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they saw of robes, and coronets, and plumes, of and her confessor, a Franciscan friar, whose mortiglittering armour and fair faces, neither distinctly fying piety never permitted him to touch soap and remembered; but as the clock chimed noon on the water. Through what low and miry places does high church of Cracow, the Polish banner was un. worldly ambition often lead its votaries! Emerich furled. The president of the diet, followed by all almost hated his poor brother and sister-in-law for the deputies, came out, leading a pale, serious-look- not being found more compliant, and was secretly ing young man, whom he presented to the people, enraged at his niece for retaining any vestige of while four heralds stationed at the cardinal points affection for her parents. All that cunning and proclaimed, that “the most puissant, the most experience could suggest had been done to estrange august, most illustrious Prince Sigismund of Swe the girl's mind from them. Surrounded by splen. den was duly elected by the free votes of the Sar dour, told continually of her noble relations and matian Diet, King of Great and Little Poland, of magnificent prospects, their names were seldom Upper and Lower Lithuania, of Livonia, Courland, mentioned in her hearing. Their letters were aland the Cossacks."
most entirely suppressed, her own gifts and kindly A shout went up of “God save king Sigismund !” letters to her mother were superseded by the chilly There was a crash of trumpets and cymbals, the can- notes which had often saddened Eustachia, and no non thundered in all the camps, answering thunders insinuation was spared that could make Anna rolled from the ramparts of Cracow, and the election regard them and their faith as a disgrace. These
efforts had not succeeded. Indeed, the girl's would“Now we will see our daughter," said Eusta- be instructors never dreamed how very little they chia, as she busied herself in some preparations of had effected. Under a gay but gentle manner, and their poor tent. “I wonder Michael has not re- a most docile disposition, Anna possessed a more turned! Where can he be ?"
than ordinary understanding, an unobtrusive love While she spoke, the tent was filled with men of truth, and a singular constancy of mind. On this of the Polish watch, who, crying, “ Haste! haste! account the vanities of the court and the pomps of we will have no pest people here," seized on Justin the Romish ritual took less hold on her youth than and his wife, hurried them into a great wagon, in they would have done on a character less sound spite of their asseverations that the plague had and true. Partially seeing through their frivonot been at Kieydany that year, and, commanding lousness and falsehood, the young girl accepted two men who had charge of the oxen to drive at them only because she had no better guidance, and the peril of their lives, the door was fastened and never believed implicitly in either priest or gover. they were driven far and fast on the great road to ness. Besides, careless as her parents had been Lithuania.
before she left their home, Anna's childhood was The roads of Poland were in those times mere not altogether untaught. Snatches of hymns and beaten ways leading through plain and forest, and texts of scripture yet remained in the girl's mind, divided into stages by solitary hostels which afforded bound up with the loving remembrance of her shelter rather than accommodation to travellers. mother. She had promised herself to do great From hostel to hostel the pair were hurried on, ill things for her parents, having already perceived provided with necessaries and allowed little rest, that uncle Emerich was not as kind as he might so that Justin was quite broken down, and Eusta- have been, and felt deeply disappointed when she chia was exhausted, when the wagoners left them at was told that they had gone away without so much their own hoff gate in the grey of a summer morn. as taking leave of her. In that dense gathering ing. Their own wagon, their travelling goods, her parents had been so far removed in rank and and their faithful Michael, had been left behind; locality from the heiress of Lyszczynski, that she and the only explanation they had obtained from had no oportunity of knowing the truth, and their rude escort, two Gallician peasants, was that none of the retainers dared to undeceive her. "somebody, doubtless a great prince or bishop, "Surely they r not love me, or they would not had told the chief of the watch, whose daty it was have done so," thoug:t Anna ; but little time was to keep Vola clear of all disease and disorder, that given her for reflection. Joust, banquet, and dance the plague was in their tent, and he had ordered succeeded each other in the camps of the princes, them to be sent home immediately, and all their and in all the festivities it was contrived that Anna travelling goods to be burned”-that being the should have a prominent part, till on the arrival of rule on such occasions. The men evidently be intelligence that queen Catherine was dangerously lieved that there was a truer cause for their ex. ill at Stockholm, the gaieties were suddenly closed, pulsion, but they were unquestioning instruments the field was emptied of its thousands, and she
was sent to comfort her royal play-mate the prinThe feudal system, which yet prevails in the cess Anna. There was no lack of gentlewomen, north, was the constitution of Poland in those pages, and an armed guard on that journey; but days. The whole country, excepting some chartered all the way it was remarked that an old peasant, towns, belonged to its noble families, the remaining with a military uprightness of carriage and iron. millions being their serfs, whose moral and social grey hair, kept in the wake of the lady Anna's condition was fully expressed by the peasant pro- escort. His appearance much disquieted its nomiverb,“ What I drink is mine."
nal commander, count Sigismund Dolenski, as they In such a state of things it was easy to find a now called Emerich's son, whom his confessors had pretext for removing the father and mother from a succeeded in making a superstitious, feeble-minded scene where their conscientious scruples or parental youth; for he was sure the old man was a sorcerer. influence might interfere with great men's designs. Sorcery and witchcraft were prevalent beliefs of the Emerich Dolenski did not do it himself; but he age; but count Sigismund's terrors on those subsuffered it to be done by the bland-spoken governess jects were laughed at by all the younger courtiers,
and served to amuse Anna and her train on their watchers had left that bleak though stately chamber, dreary journey, which was made overland, through for it was early in the summer day, and unknown provinces now Russian, but then divided between to the young girls the queen had sent for her conPoland and Sweden, till the entrance of Stock fessor. The tapestried walls, the floor thickly holm the old man was lost sight of, and the news strewn with branches of the spruce fir, and the which met them absorbed all attention. Queen great bed hung with crimson velvet, had a chilly Catherine, the strength and trust of the northern and gloomy effect, especially when it was known by Romanists, was fast nearing that bourne where royal the traditions of the palace that no less than eleven crown and priestly power avail not. The court was queens had died in that chamber. consequently in great agitation, not with grief They heard queen Catherine moan under the for through a long life of serving the Jesuits and golden fringe and crimson velvet; but, as the maintaining court etiquette, Catherine Jagellon princess' hand was raised to draw the curtain, her had given little cause for regret at her departure courage failed, and she stepped behind the huge but her dependants trembled for their posts. Cove- tent-like bed to recover her composure. Anna tous men of all parties intrigued to obtain them, involuntarily did the same, and at that moment and the Jesuits endeavoured to get as large be- the confessor entered. He shut the door carefully, quests as possible from the dying queen.
as if assured there was no one there but himself As for Ånna, she found her friend less troubled and the dying queen. The heavy drapery comthan terrified. The queen had always looked coldly pletely concealed the girls from his view; but on her youngest child, for not being what she called Anna's quick eye perceived signs of impatience devoutotherwise, superstitious. More grave and unusual in the composed countenance of the Jesuit. timid than Anna Dolenski, from the mixture of The first impulse of both was to step out and monastic discipline and state ceremonial in which unfold their errand, but fear of father Warszeshe had been brought up, the young princess wicki kept them quiet. He had already drawn was not less clear of understanding or keen to per- the curtain, and they heard queen Catherine say, ceive, and the remnants of her companion's early in a faint broken voice : education had been imparted to her in the course Father, I have sent for you thus early, because of their intimacy. Notwithstanding palace eti. I have been troubled all night with sinful doubts quette, a sincere and confiding friendship had concerning the masses that are to be said for my grown between the girls. No one suspected of soul. If they should be neglected, or”-and her what subjects they spoke; but now the princess voice sank still lower-"if, as the heretics say, had need of a friend to talk with, for a strange they should be useless." horror darkened the death-bed of her mother. In • These are sinful thoughts, my daughter," said spite of two chantries founded expressly for the the confessor. "Whenever they occur, you should repose of her soul-in spite of costly gifts to repeat an act of faith.”. every shrine of note, from Rome to Kiof-in spite " Oh father, I cannot," cried the queen. eren of a large annuity just bequeathed to the fearful place of expiation still rises before me-I Jesuit college in Cracow-queen Catherine was dream of its horrid fire. Can you and all the haunted by terrors of purgatory which would not priests do nothing more for me P" be soothed away. The most able comforters of his There was a moment's pause, and the girls disorder had been sent for to assist father Warsze. tinctly heard father Warszewicki say, in a deep wicki in allaying her fears, but their consolations whisper : Madame, trouble yourself and me no were so blended with the power of the church, the more on this matter. Purgatory is but a fable necessity of masses, and the danger of leaving one invented for the ignorant": thought unconfessed, that the unhappy woman be- Then came a gasping sound, as if one tried to came more terrified than ever. Miserable comfort. speak but could not. The confessor sprang to the crs indeed in such an hour must all human remedies door, sounded the silver whistle, which served as a be; for faith in the atoning sacrifice of the cruci. bell in those days, and retired along the gallery. fied One can alone give solid peace to the troubled By the time a few careless attendants arrived, the sonl. Her son and husband were absent settling princess Anna was chafing the damp hands of her the affairs of the new kingdom and the right of mother, who seemed to be in a fit of catalepsy ; succession. Within and without the palace all the chief physician was summoned, and by his were occupied with their peculiar interests, except efforts she recovered some degree of strength, but the princess Anna, who grieved for her mother's never consciousness. Her eyes wandered wildly state, and father Warszewicki, because certain Do- from face to face, her speech was broken and incominicans were taking the opportunity to insinuate herent. At sunset, extreme unction was administhat the queen's confessor must be deficient in tered, and at midnight queen Catherine died, but spiritual management.
the last words she was heard to utter were, " A “I have been thinking, Anna, that the preachers fable invented for the ignorant ! What then is whom our Swedish people go to hear in the old true ?" churches of the town might do my mother some The palace was hung with black. The monks good, though they are called heretics,” said the and friars assembled to chant the dirge, and the princess to her friend, as they stood alone in the court mourning was made ready, but there seemed great gallery leading to the queen's chamber. "If no grief except with the now orphan princess. In you come with me," continued the timid girl, “I her sorrow she refused to see priest or confessor, will ask her to send for one of them.”
gentlewoman or governess, and would speak with Anna Dolenski had no hope in the effort, but no one but Anna Dolenski and a poor friar who she replied by taking her friend's hand, and they had laboured long in Lapland as a missionary, and glided together into the sick-room. The night was grievously suspected of being a Lutheran.
This was thought very strange; but wonders did hand of their own Michael. His mistress was at not end there. While a contention between the the door in an instant, but a young girl in a poor Jesuits and the Dominicans for command of the peasant habit, who had sprung from the second royal obsequies engaged the attention of the go- horse, rushed into her arms, crying, "Mother, vernesses, both grave and gay, the pages of the dear mother, I am come to stay with you, and palace remarked that an old man, much like him never go back to those cunning deceivers !” who had marched with the train from Poland, was What tears of joy did the father and mother introduced by the suspected friar and conversed shed over their child, thus restored to them; and long with Lady Anna in the princess's apart- what a wondrous tale was unfolded of providential ments. Stranger still
, on the morning after queen working, even through the craft and tyranny of Catherine's funeral, the heiress of Lyszczynski was men! The expulsion of his master and mistress nowhere to be found. Search was made in every from the field of Vola, under what Michael knew quarter, a courier was sent express to her uncle at to be a false pretext, had incited the shrewd and Cracow, and count Sigismund almost rejoiced in faithful servant to follow their daughter all the the confirmation of his belief that the old man was way to Stockholm, in hopes, as he said, of "let
ting her know what sort of people she lived We have said it was a long way between the among,", which, by means of the suspected friar, court of Stockholm and the Lithuanian hoff, and who had been born in Lithuania, Michael suca far different scene was the Baltic town with its ceeded in doing, but not till she and the young gothic towers and churches, from the level plain, princess, by what seemed the merest accident, in the midst of which rose the rustic spires of heard the impatient Jesuit make that avowal to Kieydany. Travellers who explored that plain to the dying queen which changed the whole current the north and eastward met with pine woods and of her daughter's inward life; for ever after her marshes, but on the south and west it was one mother's death princess Anna was known to the wide stretch of corn and pasture land to the banks whole court as a Lutheran. Nor could the utmost of the Niemen. Great oaks and pines towered up efforts of her brother, the bigoted Sigismund, among the corn—the solitary survivors of a for. shake the firmness of her faith, which she verified gotten forest. Small lakes glistened among the in the sight of men by a most virtuous life. pastures, where herds of the long-horned Polish Readers, the incident of queen Catherine's cattle and half-wild horses grazed, and herdsmen death-bed is no fiction. The Swedish historian pitched their summer tents beside them. The tall Puffendorf records it amongst other facts of trees had caught a tinge of gold upon their top- those contending times. As for the Dolenskis, most boughs. There was a gleam of sickles among they lived in peace at the old hoff. Prince Christhe yellow corn, for summer was waning fast into topher the palatine took them under his special harvest, and reapers were abroad throughout Li- protection, at the request of the princess Anna, thuania, among fields whose early ripened though who never forgot the friend of her early days, scanty sheaves were already half cut down; and though she ceased to be called the heiress of Lyszhard by a little lake, planted round with fir trees, czynski; for Anna Dolenski read her father's bible in which the herons roosted, stood the old hoff of and chose her father's faith, much to the indignadoctor Robertus. It was a square fabric built of tion of her uncle and prince Vladislav. The latter, pine logs, with a roof of thatch and clay now indeed, struck her name out of his testament, and thickly covered with grapes and ground-ivy; a low for some time before his death was supposed to be but massive fence, also log-built, with a strong divided in his choice of an heir between count timber gate, inclosed the dwelling and its depen- Ludowic Zamoisky and Emerich's son. Well. dencies. In its principal apartment, a long room informed people said the latter had never been with lattice-work windows, carved oaken stools thought of by prince Vladislav; but queen Catbeand tables, a rush-covered floor, and a hearth of rine's confessor performed a signal act of service to tiles, on which the evening_fire was lighted, sat his order, by persuading the grasping Emerich the poor parents of Anna Dolenski. Their ser- that if his son had only sufficient fortune of his vants were all busy in the fields, and much was
princely appearance, the old man the trusty hand of Michael missed among them. I would certainly prefer him. The bait was too well For Justin had been so sorely shaken by that gilded for the scheming cunning courtier to reforced journey that he was unable to attend as sist. He immediately settled the gatherings of his usual to crop or field. The harvest brought them many crafty years on count Sigismund; and that little cheer or comfort. Perplexed and almost superstitious son gave proof of his training by broken-hearted, they knew not what to do or think immediately devoting himself and his father's subconcerning Emerich and their daughter. Some- stance to the new Jesuit convent established in times Justin talked of going to Cracow on his Cracow, six months after the election with which recovery, and demanding justice, but the impracti- our tale began. Finding himself thus cheated, cability of that step was well known to Eustachia. Emerich had recourse to law; but, as might be The sun was sloping to the westward, for it was expected, the suit went against him, and the holy far in the afternoon : there was silence without and brotherhood had sufficient influence to get him diswithin the old hoff. Worn out with talking and missed from all his offices, and banished the court. thinking of their troubles, Justin had dropped into Respected by no party, and stripped of everything, a sort of doze on the bench where he sat, and Eus- for which he had sacrificed honour and conscience, tachia twirled her distaff slowly, for her thoughts the old man wandered about in poverty, and died were not on the wool she spun. Suddenly there unlamented—a striking example of the hollowness came a sound of horses' feet at full speed. They of a life devoted to the world and unsustained by stopped at the gate, she saw it flung open by the principle.
own to make
A VISIT TO THE STAFFORDSHIRE
lead, borax, litharge, with various oxides and pro
toxides, etc., etc. These materials, or rather cerPOTTERIES.
tain selections from them, may be prepared either IV.-A MORNING AT COPELAND'S CONTINUED.-MINTOX'S
as a raw glaze or a fritted glaze, the difference TILE-WORKS.
between the two being very important. We left the printed wares in the muffle, evaporat- glazes the materials are merely ground together; ing the oil from their colouring matter under the but in a fritted glaze they are first, or at least the action of heat. After remaining there ten or major portion of them, calcined and vitrified in a twelve hours this is thoroughly accomplished, furnace previous to grinding, by which means when they are withdrawn, and,
being first allowed they are much more effectually combined together, to cool, are ready for the glazing process. While and yield a much more durable as well as a they are cooling we may as well walk into a neigh. thinner and consequently handsomer coating to bouring chamber, and glance for a moment at the the wares. Further, glazes differing in compooperations of the biscuit-painters. Here we find a sition are required for different species of goods; row of women and girls seated at long benches, thus wares printed blue require a glaze which will and engaged in painting upon wares of a compara. furnish oxygen to bring the cobalt to the state of tively cheap description, for domestic use, simple peroxide; while green, on the other hand, must floral and botanical designs in various colours; the be dipped in a glaze as free from oxygen as posfigures they paint are not too much like nature, sible, and rather carbonaceous, in order to bring and we question whether their prototypes are to the chrome to a state of peroxide. be found in any horticultural collection; but they The glaze, whatever it may be, being ground to answer the purposes of the market, and, being ex- the greatest degree of fineness, is diluted with ecuted with remarkable rapidity, can be sold at a water in the same way as the clay slip, and appasmall price. The women lay on the colours with rently to the same consistency. The biscuit ware, a camel-hair brush, using gum-water as a vehicle; either plain for white ware, or printed or painted but they are limited in the choice of colours, con in the manner above described, is next carried to fining themselves to the use of such only as will the glazing-room, where we find the dipper and stand the heat of the glazing-oven. No firing in his assistants supplied with the fluid glaze in the mufile is required for wares thus coloured large tubs. The dipper, a pale, sallow, and rather under glaze.
jaundiced-looking individual, is immersing the In connection with this simple mode of painting several pieces of ware, one at a time, in the white the biscuit, we may as well notice another stii milky-looking Auid; as he withdraws each piece more rapid method of colouring wares in this state, from the flood he gives it a knowing professional and which is done in the following manner :-The jerk, which has the effect of throwing off the article to be coloured, be it jug, mug, or basin, superfluous moisture and settling what remains is put by the operator into a lathe and set in mo- equally upon the entire surface. In a very few tion. As it turns round, the artist if such he is minutes the thirsty biscuit absorbs the whole of to be called-who is provided with a queer con- the moisture, and appears covered all over with a trivance, shaped something like an old Roman lamp thin layer of the finely pulverized ingredients or a modern butter-boat, divided into several com compounding the glaze, and which, when vitrified partments containing different colours, puts this in the fire, becomes incorporated with the submachine to his mouth, and blows any colour he stance of the goods, and at the same time as transchooses upon the revolving ware. The predomi. parent and polished as glass. This process of nating tint is a reddish kind of brown, splashed glazing, or rather dipping, is the only melancholy with blue. The reader must often have met with part of the potter's industrial operations : owing these wares; they are rarely wanting in the tra- to the quantity of finely levigated white lead velling hawker's basket, and in country wayside mixed with the glaze, enough is absorbed through inns appear very much to have supplanted the old- the pores of the skin to poison his whole system, fashioned “ brown jug” of lyrical notoriety, to embitter his existence,
and materially to shorten Now comes the important ceremony of glazing, his life. In the various potteries which we visited upon which not only the beauty but the perpetuity we saw evidence of its effects sufficient to assure of the wares is in a great degree dependent. The us that such is the case ; and we met with more potter is indebted to a knowledge of chemistry for than one instance, during our short stay, of dippers the composition of his glazes; and upon this sub invalided and unable to work through the poison. ject no small amount of capital has been expended ous effects of the lead. This disastrous result and no end of experiments made. Every manu- might be altogether avoided by the use of a pair facturer has his own prejudices on the subject of of waterproof caoutchouc gloves and sleeves; but glazes, and, as a general rule, each prefers his such a preventive, if suggested, would probably be individual method of compounding them. The looked upon as an insult by the workmen them. object, of course, which all have in view is to coat selves, and is not likely to be adopted unless by their wares, at the cheapest possible outlay, with a the philanthropic compulsion of the employer. hard, glossy, translucent and impenetrable surface, The goods having been dipped in the glaze and which shall not "craze" with time, nor if possible allowed to dry, in which condition they will bear scratch with use. Were it necessary, we might handling very well without parting with the coatgive a score of different receipts, each warranted ing of glazing matter, are now again packed in to componnd a good glaze, having at least that saggers, especial care being taken, by the aid number lying upon our desk; it is enough, how- of the numberless little spurs and triangular stilts ever, to say, that the principal materials used are before alluded to, that they do not touch one wbite lead, Cornish granito, flint, flint glass, red | another in the sagger, since if they did they would
be inevitably vitrified together by the melting | in consequence of the trying ordeal their work of the glaze in the fire. The saggers, being pro- undergoes after it leaves their hands. There are perly loaded, are now carried to the kiln or "gloss. no such limits, however, affecting the artist who oven" for a second firing. The gloss-oven is not paints upon the glaze; he can spread a rich palette so large as the biscuit-oven, nor do the goods re- and make use of colours of the greatest brilliancy, main in it so long, nor is the fire so fierce ; all that and he may produce pictures upon any subject in is wanted being heat enough to fuse the glaze any branch of art in which he may happen to excel. upon the surface. When this is satisfactorily ac. He has one great disadvantage to contend with, complished the fires are slacked, the oven allowed but he soon becomes familiarized with it, and proto cool, and the goods drawn forth and removed bably is hardly aware of it after the practice of in baskets to the glossed warehouse, where they years : we allude, of course, to the fact that he has undergo a rigid examination, and some little ne- to paint in disguised colours, which only manifest cessary dressing with steel implements, to remove their real hues when they come out of the fire. any trifling projections of the glaze occasioned by In this establishment we find a group of artists in the use of the small spurs and stilts. The sepa- an upper room by themselves, quietly pursuing rate pieces are now sounded, and, the defective their fascinating art. Flower-pieces, landscapes, ones being rejected, are ready for sale.
sporting-pieces, fruit-pieces, are gradually growIn the above description of the potter's opera-ing into form and brilliancy under their hands. tions, so far as it goes, we have had reference to Rich and elaborate designs, fanciful ornaments, earthenware articles alone; but the reader will arabesque patterns, and heraldic or civic blazonnaturally be expecting some observations on the ries displayed in minute interlacings of scarlet and subject of porcelain or china wares, for which a gold--such are some of the glittering evidences few words, however, will suffice. Theoretically of their taste and industry which greet the eye at there is a considerable difference in the materials every turn. The colours used, which look rather which compose the substance of china, from those dull upon the palette, here represented by a square used for earthenware; in practice, however, the Dutch tile, are one and all prepared from metallic chief difference seems to consist in the addition oxides, and they are ground up on the premises of a large per-centage of calcined and ground with certain fusible transparent materials suited bones to the earthenware material, in some manu- for the several colours of which they are made the factories amounting to as much as nearly, if not vehicle, and which, melting in the kiln, actually quite, half of the entire substance. The bones are become so many coloured glasses incorporated with used thus largely for the sake of the phosphoric the body of the ware. A great deal of gold is acid they contain, the effect of which is to render used for ornamental purposes, and this is applied the aluminous and silicious earths with which they to china in the state of an amalgam with a metal. are combined translucent. The glaze for china lic flux, ground fine with turpentine; it is mostly should be harder than that used for earthenware, prepared in London for the potter's use. When but its application and the mode of firing differ in the artist has finished his picture, it has to be nothing from the modes above described. Though placed in the enamel-kiln, where the flux used as it is undoubtedly true that the finest and most the vehicle of the colours vitrifies, and the tints beautiful wares produced in the potteries are made assume their proper hues and brilliancy: this, of china, it by no means follows that all china however, is not the case with the gold, which stili wares are necessarily superior to earthenware of retains a dull brownish hue, and has to be burgood quality. Some of the first-class potters pro- nished by hand before the finishing is complete. duce a species of earthenware which is as much On entering the burnishing-room our ears are superior to the rough, ill-shaped china wares of assailed by a rapid clattering noise, such as might the cheap makers as good silver is to base coin. be made by a score or two of pairs of castanets all It is with the productions of the potter as it is in exercise at once : this proceeds from the enthuwith those of the artist; if people will have Ra- siastic operations of the polishers, a band of a phaels and Corregios at seven and sixpence a dozen or two young women each armed with a piece, they can be manufactured at a correspond- blood-stone burnisher, and all rattling away to. ing cost; and if people will set a china tea-service gether upon such parts of the surfaces of a variety on their tables at a cost of a few shillings, the of costly wares of every description as are oramakers are to be found who will minister to their mented with gold. The process they perform ap. pride and their economy in the same contract, and pears to be the last which the wares underge get a profit out of it too.
after which they are ready to be packed for conWe must glance now at the ornamental and signment to the retail trader, or for removal to artistic departments of the potter's art. As a the show-room. general rule, both the artist and the modeller may Besides the printing, the biscuit-painting, and be said to work upon the finest material, porcelain the enamel-painting, there is a style of ornamentor china forming usually the body of the wares ation which has lately sprung up, and which, being and the substance of the figures which the one susceptible of indefinite improvement, and at the adorns and the other moulds. This rule is how- same time not necessarily expensive, bids fair to ever not universal, as specimens of earthenware become exceedingly popular.“ We allude to the are to be found, at Etruria at least, and perhaps in practice, of which we saw many successful speci. other places, as rich in ornamentation as are the mens in the varions show-rooms of the first-classchoicest specimens in china. We have already potters, of transferring engraved landscapes and seen women and girls at work painting in colours views in the same way as the common printed pat. upon the biscuit, previous to glazing; and we terns are transferred, and afterwards colouring have seen that they are limited in choice of tints, them artistically with enamel colours upon the