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glaze. There is no reason why engravings of the people better acquainted with what constitutes first excellence should not be thus transferred and excellence, by setting before them examples of it coloured ; and it appears to us more than probable which constrain the admiration even of the most that a manufacturer, who should bring taste and rigid connoisseur. judgment along with a little spare capital to bear On leaving the manufactory, having witnessed upon this comparatively new branch of the art, the gradual progress of the ware from the native would succeed in creating a demand for articles clay up to the costly equipage from which a mowhich might be rendered eminently beautiful and narch might be pleased to dine, we are led into the supplied at no very extravagant cost.
show-rooms, where we are made aware of the ex. Passing from one imitative art to another, we tent of the potter's resources, and the numberless are next introduced to the makers of the exquisite purposes to which his art is applied in the present statuettes in porcelain, or, as it is here called, day. He not only employs the services of the parian ware, and to which we have already aluded. artist and supplements those of the sculptor, but The mode of manufacturing these charming figures he supersedes the labours of the marble-mason, and is as follows: the separate parts of the figure are enables his patrons in some degree to dispense with cast in separate moulds by pouring in the fluid those of the cabinet-maker. He casts slabs of slip, and allowing it to remain in the mould until porcelain or earthenware whiter than alabaster, the plaster of paris, of which the mould is formed, and adorns them with wreaths and bouqnets of has absorbed a certain quantity of the water; the flowers on which the butterflies rest and the dew. remaining liquid is then poured or drawn off, drops glisten; and these are to blossom by the leaving that portion of the composition from which winter fire-sides of the wealthy, in place of the the moisture has been absorbed adhering in the veined marble of Italy or the home-dug porphyry form of a hollow cast to the inside of the mould. of Cornwall
. He paints sunny landscapes upon This is allowed to harden for a certain time, and panels of porcelain for the virtuoso's cabinet or the is then released from the matrix. For a single lady's boudoir. He vies with the jeweller in the figure, it may happen that as many as twelve or costliness of his dessert services, and excels him fifteen moulds are required; and some of the altogether in appropriateness of design. He has groups of two or three figures, we were informed, perfect confidence in the virtues of clay, and are cast in the first instance in as many as fifty fashions it into any form he chooses, from a different pieces. The putting the pieces together, child's drinking-cup not worth a penny to my so as to preserve the most perfect proportion, is of lord's inkstand worth twenty guineas, or a pair of course the difficult part of the business; heads, vases cheap at a hundred. He will make you a arms, trunks, legs, hands, feet, lumps of drapery, goblet no thicker than a bank note, the weight of military boots and naked toes, etc.
, lie jumbled which shall hardly turn the scale, or a bouncing together before the workman, who gradually pickle-pot : in short, he does what he likes with builds up from them the perfect statue, or the it, always supposing that he makes a profit out seulptured group, to the semblance almost of life. of it. The several parts are cemented together with the fluid material in the state of a thin paste, and the Thus much for a glance at the operations of the numerous joinings are so artfully filled up, and so potter. Were we to chronicle the results of our perfectly surfaced, as to defy the most scrutinizing visits to other establishments, we should in the examination to detect them. There are many main be going again over the same ground, such difficulties to contend with, however, in perfecting differences as exist in the modes of manufacture at these figures. The material of which they are different potteries being scarcely perceptible by a formed is of such a nature as to shrink in the casual visitor, and of no interest, if they were, to firing, to which it must be subjected to such a the general reader. The stranger who perambudegree that it comes out of the furnace three- lates the large factories and the splendid showfourths only of the size of the original model. It rooms of the district will come to the conclusion, happens moreover that, until burnt, the ware is that though some of them affect and excel in penot sufficiently strong to retain the form into culiar branches of manufacture more than others, which it is sometimes cast; thus Apollo with his yet the modes of production are necessarily similar, outstretched arm must have a support beneath it, and that having witnessed them once he need not or the limb would bend downwards with the weight recur to them. At Ridgway's, delightfully situated of the material: some figures and some groups on a rising ground upon the skirts of Shelton, he especially require numerous supports, and these will find that particular attention has been bestowed must necessarily be all made of the same sub- upon the sanitary branch of the art, and he may stance, in order that they may shrink as the statue witness some admirable, simple, and effective conshrinks in the fire; otherwise the result would be trivances adapted for the preservation of domestic some intolerable absurdity or deformity, rendering cleanliness and atmospheric purity in dwellings. it of no value. It is fortunate that the shrinking Here, too, he may chance to see in operation a maof this fine composition is always uniform in every chine for making conserve and toilet-pots, for part, and that the minutest points of resemblance, which a prodigious and increasing demand has even in a small bust, are never injured by it. arisen within these few years; and in the show. Perhaps there is no invention of the present era room he may perhaps imbibe the conviction, that which has done more to popularize the love and though the specimens of art in painting on china appreciation of fine art than that which has given are neither so large nor so numerous as he has us the parian statuettes. It has multiplied innu- seen elsewhere, some of them are executed with a merable copies of the classic productions of both vigour and at the same time with a delicacy and native and foreign sculptors, and has made the feeling rarely if at all equalled in other places. At Etruria he will be struck with the extraordinary near a foot square to those not a quarter of an perfection of finish, even in the commonest articles inch ; and of various polygonal shapes, from octathere produced, with the general chasteness of de- gons to triangular sections of a square. They are sign and harmony of colour that characterizes the applicable to namerous building and decorative whole-the absence of gaudy hues and tawdry purposes ; any pattern, however intricate and elabocontrasts, and the judicious use of gold in combi- rate, may be wrought with them in mosaic; and nation with mixed tints, evidencing the influence being hard almost as flint, they are likely to enof a true taste in the management. He will mark dure as long as the building in which they are laid the marvellous marble-like surface of the specimens down. On entering Stoke from the railway sta. of finished earthenware, and the elegant equipages tion, the first thing upon which the traveller sets composed of that material, the sharp impression his foot is a handsome sample of this mosaie it brings from the mould, and the rigid integrity tile-work, the gift of the Messrs. Minton; which of form which every article retains in spite of the serves to remind him that he ought to witfiery ordeal of the kilns. He will not fail, either, ness the process of their manufacture before he to admire the exquisite jasper wares in body of leaves. purest blue, overlaid with floral designs modelled The tile-works of the Messrs. Minton are in the in a material pure as snow, and delicate and trans. same street with the pottery of alderman Copeparent as the finest cameos. At Alcocks-hill land, and but a few minutes walk from it. We Pottery, at Burslem, he may, if he have time, shall describe, as briefly as possible, their mode of spend hours in the long galleries filled with tri- manufacture as we happened to witness it, being umphs of the potter's art in all their endless obliged, however, from want of space, to condense variety, from the most elaborate modellings which, it. The clay, after having been carefully prepared, being wrought by hand, must have taken months is dried in pans only to the consistency of glaziers' to execute---one specimen of which is a bird of pa- putty. While yet soft, it is impressed in moulds radise, finished in every film-like feather to the per. fixed in small hand-presses, which imprint the defection of life-down to the commonest domestic sign or pattern in intaglio upon the surface of the wares. He will doubtless find other distinguishing tile. In order to form the different colours, the coexcellences among other potters, but we must de louring matter is ground up with some fusible matecline attending him further on his journey, being rial to the consistence of thickish cream, and the tints compelled to return to Stoke, where we must de required are poured in a fluid state into the hollows vote an hour to the tile-works of Messrs. Minton, which a die has depressed for their reception. The which present some very remarkable subjects for moist tiles are then removed to a chamber heated observation.
with Aues to a temperature of eighty or ninety It may be in the recollection of our readers degrees, where they dry gradually, and while that the Messrs. Minton carried off the council they yet retain a certain amount of moisture, being medal, in consequence of the artistic merit of their in about the same condition as earthenware in the great dessert service, which attracted universal hands of the turner, their surfaces are scraped notice at the Great Exhibition. They have two perfectly level, and they are dressed to shape with large establishments at Stoke, and they have car. the greatest care and precision. After this, when ried out the practice of the potter's art with the sufficiently dried, they are placed in saggers, piled greatest success in all its branches. Their imita- in prodigious quantities in the kiln, and fired at a tions of ancient vases are unrivalled in beauty of high degree of heat for a period of eighty or desigu: their parian figures, of which they mauu- ninety hours. When taken from the kiln, the cofacture large quantities, are not to be surpassed lours are fast and unchangeable, and the tiles, hard either as to purity of material or quality of as flint, are ready for use. Looking to the imworkmanship; while, in all the decorative branches mense number of dies necessary to complete the of the business, they have obtained a character for pattern of a single floor, where that is formed of high mechanical skill combined with excellent one design, a small and trifling portion of which taste. They have further succeeded in the making can only be impressed on each tile, the expense of of hard porcelain vessels for chemical purposes, for getting a manufactory of this description into which the chemists of this country were formerly working order must be something terrific. We indebted to the manufacturers of Germany; their saw a flooring thus designed, no three pieces of crucibles are found to be equal in all respects to which appeared to be perfectly alike, laid out on these of Dresden, and have the advantage of being the floor of the warehouse ready to be packed, and much cheaper. It is in the manufacture of tiles, thought it would be difficult to conceive anything however, for mosaic pavements and inlaid floor- more beautifully appropriate to the purpose for ings, and for the walls or courts of public edifices, which it was designed. The most chaste applicathat they stand almost alone and altogether un- tion of tile-work, however, in Stoke, and perhaps rivalled. The demand for these naturally arose in England, is a lofty staircase opening into the with the revival (in many respects to be regretted) magnificent show-rooms of the Messrs. Minton. The of mediæval art in this country, and the attention walls are a complete mosaic of sober greenish grey, of architects and designers was directed to the figured with a half-invisible pattern, which agreemeans of producing them in accordance with prin- ably breaks without disturbing that quiet and reciples of sound taste. They are of various sorts : tiring hue which forms the best back-ground for some of a single colour, such as black, buff, or the human figure. red, and some with ornamental designs of various We must now bid farewell to the Potteries; colours; some are reproductions of the antique, thanking all parties for the courtesy which we exe and others from devices by Pugin, Wyatt, and perienced in the course of our inquiries. other artists. They are of all sizes, from those
Most travellers in Italy are familiar with the
deep indentation of coast in which Naples is situ. TIME carries on many trades: it is a builder and ated, and have regarded with unbounded admira. dilapidator, a varnisher and a corroder ; it some- tion a scene said to be unrivalled throughout the times heaps rubbish and sometimes removes it; it world. Lying between the two promontories of is by turns an engraver, a painter, a reporter, a Misenam and Sorrento, each of which is flanked refiner ; it digs new graves and acts as a resurrec- with islands seeming greatly to prolong their protionist upon old ones. Some of its doings in the jection-possessing a soil of almost inconceivable last department are very characteristic of modern richness, presenting a quick succession of natural discovery, and illustrate the apparent paradox, that curiosities, and associated with the most precious history is often better understood by us than it memories of past history—the bay of Naples has was by those who lived nearer to the events them. no parallel to the varied interest it excites. From selves. What a tale is told by modern museums some vine-clad ridge of Vesuvius the eye can range of Egypt, Babylon, Nineveh, Athens, Hercula- over the tideless waters of the blae Mediterranean, neum, and Pompeii ! To the exhumations which sparkling with the life of a summer's day and have taken place in the last-named cities, we dotted with white and distant sails; whilst, as it owe nearly all the information we possess respect. wanders along the shore, it fixes successively on ing the domestic manners of ancient Rome; Cumæ, the fabled home of the ancient Sybil on the more, indeed, than could have been derived from the vestiges of the Eternal City itself. By electric agency, the east now begins to speak to the west; but by volcanic agency, antiquity has here spoken to posterity.
Pompeii, we need hardly tell our readers, is the name of an ancient town of Campania, distant about thirteen miles from Naples, and situated at the base of Vesuvius. Though the name of Pompeii occurs occasionally in the Roman annals, it did not possess any splendid historical celebrity; but, in consequence of a quarrel with the neighbouring city of Nuceria, it is reported to have fallen under the displeasure of Nero, and to have been interdicted by his command from celebrating thcatrical games during the period of ten years. It suffered severely from earthquakes in the years A.D. 63 and 64, and fifteen years afterwards was entirely overwhelmed by an eruption of Vesuvius the first catastrophe of that kind known to have occurred. Herculaneum and its neigh. bouring city of Pompeii were by that event simultaneously destroyed; the former by the melted lava which poured upon it from the volcano, the latter by showers of cinders and ashes which accompanied the eruption. The nature of the visitation allowed most of the inhabitants time to escape and even to remove their most precious property, though their dwellings were altogether buried by the rain of ashes.
During sixteen centuries Pompeii remained hid- singularly bold promontory of Misenum and its den from the eye of man. Grass, corn, and vine- beautiful contiguous islands-on Puteoli, lying back yards flourished above the prostrate city, till, in in the bay of Baiæ, and which once formed a week's the year 1689, the attention of the neighbouring resting place of the apostle Paul in his royage toinhabitants was first called to the relics of build wards Rome-on the city of Naples itself, presentings protruding themselves through the soil. It ing towards the sea a mass of lofty buildings in was not, however, before 1755
that any consider the shape of a double crescent, and associated with able excavations were made. The process of exhu- the memory of Belisarius and of the crusades-and, mation was then begun, and it has since been immediately beneath the feet, on Portici, the site of carried on, though unequally, and at irregular the ancient Herculaneum; whilst wandering farther periods, till about a fourth of the ancient city has on, it rests upon the white buildings which mark become visible; laying open to the eyes of a won the place of Pompeii
, now distant from the sea, but dering posterity traces of ancient habitudes un once upon the shore of an encircling bay, and touched by time; revealing the very finger-marks further
still upon the somewhat level but volcanic of distant ages; and exhibiting, in the most perfect promontory of Sorrento, terminated by the bold and state of preservation, an embalmed mummy of a picturesque island of Capræa, the scene of the Roman city, which may be regarded as now par. pleasures and too frequently of the vices of Roman tially unswathed.
emperors. When we remember that the scene we
look upon embraces the haunts of Cicero and of stroy the gods and the world together.". During Virgil, the source whence arose the fable of the this time, all persons were obliged continually to pagan hell; the plain of the Solfatara, where the shake off the ashes, which otherwise would speedily visitant feels himself walking over subterraneous have buried them.' When daylight returned after fire; and the place of the Lucrine lake now filled up this awful eruption, the scene, Pliny tells us, was by volcanic agency; we have conveyed to the reader entirely changed. Cities, towns, vineyards were an outline, though an imperfect one, of the princi- lost to view, being covered over with a thick incruspal objects which render the bay of Naples so tation of white ashes, which appeared like a deep glorious. Yet this transcendently lovely scene was, fall of snow, but which no succeeding sun could in the year A.D. 79, the theatre of a catastrophe the melt. Much of this deposit was so mingled with horrors of which defy description.
steam from the burning mountain as to have fallen French enterprise has done much in laying open like liquid mortar ; and among the discoveries the buried city of Pompeii to the view of the pre- made at Pompeii was that of the skeleton of a sent age; and, by carting away at great expense woman, encased in a kind of mortar of ashes, the ashes by which it had been choked up, has en- which presented after so many ages a perfect imabled the traveller to walk through streets or roads pression of her form before the flesh had mouldered in which he may behold the almost perfect re- away. mains of amphitheatres, temples, baths, domestic It would be impossible for us to present in a residences and villas, besides a street of tombs. single paper even a catalogue of those objects which
The circumstances under which Pompeii and modern discovery, digging amidst the ruins of Herculaneum were destroyed are vividly related in ancient Pompeii, has succeeded in revealing. The some extant letters written by the younger Pliny fortifications of the city, built of uncemented lava, to his friend Tacitus. The interest of these letters may be very distinctly traced, its outward wali is increased by the fact that Pliny's uncle perished about twenty feet in height divided from its inin the eruption. That writer relates that the terior and higher wall by an esplanade of fourteen catastrophe was preceded by a cloudy appearance feet in width. Gates (one of them not very disabove Vesuvius, like that of an enormous pine-tree similar to Temple-bar) had formed the openings spreading out above into the shape of branches, through this defence into the city, and portcullises and that the elder Pliny, his uncle, having received closed the apertures. The narrow winding streets a note from a friend whose villa was situated at still exhibit the ruts made by the constant passage the base of the mountain, conjuring him to come over their lava-paved surfaces of the biga, or twoby sea to her rescue, (inasmuch as her escape by horse chariot then in use, and even show points land was found to be impossible,) ordered a galley where an elevated stone was placed to enable the to the spot. On his approach to the shore, cinders, passenger to cross them dry-shod. There are the pumice stones, and heated ashes fell thick upon the remnants of the forum, around which, as was usual vessel, and as the sea was rapidly retiring in con- in towns in the splendid periods of Roman empire, sequence of the masses thrown from the mountain, all the principal buildings were ornamentally clushe was in imminent danger of being stranded. tered. At Pompeii are also found the remains of Unable, therefore, to proceed in that direction, he public offices, of courts for the administration of caused his vessel to be turned aside towards the justice, the granary, the prison, and several temples residence of his friend Pomponianus, whom he dedicated respectively to Venus, to all the minor found in great alarm at the eruption now raging deities (the Pantheon) to Mercury hind to Jupiter. so terribly. This villa proved, however, no safe It was in a scene similar to this tAthens that resting-place, and perceiving that if they remained the apostle Paul had stood, not long before the longer within doors they would become choked up catastrophe by which Pompeii was destroyed, and by the showers of ashes, the whole family, with had proclaimed the spirituality, the unity, the their visitor, took refuge in the open fields, with superintendence of the God of heaven, with the pillows tied over their heads to defend themselves dread declaration, that as criminals were brought from the projected stones. But the mephitic before the public tribunal which stood in the vapours proved too much for the elder Pliny, who Athenian forum, so should all the world answer was a corpulent old man and inclined to apoplexy. before God's universal judgment-seat! He died of suffocation during the long night pro- Near to the forum at Pompeii are the remains duced by the volcanic rain, which hid for three days of the ancient baths, always conspicuous in classithe light of the sun.
cal towns, and evidently regarded by the PomSuch is the account given by the younger Pliny peiians as erections of no small importance. The of the fate of his uncle. He adds to it that the observer may distinctly trace the arrangements light was, from the commencement of the erup made for conducting and heating the water, and tion, almost obscured, and that the houses tottered the separate apartments, floored with mosaic, in so much as to compel the inhabitants to leave the which men and women severally made their ablutown for the country. The darkness soon became tions. The very pegs are extant on which the total. "Darkness overspread us,” says Pliny, bathers hung their clothes. These ancient Ro"not like that of a cloudy night or when there is mans, whom every classical schoolboy is taught to no moon, but of a room when it is shut up and all look upon as impersonations of the sublime, were the lights extinct. Nothing was then to be heard but ordinary mortals after all! A handsome and but the shrieks of women, the screams of children, large chamber, called the tepidarium, throngh and the cries of men; some calling for their chil. which the warm moist atmosphere well known in dren, others for their parents, others for their hus. oriental baths was diffused, so as to prepare for the bands; and the greater part imagining that the greater heat of the hot bath, is also in a state of last and eternal night was come which was to de. considerable preservation. Another room remains in which were performed the shampooing opera- | inventions notwithstanding! If, in constructing tions still practised in the east.
our present streets, we imagine that we have made On the other side of the forum stand the places great advances upon more ancient days, Pompeii of public entertainment. The walls yet retain the may teach us that there were trottoirs and curbstone staples in which was fixed the apparatus stones before we were thought of! The fresco employed to screen spectators from the heat of the paintings, which we attempt to revive, were known noon-day sun. A remote corner of the city ex- long before Michael Angelo and Raphael painted hibits the amphitheatre, where the Romans grati- the Vatican, with the addition that in the Roman fied their almost incredible passion for the combats city they could resist, during 1800 years, the action of human beings with each other, or with beasts first of fire, then of damp. The chequers of a moof prey ; with all the extensive preparations requi- dern alehouse are but reproductions of antiquity. site for confining the beasts until the appointed Our saloop and coffee apparatases had their proto moment of combat. Here, if conquered, the gla- types centuries ago in the thermopolia of the andiator appealed to the mercy of the spectators, and cients. Pompeiians, as well as ourselves, could make if they turned down their thumbs it was the sen- use of artificial doors where it was not convenient tence of death ; and here, if conqueror, he obtained, to have real ones. If we paint on our shops the if a slave, his freedom, or, if a freed man, was well-known words, “ Purveyor to her Majesty and rewarded by a sum from the public treasury; or Prince Albert,” it was done before us. « The received the palm-branch, which constituted one scribe Issus beseeches M. C. Vatia, the Ædile, to of the highest honours-a token employed by patronize him : he is deserving." Howsoever we the sacred writers, to commemorate the victors in may pride ourselves on the invention of glass, a conflict which consists not in warring against many fragments of that material, in some cases flesh and blood, whether of beasts or of men, bat coloured and fashioned for drinking, are found in in the conquest of self and sin and the spiritual the ruins of the buried city. Steelyards and scales agencies with which every believer is surrounded. are shown to be but the modern appropriations of Sculptures found within the ruined city forcibly ancient discoveries. Mirrors reflected the counteillustrate some of these gladiatorial combats. nances of ancient, as they do of modern, beauties.
Pompeii was well snpplied with public fountains, Callipers and compasses were as well known in that sponting out their water from leaden or bronze day as in the present. Censers then sent up their heads, as is common in modern times, fitted up with fragrant odours before the shrines of religious worleaden conduits to convey the necessary supply. ship; though the false notions the ancients enter
The private houses of Pompeii, like those occu- tained of Deity rendered the offering a less mockery pied by Roman citizens in general, were seldom than it is when the spirituality of the Holy One is used simply for purposes of habitation, but had so widely known. The illustrated placards which their lower parts formed into shops, constituting a adorn our city walls exhibit an idea at least as old considerable source of revenue to the owners. One as the times of Vespasian. Locks were elaborate in of these houses exhibits the remains of a cook's their construction before Bramah offered his reshop, open during the day to the street, with its wards and American pick-locks accepted them. oren and convenience for provisions, cooked and Paintings were in advance of Van Eycke himself, uncooked. Some of these residences show the and caricatures amused the Pompeiians as much as marks of having been once superbly decorated, they do ourselves. Sausages were eaten at the foot thongh exposv, to the atmosphere has already of Vesuvius before Germany gave them a name. destroyed pory, dis of these valuable remnants of Then
as now, old garments were scoured by careancient art. The most perfect and curious of these ful housewives till they resembled new. An anhouses is that which bears the name of PANSAM. cient water-tap yet remains to prove how similar it ÆD. on its rrincipal entrance, perhaps the resi- was to the device of our own times. Gilded pills, dence of the Ædile Pansa. It was evidently a otto of roses, lanthorns, extinguishers, braziers, majestic structure, and is entirely surrounded by frying-pans, tweezers, bells, slit money-boxes, pins, streets. From the appearance of a cross upon the combs, with many other articles, some of which walls of one of the shops on the ground floor, it have the date of their invention assigned to a has been conjectured by Mazois that its occupier much later period, are distinctly ascertained to have was a Christian. The house presents the atrium, been in use before they were imbedded in volcanic or principal hall, with its cistern of water, exhibiting ashes eighteen centuries ago. Such discoveries still the remains of a jet d'eau in its centre. In may well tempt us to say, with the Gascon, " These the kitchen can be discerned the various furnaces ancients have stolen all our fine thoughts !" used for cooking and stewing; and there was found It is gratifying to turn to some things, however, in it a painting representing the household gods which mark very distinctly the processes of modern Worshipped as the protectors of provisions, with the improvement. What advances may we observe implements used in preparing them, and not unlike in the construction of our towns, as well as in many in general character to the brownies and fairies of of the domestic arts of life, since the days of Pommodern date. In the garden of another house may peii! No slave now exhibits his African features in be seen the remnants of a summer-house intended attendance on his master. What progress has for an occasional
banquet, with the table and couches navigation made since the time in which ships of stone, on which, when covered with mattresses, were impelled by the long lines of oars, worked by the guests might recline.
hard hands at the command of despotic masters These disinterments make strange work with and unskilled sailors! Spectators no longer crowd modern self-esteem. Things, which we had fondly with avidity to witness the bloody scenes exhibited thought were the inventions of a recent age, are in gladiatorial conflicts! The elaborate instruments proved by these researches to be no very modern of an old and fatigning penmanship, which was too