centric balls, which have for so long a time puzzled precisely answering to Mary and Jesus ; so prethe curious, but which Mr. Sirr, in his work on cisely, that Francis Xavier mentioned that when China, tells us are formed in separate parts, and he arrived at Japan, and was present at the royal afterwards joined with a very strong cement, the court, he sent a little picture of the Virgin and edges being first shaved down to less than the Child to the emperor. The moment the emperor thickness of paper.

received it he kissed it in a passion of devotion Another case contains a variety of articles, less before all his court, imagining that it was a picture beautiful perhaps, but more curious than the one of his own cherished divinities ! But, besides this, just mentioned, because more rare. These are the priests of those divinities in Japan were 'fordresses of various kinds, in crape and silk, while bidden to marry; celibacy was established amongst some are richly embroidered in gold; besides these, them. They had a conventual system-convents are packs of cards, banners and drums, models of of unmarried men, and nunneries of unmarried birds and animals, musical instruments, and arms. women ; and they had religious processions, and The latter are the more interesting, from the fact lighted candles, and smoking incense-all precisely




as in the church of Rome; and with so many and would become of all this without that little instruso curious affinities in the two religions, able and ment, the compass ? Here, again, our eastern adroit men like the Jesuits found but little difficulty neighbours were before us; and it is probable that in persuading the simple Japanese that the two both those Europeans, who so fiercely disputed the religions were, after all, but one and the same. honour of its invention, borrowed it from the They endeavoured to persuade them of this, and Chinese, who profess to have used it in the navithey found many and great facilities, and had gation of their seas from time immemorial. At but little difficulty in changing the names of their the same time, we cannot look narrowly into the divinities into Mary and Jesus; and then, with a manufactures of Japan without perceiving that little reforming of their monasteries and nunneries, they are the productions of a people shut up within and slightly changing their religious processions, themselves. There is, in almost every article, the and cautiously re-modelling or re-casting some of most careful finish, the most elaborate execution their principles, they left the Japanese with the in the minutest details ; but there is, also, an entire name indeed of Christianity, but with all the absence of that boldness of outline and freedom of reality of their ancient mythology."

thought which characterize the productions of In the same case that contains the cabinet to nations enjoying unrestricted intercourse with which we have now referred are several books, their fellow-men. We must, however, except from illustrated with coloured wood-engravings; and this sweeping criticism two small candelabra, that we mention this fact, because they do not appear are so unlike everything else in the collection, that to be coloured after printing, and the art of print- we are tempted to believe them to be the producing in more than one colour is of comparatively tion of some other country: they represent storks, recent date with us. A well-executed map of bearing a floral candlestick on their shoulders, and Japan, and a neatly japanned compass, complete are more Indian than Japanese in their character. the list of the most interesting of the articles in this part of the room. The other side contains a variety too numerous to particularize; but among which are specimens of japanned basket-ware, in

BANKS OF THE THAMES. cups, trays, etc., peculiar to the East, the manufacture of which is too well known to need any de. We shall never forget rowing from Westminster scription here. A large and beautifully neat model Bridge to Richmond, some three-and-twenty sumof a Sinto temple is one of the first things that mers since, with a party of college friends. It was catches the attention ; and, amongst other objects a bright and joyous day; the Thames was not so of interest, we noticed a case containing a fount familiar to us then as it has since become, and, as of wooden types and a number of the oval-shaped we attained the successive reaches of the majestic gold and silver coins of the country, with specimens stream, we pulled on with eager curiosity to turn also of its paper-money: The exportation of money round and watch the increasing distinctness of in any shape is punishable with death, and the tree-clumps and woods, gardens and parks, Dutch are obliged to barter the articles in which villas and towns, churches and bridges, that lay they trade, with the inhabitants, for whatever com. a-head. Very unmistakably did the beauty of the modities they choose to bring in exchange. The scene grow richer as we came to Kew, and as we same prohibition also exists with regard to maps. passed the mansion of the duke of NorthumberWe noticed three curious lacquered portraits, of land; but the crown and glory of the whole was Frederick the Second, Milton, and 'Boerhaave, the prospect we had of Richmond, as our arms and copied from European drawings or engravings. hands, unaccustomed to the toil, had pretty well

Amongst such a variety of objects, it may well become incapacitated for further effort in that be imagined that a long morning passed quickly way, from a very perceptible increase of aches and and agreeably away. There are, it is true, many blisters. Still the view was an ample repayment. articles in the collection crude and singular enough We have since seen many beautiful river pictures in design and execution to excite a smile ; but at on the Wye and the Dee, the Tyne and the Trent, the same time there is much that is humbling the Seine and the Rhine ; but of the kind we know to us as a civilized nation. We are rather too nothing to match the Thames at Richmond as we given to speak and think of the inhabitants of the saw it then. How pleasantly the buildings of the eastern hemisphere as if they were not more ad-town skirted the river on the one side, and the vanced in knowledge than mere children; but we emerald meads of Twickenham the other ! How may learn some important and useful truths in gracefully the bridge spanned the waters! What this Japanese room. The imitation of the beauti- beautiful glimpses of lawn and garden were ful crape shawls, that bear so high a value with us, caught through the arches, like exquisite vignettes has been in vain attempted by the weavers of this on one of nature's title-pages, promising more country: Printing, that noble art to which much beautiful thoughts when the leaf should be turned if not all the intelligence and greatness of the Bri- over! How majestically rose the wooded hill tish nation is owing, was not known in Europe until above, enticing us through the arch of the bridge, the fourteenth or fifteenth century. The Chinese under which we swept along till we landed higher boast of having practised it for ages, and possess up the river in one of the meadows of Ham. The indubitable proofs of having been acquainted with rambles about the woods, the ascent of the hill, it some centuries before us. Our ships are seen in and the prospect thence--all fresh with novelty, and every part of the known world, carrying our manu- appealing to the sanguine temperament of youth, factures to distant lands, and thus daily increasing and evoking all the warm poetic sentimentalism of the wealth and power of our country, and sustain- life's rich spring-time-how it all lives in the ing its influence amongst the nations. But what memory still, amidst feelings mellowed but not

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