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had time to implore a few moments' respite before afternoons in alternately notching scores against another basin is produced, and the head again creditors and notching the bald heads of patients disappears beneath its depths. This time the suffering from sick headaches. The latter is a water is cold almost to freezing, and the whole common practice in Syria. Every man snffering frame quivers again, as though quite electrified by from the headache goes to the barber, and gets him the sudden shock. On being withdrawn, a death- to make one half-dozen notches with a razor on like palor has taken the place of the rubicund his head, al surdly supposing that the blood thus complexion so lately exposed to view. Soon, how- escaping will immediately give ease. The remedy ever, the friction of a dry towel restores the circu- is a painful, and, in many instances, we should lation, succeeded by the application of lukewarm think, a dangerous one. soap and water, after which the razor almost imperceptibly, certainly unfelt by the customer, passes from the crown of the head and rounds the pro- ANNALS AND ANECDOTES OF LIFE montory of the chin with marvellous speed, leaving
ASSURANCE. only a small tuft on the crown, and the much-prized The commercial world-prosaic, calculating, and oriental moustache. Turks who wear beards sel. imaginative as it is generally supposed to be—is dom, we may observe, resort to a barber's shop, as
the last place to which the lover of romance would their heads only require to be manipulated, and be likely to go in quest of exciting and stimulating to dress these is a department in the barber's art narratives. And yet, perhaps, there are few works, which is generally left to young practitioners. The ordeal just described having been passed abound so largely with dramatic incidents as the
professing to deal with the actualities of life, that through, the napkin is removed, and the customer successive publications emanating from the pen of is at liberty to rinse his hands and face ;, but be Mr. Francis, the well-known city chronicler. There fore the turban is restored to his head he again are, we presume, few persons sustaining any imporsubmits himself to the barber's care, for the tant mercantile relations in this country who have purpose of having all his minor joints cracked. not felt the engrossing interest of his " Times and First, the head is seized, and wrenched with such Traditions of the Bank of England,” The Chroviolent jerks from side to side that one unaccus. nicles and Characters of the Stock Exchange,” and tomed to the spectacle would think the barber his still more recent volumes on the “ History, Sointent on violence. After this, every tender bone cial Relations, and Revelations of the English of the ear undergoes a similar process, and the Railway." That this peculiar field of research is joints of the fingers go off like a small battery, of by no means exhausted is evident from the appearChinese crackers. This completes the cracking ance, within a few weeks, of a new chapter in the process, which is anything but agreeable to those “ romance of Mammon,” entitled, “ Annals, Anecwho have not been for years inured to it. The dotes, and Legends of Life Assurance.”* Though, Turks, however, like it.
in our opinion, inferior, both as regards freshThe old customer now under consideration, re
ness of materials and literary execution, to its preleased from the barber, calls loudly for pipe and decessors, it will be found by the general reader to coffee. When these are produced, he sips the one afford much valuable information in relation to the and whiffs the other, whilst seated in a large easy subject upon which it treats, agreeably interspersed chair by the window-side, where the science of the with anecdotes of an enlivening description. While shampooing-master is about to be put to the test. strenuously inculcating the great advantages to be The leg of the old gentleman, tender perhaps from derived from an ever-widening application of the rheumatism, is hoisted upon a wooden stool, and economic principle of assurance, the tendency of the shampooer commences by gradually and softly the work is decidedly to beget a spirit of extreme pressing, between his fingers and thumb, the flesh caution in reference to the associations with which from the ankle to the knee. By degrees, the an individual may identify himself. The history of nipping becomes harder and the movement more the past is full of melancholy failures, and utters rapid, fill by and by the cries from the old man, of solemn warnings to the unscrupulous schemers of
Thumum! thumum! (It is enough!) indicate the present generation. that the pressure has reached to such an extent as
The casual practice of mutual assurance is of to be no longer endurable. The operation, how much greater antiquity than is generally supposed. ever, has promoted a free circulation of blood in Passing by some doubtful illustrations of the the 'ailing limb, and the old man stalks forth principle during the Roman empire, we find that, upon it as securely as though it were made of iron, in our own country, one of the earliest exemplifiand were impregnable to to-morrow's twitches.
cations of the axiom that “union is strength" The next customer the barber has to deal with occurred in connexion with the guilds of our is an oriental dandy, who, after undergoing the
Saxon forefathers. In the distracted state of operation of being shaved, stands at least five society consequent upon the introduction of a new minutes whilst he twists his moustaches into a
race by the conquest, every freeman of fourteen being variety of shapes, and gazes with evident com- forced to find sureties to keep the peace, certain placency on both sides of the circular mirror ; in neighbours, composed of ten families, became bound one of these he admires a giant and in the other a for one another, either to produce any one of the pigmy. At length he takes himself off, and a day, number who should offend against the Norman law, labourer, it may be, with his staff and bundle of or to make pecuniary satisfaction for the offence. day's provisions, heaves in sight, while shortly after To do this, they raised a fund by mutual payments, him a whole posse arrive. By an hour before mid- which they placed in one common stock. This was day the barber's shaving and shampooing occupations may be said to be over, and he passes his
* London: Longman & Co. 1863.
pure mutual assurance; and from this arose other | annuity, and Audley made him suffer to the extent kindred fraternities. 'To meet the pecuniary exi- of 50001. in fines and forfeitures. The usurer soon gencies which were perpetually arising from fines found money trading better than law writing. He and forfeitures, and to aid one another in burials, became a procurer of bail; he compounded debts ; sickness, and penal mulcts, friendly societies—the he enticed easy landowners into granting wellprototypes of those of the present day-were esta secured annuities; he encouraged their extravablished; the curious rules of many of which are gance, and, under pretence of ministering to their still extant, and cannot be read without admiration wants, became possessed of many a fine estate. of the spirit of brotherly helpfulness that warmed. The following story will illustrate his crafty and the hearts of men towards each other in an age of grasping character. In the early part of his cacomparative barbarism.
reer, a draper of mean repute was arrested by his With the rise and extension of our maritime com. merchant for 2001. Audley bought the debt of merce came a new application of the principle, in the latter for 401., and was immediately offered an the form of marine assurance, not only against the advance on his bargain by the fraudulent tradesruinous casualties of storms and shipwrecks, at a man. Audley refused the terms; but when the period when navigation was far more hazardous draper pressed, as if struck by a sudden whim, he than it now is, but also against the corsairs that consented to discharge the debt, if his creditor then so daringly roved the seas. These piratical would sign a formal contract to pay within twenty adventurers, after disposing of the cargoes which years from that time one penny, to be progresthey seized, at the nearest market, were accustomed sively donbled on the first day of twenty consecu. to sell the seamen into bondage, from which they tive months, under a penalty of 5001. The terms could only be released on the payment of a large seemed easy, and the draper consented. The knave ransom. To secure this ransom, therefore, many was one of those who grow rich by breaking.' mariners, before undertaking a perilous voyage, But here Audley had him in his net. Year after would give a certain premium to their merchant year he watched his prey; he saw him increase in freighters, who, in return, pledged themselves to wealth, and then made his first demand for one pay a sufficient sum to secure the navigators' free- penny. As month succeeded month he continued dom within fifteen days after the certificate of their his claim, progressively doubling the amount, until captivity. It is a curious fact, too, that during the draper took alarm, used his pen, found that to the crusading era, when fanatical men undertook carry out his agreement would cost him more than those extraordinary pilgrimages which to us wear 40001., and, to avoid it, paid the penalty of 5001.” such an air of romance, many of the palmers, with The first assurance on a life of which there is more good sense than we are usually disposed to any positive legal record took place on the 3rd of give them credit for, were wont before starting to September, 1697, when a policy was made on the insure themselves against the chances of Saracen life of Sir Robert Howard for a period of one captivity. There was yet another mode of assur- year. On the same day in 1698, it appears, the ance commonly practised by the traveller of the assurer died, and the merchant refused to pay, on "olden time," who, before departing on a long or the ground that the policy had expired." Lord dangerous enterprise, deposited a specific amount Holt, however, before whom the case was tried, in the hands of a money-broker, on condition that ruled that " from the day of the date” excluded the if he returned he should receive double or treble day itself, and that the underwriter was liable. the amount he had paid ; while, in the event of his The first attempt to found an association for the not returning, the money-broker was to retain the purpose of granting life annuities to the nominees deposit, which was in truth a premium under of the assurers was made by the Mercers' Comanother name. All this time, however, there were pany in 1698; but being based on erroneous data, but a few exceptional instances of that inestimable the undertaking failed to make good its tempting form of assurance which is so popular in the pre- promises. In their extremity, fifty years aftersent day; namely, the provision of a sum payable wards, they petitioned parliament for assistance, to his heirs on the death of the assurer. The which was munificently granted, and the company paucity of such cases probably arose from the is now one of the most flourishing in London. The enormous premiums which then, in the absence of Amicable Company, which is generally regarded as all authentic data, were charged by monied men the nursing-mother of life assurance, dates its who undertook the risk.
origin to the first decade of the eighteenth cen. The granting of life annuities, it appears, had tury. The assurance merchants, finding their attracted considerable attention by the close of the profits endangered in 1706, applied to Queen Anne. seventeeth century. One of the first men who for a charter of incorporation, which was conceded. gained for himself an unenviable notoriety in this If the Mercers' Company erred in fixing its preline was Audley, who seems to have had a perfect miums ruinously low, the Amicable went to the genius for money-making. “He was originally,” opposite extreme, while at the same time it actually says Mr. Francis, “ a lawyer's clerk, with a salary made no distinction between an old life and a young of six shillings a week; but his talent for saving one-between a healthy and an unhealthy man. was so well supported by his self-privation, that he Its terms of insurance have subsequently underlived upon hall, keeping the other half as the su- gone repeated modifications and reductions, to perstructure of his future fortune. He was so adapt them to the advance of the science of probagreat an adept in the tricks of law, that he was bilities and the increased value of human life. soon enabled to purchase his apprenticeship; and, It will scarcely be imagined that so early as the with the first 6001. he had saved, bought of a no- year 1708 a complete mania for universal assurbleman an annuity of 961. for nineteen years. The ance seized upon the people of England. Bubble nobleman died; "his heir neglected to pay the schemes of the most absurd and transparently
fraudulent character started into existence on every their calculations as to the value of life laid those side. “Tempting advertisements were inserted in solid and impregnable foundations upon which the the journals to show the especial advantages of a vastly ramified transactions of assurance now so new tontine. Infant or adult, married or single, securely rest. Among the fathers of this useful were addressed in The Lucky Seventy, or the science we may name De Moivre, Kersseboom, Longest Liver takes all, while, paraded in pro- Hodgson, Dodson, Simpson, and, much later, Dr. mising forms, and painted in bright colours, arose Price. To discuss the comparative merits of the societies to keep the subscribers when they mar. contributions of these writers upon this most comried, and
for their burials when they died." It plicated subject would occupy too much space, and is painful to reflect that, during this period of would possess, moreover, little interest for the disgraceful jobbing, it was not the well-to-do and general reader. It must suffice to know that, with wealthy class, but the poor and thrifty, who were more authentic and specific data thus at command, the chief victims; and it can hardly be matter of the companies that continued to creep into exsurprise that these" little goes” of assurance, as istence possessed guarantees for stability and sucthey were designated, exercised for a time a very cess not often enjoyed by their predecessors. prejudicial effect upon the progress of the prin- Passing by the establishment of the Equitable ciple.
--which had to endure for several years a stern The check imposed upon speculation by the conflict with danger and difficulty, both from failure of these schemes was not, however, of very within and from without, and which narrowly eslong duration, for shortly afterwards commenced caped spoliation by the government when straitthat terrible era in commercial history signalized ened by an exhausted treasury—we are brought by the South Sea Bubble, when men, as if smitten down to the middle of the eighteenth century. At with gold-madness, ran about Exchange-alley, ex- this period, a new attack of the gambling mania, claiming, "Give us something to subscribe to - which it would seem has been accustomed to come we care not what it is.” No wonder, when such and go periodically in the commercial world with was the feverish state of the public mind, that men all the regularity of an epidemic, had seized upon and companies were to be found willing to humour the public mind, and at length became so serious this gambling mood, and “ fool" these eager dupes that the legislature were compelled to interfere. " to the top of their bent." Amidst the general This form of speculation in human life and human wreck of projects that ther cook place, tw
adventure is one of the strangest by-ways in the managed to weather the devastating storm, and annals of insurance. “From 1720,” says Mr. have descended to our own times. Of these, the Francis, “much of the legitimate business had Royal Exchange and the London Corporation are been usurped by it, policies being opened on the entitled to honourable mention.
lives of public men, with a recklessness at once We sometimes take credit to ourselves for the disgraceful and injurious to the morals of the unparalleled ingennity of the actuaries and pro- country. The life of Sir Robert Walpole was jectors of the present day in devising novel appli- assured for many thousands; and at particular cations of the principle of assurance; but these portions of his career-when his person seemed fond delusions are speedily dispelled on exploring endangered, as at the excise bill, or by party hate, the annals of the past. Thus, we find that more as at the time of his threatened impeachmentthan 120 years ago, most of the sagacious expedi- the premium was proportionately enlarged. When ents for lessening the calamities of life which now George 11 fought at Dettingen, twenty-five per cent. excite our admiration had occurred to the minds was paid against his return. The rebellion of 1745, of our forefathers. The “Commercial Credit Mu. as soon as the terror which it excited had passed tual Assurance Society” was foreshadowed in 1720 away, was likewise productive of an infamous by two bubble companies for the insurance of debts. amount of business. The members of Garraway's, The “Guarantee Society," which now indemnifies the assurers at Lloyd's, and the merchants of the employers against the evils of dishonesty, had its Royal Exchange, being anable to raise or lower prototype at the same early period in an office the price of stocks any more by reports of the opened at a tavern, to insure masters and mistresses Pretender's movements, made sporting assurances against losses from theft, etc. Among the other on his adventures, and opened policies on his life. curiosities of that fertile era were insurances from Sometimes the news arrived that he was taken housebreakers, from highwaymen, from lying, and prisoner, and the undertakers waxed grave. Somefrom death by drinking rum or geneva. But times it was rumoured that he had escaped, and although, except in the former of these, we are they grew gay again. Thousands were ventured confessedly behind our ancestors, we can find no- on his whereabouts, and tens of thousands on his thing in the catalogue of their projects at all equal head. in extravagance and presumption to one modern “ The rebel lords who were captured in that society that lifts its impious head among us, disastrous expedition were another source of profit namely, that for “ insurance against the pains of to the speculators. The gray hairs of old Lord purgatory." We trust the day is not far distant Lovat did not prevent them from gambling on his wlien the diffusion of scriptural truth among our life. The gallantry of Balmerino and the devotion Roman catholic friends will reduce such societies of Lady Nithsdale raised no soft scruples in the
to use a commercial phrase—to a non-paying minds of the brokers; and when the husband of point.
the latter escaped from the Tower, the agitation of As we approach the middle of the eighteenth those who had perilled their money on his life, and century, the science of life assurance begins to to whom his violent death would have been a profit, assume consistency and an intelligible shape. A is described as noisy and excessive. But no sooner number of statists appeared in succession, and by was it known that he had escaped, than fresh
policies were opened on his recapture, and great says Mr. Francis, “ immediately saw and seized must have been the indignation of his high-minded the advantage. Agents were employed to seek out, wife when she afterwards heard this trait of city in Scotland and elsewhere, robust men of ninety character. The advent of the German emigrants years of age, to select none but those who were furnished another opportunity. In 1765, upwards free from the hard labour which tells on advanced of 800 men, women, and children lay in Goodman's life, and to forward a list of their names. The Fields in the open air, without food. They had Marquis of Hertford added to his vast wealth by been brought by a speculator from the Palatinate, choosing as nominees those who were rernarkable Franconia, and Suabia, and then deserted by him. for high health ; on two only taking annuities of In a strange land, without friends, exposed by 26001. Wherever a person was found at the age night and by day to the influences of the atmo- of ninety, gently touched by the hand of time, he sphere, death was the necessary result. On the was sure to be discovered by the agents of the third day, when several expired from hunger or money market, the members of which speculated exposure, the callous-hcarted assurance speculators with, but scarcely perilled, their wealth on the lives were ready, and wagers were actually made as to of these men on such terms. how many would die in the week. In the western « The inhabitants of the rural districts of Scotpart of the metropolis considerable feeling was land, of Westmoreland, and of Cumberland, were cxhibited for these unhappy creatures, and in the surprised by the sudden and extraordinary attencountry a charitable fervour was excited in their , tion paid to many of their aged members. If they behalf; but indubitably the greatest interest was were sick, the surgeon attended them at the cost felt by those operators in the Alley and under. of some good genius ; and if they were poor, the writers of Lloyd's coffee-house, who had mado con- comforts of life were granted them. In one village tracts on their distresses and speculated on their , the clergyman was empowered to supply the wants deaths. The benevolent spirit of England, how- of three
old hale fishermen during the winter seaever, soon put this infamous speculation to an end, son, to the envy of his sick and ailing parishioners by providing the unfortunate Germans with food, In another, all the cottagers were rendered jealous shelter, and the means of emigration.”
by the incessant watchful attention paid to a nonoThese are only specimens of the heartless and genarian by the magnate of the place. It was demoralizing practices which then raged through whispered by the less favoured that he had been out society, and which might be indefinitely mul- given a home near the great house; that the cook tiplied. They will suffice, however, to give a had orders to supply him with whatever was nice picture of the sordid spirit of the times. This and nourishing ; that the laird had been heard to custom of speculating on human life was afterwards say he took a great interest in his life; and that rendered illegal by an act of the legislature, as was he even allowed the doctor twenty-five golden also a fraudulent systein of annuities which had guineas a year so long as he kept his ancient speedily usurped its place. Notwithstanding the patient alive. One man was chosen of above numerous ephemeral and spasmodic attempts to ninety, who would walk eight miles any dny for promote assurance during all this time, there were, sixpence. There were two baronets vífered, illusit appears, in 1808, only three offices of any stand- trative of an old story: Both were novogenarians; ing in existence. Alternate excitements and panics both were sound, wind and limb: the one was rehad either ruined or fatally shaken the host of markable for his extreme temperance, the other for schemes that had sprung up from time to time. drinking two bottles of wine daily; but both were The public having at length come to entertain a first-rate lives. well-founded horror of life annuities granted by "The offices were besieged with contracts on private persons, the government determined to such men as these. Notwithstanding the heavy become dealers in them, though in doing so they losses which government had sustained by the precommitted an alarıning mistake in their calcula- vious tables, they lost much more by the present tions, of which the public were not slow to take oversight; for against lives chosen with so much advantage. Speculators soon found that the go- ! care and nursed with so much attention, there was vernment charge for a life annuity afforded a very not a chance." It is difficult to say to what extent remunerative investment, and even the insurance this fresh speculation would have proceeded, had offices made considerable profit by purchasing and not Mr. Goulburn availed himself of a clause in re-selling them. But the measure of their gains the act, to cease granting annnities which might was the extent of the loss to the treasury of the prove unprofitable to government. country; and so immense was the waste of the We had intended to have alluded to some of the public money alleged to be, that a great outery strange and romantic instances of fraud upon inwas justly raised against the continuance of this surance offices given in the volume before us, and financial blunder. After much dogged delay, Mr. especially to the impudent career and disastrous Finlaison was employed to construct some corrected end of the “Independent and West Middlesex Fire tables, which were laid before the house in 1829. and Life Insurance Company;" but we find our Able actuaries soon detected a fatal flaw in these space already exhausted. We need not here enter new tables, as regards the terms payable by aged upon a consideration of the preseut progress and persons, which were far too low. This fresh error prospects of general' assurance, as most of our was pointed out to the authorities, but they refused readers will be more or less conversant with this to rectify it, and the act was passed.
aspect of the subject. We cannot conclude this It appears that, according to the tables thus historical retrospect, however, without expressing authorized, a man of ninety years of age, by paying our gratitude that a principle of such great value 1001., would receive for life an annuity of 621.' to the community has been at length rescued from " The shrewd gentlemen of the Stock Exchange,” , the hands of the Thugs of the commercial world,
and made to minister in so many ways to the appearance till it shone out in its full splendour. This welfare of the families of those who are wise time I was exceedingly gratified, just as stars of the enough to avail themselves of its diversified be first and second magnitude were beginning to appear, nefits.
to see two extremely faint points of light near the planet, which I felt sure were satellites. On pointing my telescope towards them, my first impressions were
confirmed, and I almost leaped for joy. PLANETARY OBSERVATIONS IN
“Since that night, I have many times, at the same THE EAST.
hour of the evening, had a similar view of these teleIn a letter recently written by Mr. Stoddart, an Ame- scopic objects, and think I cannot be mistaken as to rican missionary, to Sir Jolin Herschel, bart., from the fact of their visibility. I must, however, add that Oroomiah, in Persia, we have some striking facts re- none of my associates, who at my request have attendlated in reference to the appearances presented by ed to the subject, are sure that they detect them, some of the principal planets of our solar system. though the most sharp-sighted individual feels some “No one,” he says, " has ever travelled in this country confidence that he can do so. As these friends, howwithout being surprised at the distinctness with which ever, are not practical observers, their failure to see the distant objects are seen. Mountains fifty, sixty, and satellites does not at all shake my belief that I have even a hundred miles off are projected with great seen them myself. The time during which these satelsharpness of outline on the blue sky; and the snowy lites are visible is hardly more than ten minutes. The peak of Ararat, the venerable father of mountains, is planet itself soon becomes so bright that they are lost just as bright and beautiful when two hundred miles in its rays. I will not stop to discuss the question, in distant as when we stand near its base. This won- itself a most interesting one, why they are visible at derfiu transparency of the atmosphere frequently de all
, when stars of the third and fourth magnitudes are ceives the inexperienced traveller; and the clump of not distinguishable, but merely give the facts in the trees indicating a village, which seems to rise only case, knowing that you will reason on them far better two or three miles before him, he will be often as than I can. Both the fixed stars and the planets shine many hours in reaching. In this connexion you will here with a beautifully steady light, and there is litbe interested to know that the apparent convergence tle twinkling when they are forty degrees above the of the sun's rays, at a point diametrically opposite its horizon. disk, which, if I mistake not, Sir David Brewster “Having come to a satisfactory conclusion about the speaks of as a very rare phenomenon, is here so com- satellites of Jupiter, I turned next to Saturn. This mon, that not a week passes in summer, when the planet rose so late in the night that I had not seen it whole sky at sunset is not striped with ribbons, very while watching Jupiter, and I was very curious to much like the meridians on an artificial globe. But it know whether any traces of a ring could be detected by is after nightfall that our sky appears in its highest the naked eye. To my surprise and delight, the brilliancy and beauty. Though accustomed to watch moment I fixed any eyes steadily upon it, the elongathe heavens in different parts of the world, I have tion was very apparent, not like the satellites of never seen anything like the splendour of a Persian Jupiter, at first suspected, guessed at, and then pretty summer evening. It is not too much to say, that, clearly discernible, but such a view as was most conwere it not for the interference of the moon, we should vincing, and raised my wonder that I had never made have seventy-fire nights in the three summer months, the discovery before. I can only account for it from superior for purposes of observation to the very finest the fact, that, though I have looked at the planet here nights which favour the astronomer in the New with the telescope many times, I have never scrutiWorld,
nised it carefully with the naked eye. Several of my “When I first came here I brought with me a six. associates, whose attention I have since called to the foot Newtonian telescope of five inches aperture, of planet, at once told me in which direction the longer my own manufacture, and though the mirrors have axis of the ring lay, and that too without any previous since been much tarnished, and the instrument other knowledge of its position or acquaintance with each wise injured, its performance is incomparably superior other's opinion. This independent collateral testimony to what it was in America. Venus sometimes shines is very satisfactory to me. I have somewhere seen it with a light so dazzling, that at a distance of thirteen stated that in ancient works on astronomy, written feet from the window I have distinguished the hands long before the discovery of the telescope, Saturn is of a watch, and even the letters of a book. Some few represented as of an oblong shape; and that it has months since, having met with the statement that the puzzled astronomers much to account for it. Am I satellitos of Jupiter had been seen without a glass on
not correct in this impression ? and if so, is it not posMount Etna, it occurred to me that I was in the most sible that here on these elevated and ancient plains, favourable circumstances possible for testing the power where shepherds thousands of years ago watched their of the unassisted eye, and I determined at once to flocks by night and studied the wonders of the glorious make some experiments on the subject. My attention canopy over their heads, I have found a solution of was, of course, first turned to Jupiter, but for a con- the question ? siderable time with no success. It was always so "After examining Saturn I turned to Venus. The bright, and shot out so many rays, that it seemed most I could determine with my naked eye was, that it quite impossible to detect any of its moons, even at. shot out rays unequally, and appeared not to be round; their greatest elongation from the planet. I varied but, on taking a dark glass of just the right opacity, the experiment in several ways, by looking through I saw the planet as a very minute but beautifully the tube of a small telescope, from which the lenses defined crescent. To guard against deception, I turned bad been taken, and also by placing my eye near the the glass different ways and used different glasses, and corner of a building, so as to cut off the most brilliant always with the same pleasing result. It may be that rays of the planet, and yet leave the view unobstructed Venus can be seen thius in England and elsewhere; to the right hand or the left; but in neither case could but I have never heard of the experiment being, tried. I find any satellite. Some time after I was sitting on Let me say here, that I find the naked eye superior the terrace as daylight was fading into darkness, and for these purposes to a telescope formed of spectacle thought I would watch Jupiter from its first distinct | glasses of six or eight magnifying power.”