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yard stuff"—the relative value of the two systems the radius from a central shaft, which bristles all was convincingly tested! The field was devoted around with a forest of such arms—a sort of reto a crop of Swedish turnips—the first that had volving Briareus.” This “ steam-cultivator" is to ever been heard of on the farm, and the last, in the do its work by traction--not by its rolling weight opinion of all surrounding wisdom, that would ever first cutting its own trench, burying itself to the be tried upon it. Many were the smiles, winks, required depth, and then commencing its onward murmurings, shakes of the head, and other task, tearing down the bank (so to speak) on the demonstrations, jocular and serious, of those who advancing side, canting back the pulverized soil, engaged in the preliminary operations, or who earth's sawdust, “comminuted, aërated, and inwitnessed the application of the new manure. As verted," into the trench it makes as it proceeds ; if to try, too, the enterprising farmer, it proved a and thus leaving behind a fully prepared seed-bed, miserable year for turnips generally, and every seven or eight inches deep, never to be gone over where " the fly" was omnipotent and omnivorant. again except by the drill. Such is, in brief, his On that part of the field tilled after the old fashion picture of the “steam-cultivator,” the construction a crop about the size of apples came up.

of which seems to be one of the most pressing de“And what on the guano ?-From twenty to siderata of British agriculture. And who, that retwenty-four tons, by weight, per acre. Not the members the beautiful instruments collected in the best, but the only crop to be seen in the neighbour south area of the Great Exhibition, will despair of

It seemed a perfect mystery to the its being one day invented ? neighbouring farmers; and the field was stared at With this subject we take leave of this suggestagain and again, as a sort of conjuror's trick which ive book, commending it to the thoughtful perusal

you couldn't do again.' Wise men shook their of our agricultural friends.
heads and held their tongues at it. Nobody would
have been at all surprised if, on going to the field
some fine morning, he had found it altogether
vanished, like faëry money, as quickly as it came.

THE AMPHITHEATRE OF VERONA. The point to which opinion settled at last was, How one dreams of Roman times and Roman that a fraud had been practised upon the land, things in Verona, when passing under its Roman and that the next crop would show the difference gates, especially when sitting on the steps of its between 'real manure and a 'mere stimulant.' Roman amphitheatre. There it is still, with its

But we have, perhaps, exhausted the atten- gigantic sweep of about 1300 feet, with seats for tion of our non-agricultural readers. Let it suffice about 22,000 spectators so well preserved ; the old to say, then, that in the course of a few years the blocks of marble still so well knit together, the clay farm was completely metamorphosed, and that area so clear, the parapet all round so appropriately from being a losing concern, the source of anxiety restored, the passages for access cutting through to all connected with it, it became a prosperous and the tiers of seats so distinctly, that you might successful undertaking, letting at a high rent. imagine the men who built them had not been very

Our author is evidently an original thinker. long sleeping in their graves. But of the outer Will it be believed by those who have quoted from circuit there is little left; the external Tuscan their schoolboy days the lines" Ye Britons, architecture has well nigh vanished; only a few venerate the plough!" that towards the close of his arches remain, and those covered with wall and book he actually runs full tilt against this ancient other wild flowers: while the great entrances, and implement--the very palladium of agriculture, stone staircases, and broad landings, and long as it might have been thought ? Indeed, how. winding passages, by which the crowds came in ever attached we may have become to this ancient and went ont, though they indicate their original friend and useful servant of our race, we cannot do purpose and character, are much ruined, and tell less than confess that the views advanced on the of ages long, long past. But even on the exterior subject are well worthy of the consideration of all there are mementoes to be recognised, very full of who are accustomed to use it. He strongly objects, freshness, and bringing Roman times and things also, to the adoption of the steam-plough, as an very nigh in the great Roman numerals--LXIIII, essentially erroneous mode of applying that won. LXV, LXVI, LXVII, put up there to guide the

Every kind of power-manual, ani- people to the place where they were to deliver their mal, and mechanical - has its appropriate form of tickets. application. Thus, while spade-work is perpen- I never realized what is Roman so much as I dicular, and horse-work horizontal, machine-work did then and there. It is the town of Catullus, of is and must be circular. The steam-engine works Cornelius Nepos, of Pomponius Secundus, of Pliny by revolution. What our author contends for is, a the elder. It brought to mind the first Latin machine that shall at once and simultaneously per- books of schoolboy days, their stories and their form all that series of protracted and expensive authors. The scenes were revived, the incidents processes which is now effected by the plough, the made present, the men seemed to live again. But, harrow, the roll, the clod-crusher, the scuffler, and above all, the amphitheatre gathered within it we know not how many other implements. He crowds of people. Crowds upon crowds of togas would employ for this purpose the same tool that and bucklers and helmets were there and beasts the monks of La Trappe used to dig their graves, and men came out and fought-and the people and in the same manner. “Take the hand of man," clapped and shouted ;-and then they poured down he says," as a model; glove it with hardened steel, the vomitories, and went away talking with one multiply it a dozen or twenty times, till you have another about the shows that they had seen-and an instrument as broad as Crosskill's clod-crusher, all was silence. The seats were again empty each hand or claw with its separate arm forming seats that have been empty now for fourteen

drous power.

hundred years and more. But no! Twice they yonder den. Rough has been the voyage from have been filled, we are told, for different purposes. Antioch, and strenuous the efforts of the

men to Once, when the Emperor Joseph of Austria visited reach Rome in time. “Forasmuch," says the this part of his dominions, the people got up a emperor, who condemned him in his own city bull-bait in the arena. The seats were all crowded"

forasmuch as he carries in his heart the crucified then, and the concourse hailed his majesty as One, we command that he be carried, bound by Cæsar, as Augustus. A second time multitudes soldiers, to the great Rome, there to be thrown to swarmed upon it, tier upon tier, when the pope the beasts, for the entertainment of the people.” visited the city, and there presented himself, hold. “I thank thee, O Lord,” replied the aged man, ing out his hands to bless the people. But neither “ that thou hast vouchsafed to honour me with a Joseph nor the pope seems to harmonize with the perfect love towards thee, and hast made me to be place; and one's thoughts were again carried back put into iron bonds with the apostle Paul.” It to Roman times and things; and so one sat and need not be said who was that old man from mused, over and over, the story of that great Antioch. Not with stoical apathy did Ignatius empire, of which it is so remarkable a memorial meet his fate, but with gentleness, patience, love ; -and of its growth, decline, and fall. I thought his eyes uplifted to heaven, his countenance bright of the only other Roman amphitheatre I had ever ened by hope-a lamb thrown to the lions; and seen, far different from this, at Silchester-a small by his meekness and Christian heroism exhibiting amphitheatre, all the seats gone, everything gone that which Romans were not wont to look upon, but the old mounds of earth which formed it ages and which surely must have touched some even of since, now grass-grown, and the covered way their iron hearts, and sent them home to think through which the animals were led out on the upon a religion which could yield such fruits as arena. Other amphitheatres, too, which I had this. never seen, came in imagination with associated Lyons, in France, had one of these buildings, events.

devoted to amusement and torture. I seemed to There stands in Rome, at the foot of the palatine be there too, in the year 177 A.D. The sons of mount, the magnificent ruin of the Colosseum, Gaul, the daughters of the land, and their Roman built by Vespasian. Its walls inclose a space of masters, throng the space allotted to spectatorsfive acres of ground. Loftily do they rise, attain- come expressly to witness the sufferings of Chrising the height of one hundred and sixty feet, and tians, residing in the city, who, amidst the frenzy exhibiting four tiers of columns-Doric, Ionian, of persecution which rages throughout Lyons, have and Corinthian. Its internal appearance must been imprisoned and tortured, and are now to be have been similar to the amphitheatre at Verona, put to death. There is Blandina, and there the only far more spacious, for the seats accommodated boy Ponticus, just fifteen years of age--the two no less than 87,000 spectators.

survivors of a band of martyrs, who have nobly From Verona I transported myself there, and died. She has been exposed to the wild beasts fancied I was occupying one of those seats in the before, but has escaped their fury. Her inhuman year of grace 110. "The spacious edifice is crowded foes resolve that this time they will not be disapto the top. Senators and magistrates of Rome, pointed. She is but a slave, yet has she all the ambassadors to the eternal city from distant lands, mild and gentle dignity of a Christian heroine ; matrons and maidens of the noblest families, are and while submitting to the death, she refuses thé filling the front and most conspicuous places, and honourable name of a martyr, that being a title exhibiting an array of majesty and beauty on which which, she says, should be given only to Him, who many an eye turns with admiration ; while the is the “ faithful and true witness.” How she Falgar multitude in dense masses cover the rest cheers the suffering boy, as he goes through the of the amphitheatre—a forest of eager faces, an circle of his tortures, and refuses to swear by the immense piece of living mosaic. The spectacle gods, till, having endured every kind of torment, they have come to witness begins. Gladiators are he expires. Now her own turn comes, and she is led along the arena in procession, matched by pairs. scourged, then placed on an iron chair, and scorched The shield is on their arms, the sword glitters in over an intense fire, and then inclosed in a net, their hand, a piece of stuff is wrapped round their and thrown to a bull, to be tossed and lacerated loins, the upper part of their person remains naked. by the horns of the animal, till the sword of a Now for the signal, and the bloody conflict! The soldier is plunged into her body, and her spirit immense concourse, stern and cruel, the milk of ascends to her Father in heaven. “The blessed human kindness in their breasts all curdled, look Blandina," writes one of the witnesses of her death, with amazing gusto on these devoted victims, as “having, like a good mother, encouraged her they mangle and slay each other.

children, and sent them before victors to the King, So do the civilized and polished but pagan after having again measured over the same course Romans divert themselves! The amusements are of combats that her sons had passed through, drawing to a close, but the appetite for slaughter hastened to them, rejoicing and exulting at her on the part of the spectators is unappeased. To departure, as if she had been invited to a weddingtheir delight, another victim is introduced, and one supper, and not cast to wild beasts." such as they had never beheld before. 'Tis no The remembrance of that morning in the amphiDacian gladiator, no stern barbarian, but a meek theatre at Verona, with its suggestion of things and aged man, fourscore years of age; his form better than itself, does one good. * bent with infirmity, his head sprinkled with a few grey hairs. Hastily led on the arena, amidst wild shouts, he is come, not to fight with a human foe, Rev. J. Stoughton, just published, and abounding in passages

* From a volume entitled “Scenes in other Lands," by but to be the prey of those lions, growling in of great elegance and descriptive power.

A VISIT TO THE STAFFORDSHIRE POT. byshire chertz, until it is reduced to so fine a state TERIES.

as to offer no perceptible grittiness to the taste.

The granite is reduced by similar means to the III.-A MORNING AT COPELAND'S.

same degree of fineness ; and the bones, being The readers of the “Leisure Hour” may probably first calcined, undergo the same ceremony, though have imagined that it is now quite time that we these are only used in the composition of china should introduce them to the potter at his work, ware. All these are diluted with water according and

afford them an opportunity of witnessing some to established ratios, the amount of earthy matter portion at least of those operations, of the import- mixed with the fluid being ascertained by weight; ance of which he has learned to entertain a due thus, supposing a pint of water to weigh sixteen appreciation. So we are going this morning, by ounces, a pint of clay slip weighs twenty-four, of favour of the proprietor, to stroll for an hour or fint slip thirty-two, and" of granite slip perhaps two through the factory of Alderman Copeland, in thirty; or either of them or all of them may vary company with an experienced and intelligent guide, from these weights, as they probably do in various who will direct our footsteps through the devious manufactories, according to the scale of proporlabyrinth of some fourteen acres in extent, and tions adopted by different makers. explain what is unintelligible by us at a cursory Supposing the materials to be ground and diluted glance. The interior of a pot-work does not pre- to the required degree, and pure from extraneous sent to the spectator many elements of the pic matters, they are then carried to a chamber in an turesque ; as much of the surface of the ground as upper story, where they are mixed together in can be conveniently inclosed, so as to leave room certain proportions in a large vat, the sides of which for the passage in every direction of carts and are perfectly vertical, and the quantity of each wagons, is covered with plain brick buildings of material to be used is marked on a rod or gaugeno architectural pretensions, and of very various stick, which the workman who superintends the height; and among them, at a few paces distant process dips into the vat while the different slips from each other, rise a series of huge dome-like are poured in, until each rises to its proper mark cones of blueish brick to the height of some forty on the gauge. In the centre of the vat revolves a or fifty feet, and terminating in open chimneys, pole furnished with lateral arms, by the aid of from some of which lurid flames are leaping forth. which the whole of the mixtures are set in rapid The only perforation in the surface of these mon- motion and thoroughly incorporated together. strous and grim-looking fabrics is a single door. When these various fluids have been thus mingled way, through the dark openings of which here and and blended together into one kind of slip, it is there red fires are seen to glimmer, and the sound drawn off into a cistern having an outlet into a of rushing flame strikes upon the ear. Around long wooden trough, flat at the bottom, which is some of their broad swelling basements flights of pierced with holes nearly an inch in diameter and steps coil up to warehouses or counting-houses two or three feet apart. Through these holes the built against their sides : some are cold and empty; fluid slip falls in a continuous stream perpendicuothers are yielding up the contents of the last larly upon a series of fine sieves made of silk, conbaking; and others again are loading with fresh taining six hundred threads to the inch: the sieves wares to undergo the fiery ordeal. As we have are shaken perpetually backwards and forwards by expressed a wish to begin at the beginning, we the action of machinery, and the slip passing into follow our leader through various turnings and a receptacle beneath, leaves the coarser grains of windings, through hot rooms and cold rooms, earthy matter from which it is freed behind, in the within doors and without, to the immediate neigh- form of small balls of clay of various sizes and bourhood of a steam-engine which works the ma. shapes, which it assumes through the regular mochinery, by the aid of which the raw materials are tion of the sieve. The slip is thus purified several prepared for the manipulations of the workmen. times, through a series of sieres, after which it is Here we are in presence of large reserves of the pumped into a reservoir, from whence it is drawn different natural products used in the manufac. off into enormous shallow drying-pans or troughs, ture of puitery, consisting of various kinds of paved with tiles, and some twenty yards or more clay brought from Devonshire and Dorsetshire, and in length and seven or eight feet in width. Flues the china clay, as it is called, a species of decom. from large fires are conducted under the whole posed felspar from Cornwall, together with stores length of these pans, and the fires being lighted, of flint from Gravesend and the neighbourhood, the slip soon begins to boil, and in the course of a a light kind of granite stone, and the bones of few hours steams off the superfluous water, and animals, as well as the clays and marl of the dis- dries gradually to the consistence of new putty or trict, and other things besides.

soft clay. It would now be fit for the use of the The first operation of the potter is to prepare potter were it not for the quantity of air shut up these different materials for combination together in its substance, owing to the evolution of steam in order to form the pure and plastic composition in the process of drying. To get rid of this, it is of which his wares are formed. To this end the cut out in masses of about a foot square from the clays are thrown into large vats, where they are pans, and carried to a singular sort of mill which diluted with water to the consistency known as kneads the air out of it. This curious machine “slip," which is not thicker than cream, or hardly resembles a funnel-shaped barrel, much larger at so thick. The flint is first calcined in the fire, and the top than at the bottom; in the centre is a then broken into small pieces by the action of a stout rod armed with broad steel blades, having series of iron punches worked by steam; it is then their ends pressed downwards. The clay, in bulky ground with water in large circular open vats lumps, is thrown in at the top; the blades, which between stones of a tough texture, known as Der. I stick out on all sides of the rod, are continually revolving ; they cut and mangle, and twist and tor- have taken to fetch them up-stairs " at our house ment the clay into all manner of shapes, and by at home.” A fifth lump being dashed on the some contrivance, not at all comprehensible to a wheel, expands first like a flower, then contracts in looker-on, thrust it forth from a square orifice at the middle like a young lady in an exceedingly the bottom in the form of a four-sided mass of tight pair of stays then opens its circular top as clear, solid, and compact substance. This, as it wide as the mouth of a stump-orator in for a three crawls lazily forth, is cut off in large lumps, and hours' speech--then a thin wire cuts off two seccarried to the workshop to await the formative tions from the yawning lip, a touch of the operator's skill of the potter. It is not, however, yet quite thumb depresses the spout, and, lo! it is a capital fit for his purpose ; severe as was the treatment cream-jag. By this time the thrower has taken it of the kneading-mill

, the clay yet retains a suffi. into his head that we are fond of pork-which, by cient quantity of air to frustrate the efforts of the the way, is not true in the abstract--and volunworkman who would venture to use it. It is, teers to garnish the tea-table with a pork-pie. No therefore, taken in hand piecemeal by a labourer, sooner said than done. Plump goes a dab of clay who, by dint of blows and fisticuffs, and violent on the wheel-in go his five fingers in the very banging and beating, reduces it to good behaviour, heart of it--up rise the thin circular walls of gets rid of its air, and finally prepares it for the crust-quick as thought the upper edge converges thrower or the modeller.

towards the centre, and before you can say it is We will now follow the clay to the thrower, and covered in by a dome, which it certainly is for see what he is doing with it. We find this forma- about seven-eighths of a second, or thereabouts, tive genius comfortably seated on a bench, with a the dome is depressed to a flat roof, the edges of revolving flat disc about a foot in diameter be- which slanting outwards in the true gastronomic tween his knees. He is attended by a woman, who fashion, consummate the construction of an admirweighs him out the clay in portions as he needs it, able pork-pie, complete in all respects, barring the and by a boy, who, as he issues the word of com- pork. mand, " faster” or “ slower,” regulates the speed The thrower, whose marvellous skill in manipuof his wheel by means of a conical drum turned lation is the result of long and careful practice by the steam-engine, upon which he shifts the upon a material beyond all others the most pliable strap upwards or downwards, as greater or lesser and plastic, ensures uniformity in wares made by speed is required. We find him upon our entrance pattern by means of gauges fixed in front of his engaged in making jugs. Taking a lump of the clay wheel, the points of which can be so arranged as in his hand, he places it firmly upon the centre of to make impressions upon the clay in any part his flat wheel, which he instantly sets in motion; of the fabric under formation. Of course, his at first he grasps the clay with both hands as a operations are confined to articles which are perdairymaid does the handle of a churn, and it is fectly circular in form ; if any of these, such as pressed upwards between his fingers in the form of jugs, ewers, and water-vessels, have to be furnished a column; then he inserts his thumb or finger in with lips or spouts, such additions are made by the centre of the top, and in two seconds the clay another hand while the clay is yet soft. is a hollow vessel; then dips a small modelling Leaving the thrower at his work, with a convic. tool into the cavity, and the column is gracefully tion that he has got his business completely under swollen out into the form of a vase ; in a moment his thumb, we may follow the ware to the drying. he applies the same tool, or something else, to the room. Here it is ranged on shelves in vast quanoutside, and the vase becomes a jug or ewer, want- tities, and exposed to a gentle heat produced by ing the handle; a few touches to the bottom of the steam-pipes running through the apartment, and column, and an elegant basement or footing to the in the course of a few days is ready for the operavessel is modelled; another touch to the top, and tions of the turner. The turner may be regarded the upper edge is formed ; then he cuts it from as the special coadjutor of the thrower, who having the wheel by means of a thin wire, lays it on a modelled the goods to the required shape, and bench at his side, and has done with it for ever. carefully finished their interior surface, takes little

Understanding that we are quite a griffin, and pains with the outside, leaving that to be pared have never witnessed such strange tricks before, down and finished by the turner's tool. The he politely invites us to a tea-party, and imme- turner stands at work at a lathe, fitted with a diately sets about preparing the tea-things,” in a chuck shaped for the reception of the articles he style which would have astonished a fashionable has in hand : one is turning basins, another jugs, coterie. Down goes a lump of clay on the wheel another bowls, and another confection-pots, and so dab goes his fist into the middle of it--and in a on. The articles to be turned are only partially "jiffy" it is a basin at our service. Down goes a dry, and the shavings fly off them in long ribsecond lump-whiz goes the wheel the clay be. bands ; but they are dry enough to allow of being gins playing at all manner of strange games; one acc

accurately turned to the required shape. The promoment it is a flattish-looking pan, then it is al. cess is very rapid, a minute or less sufficing for a most a capacious salver, then a deep basin, then it small-sized article. When the cup, pot, or basin is a very corpulent-looking vase, and then, and all has been pared down to its proper proportions, the in less than half a minute, it is an undeniable turner reverses the action of the lathe, and the artea-pot, lacking the spout, and big enough for a ticle revolving in a contrary direction is polished large family party. Before we have calculated how all over by a few touches of the polishing tool. many cups it will hold, plump falls a handsome At a former era in the art of pottery, the operaknobby cover on the top of it, fitting it to a hair. tions of the thrower and the turner were comparaA third lump of clay is transformed to a tea-cup, tively much more in demand than they now are. and a fourth to a saucer, in less time than it would By late improvements in manufacture, much of

their industry has been superseded by that of other and hollow-ware pressing, casting is sometimes reoperatives. The use of moulds, which was always sorted to in cases where the design is too elaborate indispensable in the case of articles not perfectly or intricate to be done by pressure : for casting, circular, has of late years supplanted the thrower's the clay is used in the fluid state of "slip,” which wheel : thus dinner-plates and dishes, although is drawn off by a syringe when a thin coating is circular, are now no longer thrown or turned, but deposited, upon which à lining of clay is then are fashioned to the right form at a single process. pressed firmly down. Observe yon young fellow who is spattered with Supposing the wares to be modelled from the clay from head to foot: he stands at a bench, upon clay into their desired forms by any or all of the which the mould of the inside of a dinner-plate is processes above briefly described, and dried suffimounted upon a small flat disc, not unlike the ciently to undergo the first firing in the kiln, the thrower's wheel, and which he can set a-going with next operation is that of packing them in the sag. his hand at his convenience. An assistant at his gers in such a way as to ensure their suffering no side has rolled out a lump of clay to a uniform injury in the fire. But before packing the pots in thickness of some quarter of an inch : he spreads the saggers, we may as well ascertain what they this flat sheet of clay upon the raised surface of are. Entering a roomy workshop on the groundthe mould which forms the inner surface of the floor, we come upon a party of men engaged in plate; he then takes in his hand an instrument constructing them: one is rolling out the thick called a profile, which is a piece of hard wood clay batter, composed of the marl of the district shaped to a section of the outer or convex side of mingled with the ground remnants of old saggers; the plate, and pressing this firmly against the clay another is cutting it into strips something less on one side, a few revolutions of the model bring than a foot broad; and a third is lapping one of the whole circumference repeatedly beneath the the strips round a wooden model of the requisite pressure of the profile, and the plate is finished at size ; while a fourth prepares the oval-shaped piece once, as accurately as though it had passed through which is to form the bottom. A sagger, we find, the ceremonies of throwing and turning.

is a rudely-shaped vessel something like a milliIn the formation of many articles, and some of ner's bandbox without the cover, but oval in form, them are of great beauty, the operations of the and fashioned of clay nearly an inch thick: thrower are combined with the use of the mould. it comes into the world with the almost certain Yonder is a young girl who, if you saw her in fate of being burnt out again at no very distant your own kitchen employed as she is now, you time; its whole existence is one course of trial by might suppose was laying the under-crust for a fire, and to fire it succumbs at last. Saggers are of beef-steak pudding ; she is merely lining with clay various sizes, regulated by the nature of their con. the mould of a basin, ornamented on the outside tents, and some are much deeper than others; and with raised designs; she hands it to the thrower, their sole use is to protect the wares from the acwho in a few seconds finishes off the interior by tion of the flame in the kiln, which would else the action of his wheel and fingers, and in so discolour and otherwise injure them. The filling doing unavoidably drives the clay into every part of these saggers preparatory to firing is a work of of the mould, so as to produce a perfect impression. considerable care and responsibility. If the caps, Vessels which are not circular in form, either within saucers, plates, basins, etc., were suffered to lie or without, or which have raised figures in relief upon one another indiscriminately, the probability upon their surfaces, have to be pressed in moulds is that half of them would adhere together, or be of plaster-of-Paris. These moulds are in two or otherwise spoiled. To prevent such a result, mimore pieces, and the several parts having been nute three-legged, angular, circular, and oddly. lined with clay, carefully dabbed into the hollows shaped pieces of burnt ware, so formed as that by blows from a wet sponge, and squeezed if neces- only their projecting points, or sharp edges, can sary into the smaller interstices with the fingers, touch anything with which they come in contact, are then joined together and the seams stopped are laid between the separate articles as they are with long strips of clay worked smoothly down. placed in the saggers, the bottoms of which are first Articles thus moulded, either by "flat-ware press covered with a stratum of sand. It is a point of ing” or “ hollow-ware pressing" the technical de economy to load the saggers as full as possible, as signations of the above modes of working, have to the expenditure of fuel in firing the kiln will be remain a considerable time on or in the moulds, as the same whether the quantity of goods in the they cannot be removed until by the heat of the saggers be great or small, and of course the stove-house in which they are placed they are larger the amount burnt at once, the less is the hardened sufficiently to bear handling. “Hand- cost per cent. of burning the whole. ling,” by the way, happens to be the process which Let us now enter one of the enormous cones of a good many of them have to undergo so soon as brick before alluded to, and see what is going on. they are hard enough for the purpose. The han- Passing through the only door-way, we find that dles are pressed in plaster-of-Paris moulds, and this massive and monster erection is lighted by the clay of a stiffer consistency is used than that of the broad orifice of the chimney in which it terminates thrower or pressers; they are pressed very rapidly at the top, and which is six or seven feet in dia. by boys, and are fastened on by means of a little meter. We find, too, that it incloses a round brick fluid slip supplemented by a few particles of moist tower, the walls of which are perfectly vertical clay. Those wares which have been pressed in and of some twenty feet in height, and the interior several pieces present unsightly seams upon being of which is about sixteen feet in diameter. The released from the mould, and these have to be cau- outside of this inner tower is pierced with ten or a tiously scraped away and smoothed until the joints dozen large fireplaces at equal distances, the flues are no longer visible. Besides throwing, and flat of which open into the oven, while other flues run

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