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night was converted into the period for indulging in a variety of childish games. The streets were
SUBTERRANEAN LONDON. illuminated, and so were the mosque and the mina- THERE is meaning in the old saying, that “ London rets. The coffee-houses resounded with discordant streets are paved with gold ;” and it is perfectly Arab music, and dances were a-foot. Amid the un- true that a good many of them might be paved certain gloom a huge cainel would protrude himself with gold, beaten thin, at a much less expense than into the scene of revelry, and, stretching out his long they are at present paved with granite under the neck, commit a felony on some man's store of sugar liberal but wise economy of the corporation of the
Gaily-caparisoned horses and riders were city. Some of them are subjected to such tremennumerons, and the veiled women thronged to and dous and unceasing assaults, from the grinding of fro, talking, laughing, and commenting on all they ponderous wains, the cataract of rattling, rnmbling saw or heard. Whirligigs, as they term them, and wheels, and the grappling feet of iron-shod steeds, other swings, were not wanting, neither was there that unless they were cased in a suit of armour any lack of confectionery and good cheer. Thus something more than battle-axe proof, they would the Moslems passed that night, and thus they not be able to hold their own for a day. So they passed every night of the thirty constituting the are swaddled in granite cut into square scales à Ramadan.
foot thick, and in a manner overlapping each other It often happens that the Ramadan, which is a like those of the armadillo; and this is occasionally moveable fast, falls on the very hottest month of done at a cost which it would hardly be safe to the year, and then the sufferings of the more bi- mention. The amount of hard cash that is exgoted and strict Moslems must be intense, espe- pended, for instance, in cutting out a jacket and cially in places like Cairo, where the thermometer fitting it on, for London-bridge alone, is something often stands at 100° Fahrenheit in the shade. The alarming to think of. Well may the paviours sigh, more wealthy and rigorous observers of this fast as they always do, when consigning so much capiusually confine themselves to the precincts of their tal to inevitable destruction, the nearness or rehouses, where they sleep away the livelong day, or moteness of which is dependent in a great degree else seek shelter in the dampest vaults and cellars upon the proper performance of their responsible in the neighbourhood. Most acute, however, must duty. But we are not just now going to write be the agony of thirst suffered by the poorer classes, about the London pavements, though we pay this whom necessity compels to attend to their every- passing tribute to their excellence: we are going day avocations. These poor benighted creatures, to rip them up--which, strong as they are, we can especially in the larger towns inhabited by mixed do with a stroke of the pen--and see what lies populations, are exposed to momentary temptations beneath. to break through the rigid observance of the pe- A being who shonld be gifted with a sufficient nance imposed upon them by their false prophet. degree of clairvoyance to see through the solid They see, for instance, the nominal Christian popu- ground would, upon investigating the substratum lation indulging themselves in neighbouring shops, of the metropolitan ways, discover four grand arteor in the open thoroughfare, with deliciously iced rial systems: three of which, ramifying in hundreds sherbets, or eating fruit and other cooling delica of thousands of branches, are employed in the cies, while they themselves are prohibited from never-ending performance of functions essential to taking the smallest relief till the appointed hour the health, comfort, and convenience of a civilized arrives.
existence; the fourth might strike him as a comWhen a Turk travels, or is sick, he is exempted paratively insignificant affair, consisting as it does from the observance of this fast, with the stipula- but of a single slender line protected by a casing tion that when recovered, or when arrived at his not broader than your hand, and projecting but journey's end, he shall make amends for the privi- here and there a branch to the world above-ground; lege enjoyed. Of late years, however, there are but that slender thread is the path the lightning hundreds in every Moslem town who are hypocrites, travels, which man has tamed to his purpose and and who, while they make every outward" demon confined in the soil beneath his feet-an obedient stration of a mind and body afficted, secretly revel gnome to carry messages at his will to the ends of in all the indulgences of this life, at the same time the earth. Considering, for our present purpose, that they are nothing loth to join in the noctur- these four subterranean agencies consecutively, we nal carousals already described.
shall devote a few paragraphs to the sewerage, the The scene which we have thus painted from ac- supply of water, the gas, and the electric telegraph tual observation carries, we need hardly say, its own in London. obvious lesson. It wants that which constitutes The sewers of London, as they are unquestionthe element of a true religious fast-unfeigned ably the most important in a sanitary point of view, sorrow for sin. How different in all respects is it so are they the chief of the underground offspring from the ordinance which the pen of inspiration of the necessities of a crowded metropolis. " Imhas drawn:
portant as they are, however, and though thou
sands of years ago their sanitary agency was "Is not this the fast that I have chosen ? To loose the bands of wickedness,
recognised in ancient Rome, their construction in To undo the heavy burdens,
Britain was not attempted until a comparatively And to let the oppressed go free,
recent period. Not to go very far back-the And that ye break every yoke ?
London of Shakspeare and Ben Jonson had no Is it not to deal thy bread to the hungry, And that thou bring the poor that are cast out to thy Milton and Cromwell, and find it still in the same
sewers; and we may come down to the time of house? When thon seest the naked, that thou cover him;
condition. It was not, in fact, until the reign of And that thou hide not thyself from thine own ffesh ?"
Charles the Second that the first sewer, which was made by order of the lord keeper Guildford, I has been done in this matter in times past has been was constructed in Chancery-lane, which probably based upon a wrong principle, and that much of it had its outlet in the neighbouring Thames. Not will have to be done over again before a satisfactory withstanding the evident advantage which must result is obtained. Hitherto the advantage of have resulted from the first experiment, the system getting rid of the sewerage has been held to be of draining by sewers was, from its expense and cheaply purchased by poisoning the river into other causes, of such slow growth, that even a which it is all drained; but a wiser economy has century later, in Hogarth's time, as we may very shown that the refuse thus ejected through inreadily gather from his pictures, it had made but numerable channels into the Thames, to the de. very partial progress. It is difficult at the present struction of our home fisheries, might be made a time to realize, even in imagination, the aspect of treasure to the agriculturist, and a source of revethe London streets as they existed even at the nue to the city. We learn, from a report of the commencement of the last century, when in many court of sewers published in 1845, that the ordiparts of the city the dust and nuisances of the nary daily amount of sewerage discharged into the houses were piled in heaps before the door, await. Thames on the north side of the city has been ing the coming of the scavenger, who gave notice calculated at 7,045,120 cubic feet, and on the of his approach by banging a wooden clapper, south side 2,457,600 cubic feet, making a total of warning the inhabitants to thrust forth their re- 9,502,720 cubic feet, or a quantity equivalent to a fuse. At that time, the sewerage was suffered to surface of more than thirty-six acres in extent and accumulate in wells, which, when they were full, six feet in depth. All this, under the present were emptied into the kennels of the streets. It system of sewerage, we throw away, and at the was then that the average of deaths in the metro- same time we are despatching vessels to foreign polis was greater in healthy scasons than it is now countries for guano to manure our fields. There under the visitation of cholera, and the slaughters is no great risk in prophesying that, at a period of typhus during a wet autumn committed more not very distant, we shall exercise a little more ravages than an invading army. In rainy weather, practical wisdom in this particular, and that, like the water from the roofs came cascading into the the economical Chinese, we too shall fertilize our streets through gaping spouts of metal projecting soil with the refuse of our cities. beneath the eaves, and passengers quarrelled for We cannot walk the streets of London many the wall, where a comparative shelter was obtained, days together without encountering evidences of because they grudged the politeness that cost a the estimation in which the subject of sewerage is ducking. With the advance of civilization, science held by the ruling authorities. At one time we came to the aid of the medical art; cleanliness was are startled by the spectacle of a narrow street, the discovered to be a preservative from disease, and houses of which are shored up with an elaborate pure air a preventive of contagion. With the re- frame-work of enormous beams and ponderous cognition of these truths came the determination timbers, to prevent their coming down with a to practise the lessons they taught. The streets crash, in case the excavations, carried to a depth were ripped up and excavated on all sides : main which the eye cannot penetrate, should loosen their sewers were built in the larger thoroughfares, and foundations. At another, it is the blockade of tributaries in the side streets. Acts of parliament Holborn or the Strand, and the turning of the were passed, compelling builders to provide drain. swift current of their traffic out of its main channel age: a court of sewers for Westminster and into the back streets and by-ways; while a nuMiddlesex was established, under whose direction merous gang of labourers, principally Irish, are vast labours were undertaken and accomplished; employed day and night in sinking or raising the and, by degrees, the fetid accumulations in the arched brick drain to a new level, which a fresh highways disappeared from view, the foul smells survey has found to be necessary. The prosecution which engendered loathsome diseases became less of these works during the night affords a spectacle and less perceptible, and the average duration of singnlarly picturesque : the swart faces of the human life in London rose from the fearful level of workmen in their white shirts, lit up by the light the battle-field to what it is at present.
of flaring torches ; the cavernous gloom of the Still, though much has been done, much more narrow pit in which they sink rapidly out of sight, remains to do. Within the limits of the city to emerge again bending beneath a heavy load ; proper, it has been calculated that there are fifty the gleaming fire-flash upon their glittering im. miles of streets, alleys, and courts, and that in plements as they rise fitfully out of the darkness; these there are not less than forty-seven miles of the dusky forms of figures dimly visible through sewerage ; so that, with regard to the city itself, the black shadows cast by the mounds of soil and little more appears necessary beyond the mainte- rubbish which line the edges of the chasm,--these nance in good repair of the works already laid down. are some of the elements of the picture, which, But the
city” forms now but a comparatively contrasted with the cold and quiet starlight oversmall portion of the huge Babylon clustered round head, make up a scene at which a stranger will St. Paul's, and we all know that there are numer. pause instinctively and gaze with interest. Not ous neglected and low-lying districts in the sub- very long ago the good people of London were urbs, where the business of drainage has been so puzzled by the spectacle of a sort of watch-box shamefully overlooked that its object is altogether perched upon the gilded cross of St. Paul's; and, defeated, and the wretched inhabitants, surrounded at the same time, groups of men with scientific inby filth and noxious exhalations, are ready to fall a struments were observed performing some mysteprey to the first inroad of an advancing pestilence. rious ceremony upon the pavement in various parts More than this, our ruling powers are just awaken- of the town-north, south, east, and west--with a ing to the apprehension of the fact, that all that persistency which for some month or two never relaxed. These strange fellows, from whom nobody / which were very unclean and unhealthy times, could extract a word, were perpetually peeping London was supplied with water from the Fleetthrough two holes in two boards at the watch-box river (which has long been converted into a covered on the top of St. Paul's. It was given out, by drain, discharging itself into the Thames at Blackthose who pretended to know something about it, friars-bridge), from the river Lea, from Walthat they were ascertaining the level at various brook, and from various wells, such as Holywell points, in order to determine the proper inclination and Clerks Well, and from Tyburn. From the of the sewers; but friend Figgins the grocer knew latter place water was first brought to the city tobetter than that: as he very sagely observed, wards the close of the 13th century. It was not, “People don't go to the top of St. Paul's when however, until three centuries later that an attempt they want to dig a ditch in the street.”. Neverthe- was made to carry the water by pipes into men's less, it certainly came to pass that there was a houses, by means of an engine erected at Londongreat deal of sewer digging shortly after, and bridge by a Dutch mechanist: it is true, that a simple folks suppose to this hour that the watch. certain wax-chandler in Fleet-street did, so far back box had something to do with it-which perhaps as 1479, craftily pierce an underground pipe, and it had, for simple folks are sometimes in the let the water into his own cellar for his own converight.
nience; but his innovation was resented by the We said above that the sewerage is all thrown corporation, who adjudged him to do penance by away--and so it is; but yet, in its dark under riding through the city with a conduit upon his ground passage to the river, there are, strange as head. The business of the water-carriers, who it may seem, a class of men who contrive to snatch fetched water from the public fountains or wells from it the means of a miserable subsistence ere it and sold it by the tankard, must have thriven well is lost in the bosom of old Father Thames. "There for many generations, seeing that it was not suis no accounting for tastes," said a friend to whom perseded by the domestic pipe system until the we once mentioned this circumstance. "And no commencement of the rule of the Georges. The accounting for dire necessities either, which are great undertaking of Sir Hugh Middleton, that of much more likely than tastes to drive men to such forming a new river to serve as a channel for the desperate resources for a living," we replied. One waters of the springs in the neighbourhood of Am. of these subterranean explorers was once examined well and Ware, was completed in 1613; but it before a committee of the House of Commons. only brought the water to the principal thoroughThe tale he had to tell is too long for repetition : fares, and has never even to the present time been it is enough to say, that in order to live by his able to afford a continuous supply to the populatrade he had to work extremely hard, disgusting as tion dependent upon it a fact much to be rewas his occupation. He could only enter the sewer gretted, as the New River water stands deservedly at the time of low water ; he then worked while the very high in public estimation. At the present tide flowed until it ebbed again ; and if he miscal moment there are seven water companies, all of culated the time, as, having no watch, and not being which have been for a long time in active operation, able to hear the clocks, he sometimes did, he had carrying the indispensable fluid to the homes of the to wait until another tide had ebbed before he was Londoners. Of these, five are on the north bank released. Being in total darkness, he had to carry of the river, and two on the south. It is an un. a lantern, and was further compelled to take an wholesome fact, that the major part of them de. active terrier with him to prevent his being rive their water from the Thames, into which some devoured alive by rats, which he described as fifty millions of gallons of sewerage are daily disswarming there in myriads. His occupation con- gorged, and which is thus made at once the cesssisted in grubbing beneath the open gulley-holes pool and the fountain of the metropolis. We have of the streets, and the small drains from private seen above that the city proper is far better prohouses, for such small articles as were accidentally vided with sewerage than any other part of Londropped or thrown away. He found more base don; the same may be said in regard to its water coin than anything else ; sometimes a silver spoon ; supply, of which not a drop is derived from the and once he, or one of the same trade, had found a Thames, but the whole from the New River, with valuable watch. Instances have occurred where the exception of about a thousand houses supthese men have been drowned by the rush of water plied from the river Lea. The quantity of water occasioned by a sudden and violent rain-storm ; contributed for the daily use of the inhabitants and a more melancholy fate is recorded of one, who of all London is estimated at about forty-five venturing in without a dog, and being shut in by millions of gallons, giving about twenty-three galthe unexpected return of the tide, was devoured lons to each individual of the population-an alive by the rats, leaving his bones alone to adver- amount which, though it would be accounted enortise his fate to the next comer.
mous in a continental city, is yet far from suffi. We are not aware of the actual extent of the cient, considering the many purposes to which sewers throughout the whole of the London dis- water may be applied, and the inequality of its dis. tricts: if calculated according to the same ratio as tribution under the present system of management. the city itself, there must be six or seven hundred It is found that, while nobody complains of hav. miles in length of underground drainage ; but as ing too much, there are thousands and tens of we have shown above that many of the districts thousands of the habitations of the poorer classes are lamentably deficient, this may perhaps be in which it is not introduced at all-whole rows of something above the sum total.
them being supplied from one common waterbutt Let us now take a glance at the water supply or cistern, and that frequently in a state not fit for of London, the next underground subject on our The outcry on this subject has been of late list. In the "good old times," as they are called, 1 years very loud and long-sustained, and costly inquiries have been instituted by government into , filling in the earth again, he flattened it down with the means of supplying the demand for pure water, his spade; and in less than five minutes the mischief and plenty of it, and freeing the public from the was repaired. necessity of slaking their thirst in the poisoned Like the sewers, the pipes of the water compacurrent of the Thames. Rival companies have nies are subject to invasion by a race of penniless broached gigantic plans; some for carrying con- gentry who go routing among them for the sake duits up the river beyond the tidal influence, others of a living. These are the eels, who, in spite of all for draining extensive valleys into a single outfall the precautions that are taken to prevent their leading to a monster reservoir sufficient to serve getting into the pipes, manage yet to effect an enthe whole metropolis. The rapid increase of Lontrance. Their adventurous spirit, however, meets don in every direction will, in all probability, compel but a sorry reward, as their investigations lead the adoption of some comprehensive plan which generally, so far as we can learn, to the frying-pan. ere long will banish the tidal Thames water from An eel once in a branch pipe has nothing for it our dwellings, and yield us a wholesome beverage but to go forward; he is worse off than if in Proin its stead.
crustes" bed; he cannot turn round, and he cannot Of the water-works at present in existence, those swim backwards, and the further he goes the nar: of the New River Company are by far the most rower his prison becomes : by-and-by he is buried extensive. Their resources have been much in- alive in a leaden coffin, which fits him as tight as creased of late years by the construction of noble a glove; he cannot even wriggle; he knows himreservoirs, and it is probable that at this moment self a gone eel, nothing better than a live cork they furnish little short of one-third of the whole stopping off the water from some fishmonger's water supply of London. We have heard it stated, kitchen; he feels his impending doom, and would we know not on what authority, that the under tremble all over, but he hasn't room to do it; the ground mains and pipes of this company, if laid difficulties of his position are too great for fish to down in a straight line, would extend for a length bear ; how he is to be released we don't exactly of four hundred miles. The East London Com- know ; perhaps the turncock does, and to his mercy pany, which is the next in magnitude, has its works we must leave him. on the river Lea, and traverses, with between two Side by side with the water pipes, and someand three hundred miles of piping, the districts times crossing them at right angles, lie the gas eastward of St. Paul's. It is remarkable that pipes. Their turnings, windings, and ramifications these two companies, which may be said almost to are almost endless; and their length, which underenjoy a monopoly of their several districts, and ground cannot be less than a thousand miles, is which dispense the purest fluid, supply it at the prodigiously more above-ground, and defies all lowest price. In Paris, where a penny would buy attempt at calculation. Time was, and that with a pound of bread, we have often given a farthing for in our own recollection, when the idea of lighting a gallon of water ; but in London, where bread is a town or even a house with gas was scouted as nearly double the price, the New River Company one of the grossest of absurdities imaginable. It sell us thirty-six gallons of water for three-quar- was not until some years after the close of the late ters of a farthing, and the East London Company war that gas came into general use. The first the same quantity for a farthing. The pipes of London company was the Chartered Gas-light the water companies, which permeate every street, Company, whose works are in Horseferry-road, lane, court, and alley of the town, are laid down so Westminster. We well remember the sensation as to avoid the track of the sewers as much as produced by the laying down of the pipes, and the possible : they lie generally at the side of the interest with which the process of fastening them street, within a yard of the pavement, and at a together with molten lead and oakum was watched depth of hardly more than two feet, which renders by the public-as well as the incredulity of the them readily accessible. They have communica- populace with regard to the expected result. It tions with every house they pass, and in some with was not till success had been achieved that the every room. In some of the southern districts the people believed it possible, and then the apparatus pipes of rival companies lie peacefully side by side, could not be prepared fast enough to satisfy their while their proprietors are battling above-ground demands. This was not to be wondered at. "Before for the patronage of the public. In most instances this discovery, London after sunset was in almost the main pipes are of cast-iron, and until lately total darkness, just rendered visible by the dim we imagined that they were all of that material: blinking of oil lamps, which in times of fog were walking not long ago, however, in a certain not to be discerned at all. In the days of our suburb, we were startled by the appearance of a boyhood, a young lady would have been thought little jet of clear water rising out of the gravel rash who should have walked alone from Charingwhich did the duty of pavement
in front of a row cross to St. Paul's two hours after sunset. Footof second-rate brick dwellings. While speculating pads waylaid travellers in Lincoln’s-inn-fields. on the phenomenon, a handy fellow stepped up. Then link-boys plied for hire as soon as darkness and with a spade turned up the gravel to the came on, and pedestrians found their services a depth of a foot or two, and revealed the ends of a safeguard as well as a guide. The descent of darkcouple of elm-trees with their bark on, and fitting ness upon the city was the signal for the swarming one into the other like a huge spigot and faucet. forth of hordes of abandoned wretches, who earned These were part of the main pipes of a water com- by plunder that subsistence for which they were pany, which had sprung a leak at their junction; too idle to work; while the only police were a set the workman stopped it in a moment with a plug, of superannuated watchmen, too weak to do more of which he produced a handful from his pocket, than waddle wearily under the load of as many driving it in with a few taps of a hammer ; then great-coats as they could obtain by charity, and whose guardianship was the scoff and scorn of evil- | It remains now but to notice the fourth and doers. In the main thoroughfares one half of the last formed of these subterranean evidences of shops were closed at an early hour, and those which human sagacity and enterprise. Reverting to remained open, lighted but with two or three tallow our supposed clairvoyant, to whose eye the stony candles, offered a tempting booty to the prowling ground should serve as a transparent medium-on wretches with whom robbery was a trade. The in- looking for the means of effecting the most martroduction of gas soon wrought an astonishing vellous triumph which the united industry and change in the moral aspect of London. The deeds genius of man has ever accomplished, he would see which cannot bear the light shrunk away from it: little more than a number of slender threads radithe opportunity which makes the thief was wanting, ating from a common centre in Lothbury towards and theft grew less frequent. What the sangui- the various railway stations, where they are connary codes of our lawgivers, who hung up men and nected with the wires borne aloft on poles, the women a dozen of a morning for crimes of petty aspect of which is familiar to the reader. Along pilfering, could not effect, the blaze of the gas these wires the electric message travels at the lamp accomplished: it reduced the convictions for rate of twenty thousand miles a second, and instant shoplifting, and largely contributed to the repeal communication is thus obtained with any part of of bloody statutes which were a horror and a dis. the kingdom furnished with the means of transit. grace to our common humanity.
Neither does the communication stop with the There are now above a dozen gas-light and coke limits of the land; it traverses the sea, reaches companies in London, the names of which we need the capital of France, the throbs of whose troubled not enumerate. There are besides many working heart pulsate in London, and dives across the establishments which mannfacture and consume Irish Channel, startling the ear of England with their own gas. Some of these companies consume the lamentations of her desolate sister. Thus much as much as 100,000 chaldrons of coal each per an. has already been accomplished in the infancy of num, and it may be that above a million of money this new discovery: to what social advantages it is spent yearly in London in the purchase of coal will eventually lead it is vain as yet to prophesy; for the manufacture of gas. The coke, however, we live in an age of scientifie marvels-marvels which is nothing but coal deprived of its inflam- the bare mention of which would have provoked mable matter, yet remains fór fuel, and has be the withering contempt of David Hume and his come so necessary for many manufacturing and whole school of freethinkers, and drawn down a other purposes, that in some parts of the kingdom, storm of obloquy upon the head of any man who where the gas-works do not furnish a sufficient fifty years ago should have had the hardihood to quantity, it is made from coal burned in kilns, the have foretold them. It may well be that the use gas-producing elements being wasted.
of the electric telegraph shall become as popular From the purity and brilliancy of the light it and as general as that of the railway is now-that affords, and from its requiring the least possible the art of magnetic converse may become an educadegree of attention on the part of the consumer, tional accomplishment, and that man may enjoy gas has largely superseded all other modes of the society of his friend after the fatigues of busilighting, and has given rise to various branches of ness, though a thousand miles of land and sea may manufacture, some of them in the highest degree lie between them. There is nothing even now ornamental. The gas-fitter of the present day is impossible in such a consummation, and if there a constructive artist, whose labours adorn the were, we have learned to think that the impossible palaces of the sovereign and the mansions of the is to be surmounted, from having surmounted it so nobility; he has banished the smell of the lamp often. from our public assemblies, and led a light more It is curious to reflect that the basis of this brilliant than that of day into the dark and seclud- grand system of communication was the simple ed resorts of congregated labour. He has made accidental discovery, that the electric current would gas available for culinary purposes by adapting it deflect a delicately-balanced needle at an indefinite to the cooking-range of the kitchen, and for do- distance. This fact once established, it remained mestie comfort by substituting it for the coal-fire but to decide upon the signals which were to of the drawing-room. He leads the subtle element represent the different letters of the alphabet, and for hundred of miles through the solid ground, and the system was virtually complete. To what other carries it by invisible channels through the nooks purposes it is to be applied, besides the transmisand corners of yonr dwelling, and enables you to sion of intelligence and the diffusion of the true pour a flood of light wherever you choose with a astronomical time, is yet to be seen. The generatouch of the finger. Further, if you reside too far tion which is to come after us will do more than from the factory to be supplied from the mains, he tread in our steps, and will leave us, in all likelicondenses the invisible fluid into portable cylinders, hood, still farther in the rear than we have left and despatches it to your distant abode at a cost our sires. still less than that of the offensive oil or obnoxions Thus much for the under-ground world of Lontallow. There is but one drawback attending its don, from which we cannot part without asking use, and that is the peril resulting from excessive the question, Why is all this accumulation of matecarelessness. Now and then we see the front of a rial wealth buried in the earth and suffered graduhouse blown into the street, and bear of fatal acci- ally to rot in her damp embrace? Why not condents from fires and explosions occasioned by the struct sub-ways, having arched surfaces to form escape of gas. These things have, however, latterly the roads, beneath which the sewer-drains, the been much less frequent than they once were, and water-mains, the gas-pipes, and the electric wires, they are clearly to be escaped altogether by the each in their allotted place, would be readily accesexercise of ordinary vigilance.
sible for repair or re-construction, without the