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throughout the day. King Charles was personated parish, and perfectly well known to every indivi. by stuffed dolls, with tinsel crowns upon their dual in the town, made captive by Oliver. The heads, sitting astride upon the branches of the oak, reverend gentleman suffered hideously from the not in accordance with history, endeavouring to grasp of the protector, and only escaped a dive into conceal himself from observation, but making the the grease-bag by the prompt payment of a guinea. utmost possible show of the gaudy trappings and It is not easy to imagine all the circumstances glittering tiara with which he was adorned. Those presented by this unique and disgraceful spectacle : who could afford it, covered a good portion of the the uproar and tumult which swarmed ronnd leaves of the oak with leaf-gold, and the oak Oliver wherever he went--the panic which seized apples, which had been carefully collected for many the pursuing multitude when he turned and purdays previous, were gilded or silvered, and worn in sued them--the insane yells and cries of encouragethe hat or the button-hole by all who could procurement when he had caught some unlucky or obnoxi. them. In those times there was neither city nor ous individual-and, above all, the hideous appear. rural police ; the only peripatetic delegate of au- ance of the baited wretch himself, when worn out thority being the parish constable, and he, for a with the toils of his disgusting occupation, and reason best known to himself, never ventured to savage with the jeers and injuries of the mob. put in an appearance on oak-apple day. The whole Between the green boughs that covered every town was delivered up to the mercies of the mob. house-front, the windows were filled with spec. It was a day on which ruffianism may be said tators, among whom women and children looked to have been at a premium, the greatest ruffian on in safety upon a spectacle little calculated to inbeing invariably selected from among a hundred culcate the social or domestic virtues. or two of candidates to enact the part of Oliver In our time Oliver held undisputed possession of Cromwell.

the town until five o'clock in the afternoon, when This historical personage made his appearance his reign was at an end, and he was led off to reupon the stage about eleven o'clock in the day, by tirement, and to count, and enjoy if he conld, the which time it was supposed that all unavoidable fruits of his labours. After he had disappeared, business might be transacted; and no female dared the more respectable inhabitants were at liberty to venture forth after that hour. The appearance of come forth from their dwellings, and generally Oliver was the general signal for flight wherever devoted the long summer evening to cricketing in he came. Imagine a brawny six-foot man, his the meadows or pic-nics and parties in the neighface begrimed all over with a mixture of lamp. bouring villages. black and oil, and surmounted by a prodigious

This absurd and mischievous custom, which it shock of hair dripping with grease, the lank locks ! may be fairly hoped has long been abolished, is in of which hung dangling over his savage eye; his its details sufficiently suggestive of its origin. body, like that of a prize-fighter, naked to the There can be little doubt that it was originally set waist, round which was tied a bag containing on foot by the royalist party soon after the Restoraseveral pounds of the mixture with which his own tion, in malice against the puritans, who in that skin, as far as it was visible, was anointed. This part of the country must have been sufficiently was Oliver Cromwell, and his mission was to catch numerous to provoke such a popular demonstration hold of anybody and everybody that he could of dislike. It is evident that the mission of the overtake, and, by forcing their heads into his ca. first greasy Oliver who figured in Tiverton streets, pacious bag, make them free of the commonwealth, was to catch the adherents, real or supposed, of the if they refused to come down with a ransom, the Protector; and the nonconformists, of whatever amount of which he fixed at his own discretion persuasion they might be, were naturally regarded according to the circumstances of his captive. As as his legitimate spoil

. We may conceive that a fleet and powerful fellow was invariably chosen the poor puritans of that day, having once had ex. to play Oliver, it was of course necessary to take perience of the mercies of the unctuous ogre, would measures to prevent him from becoming, in the ex. be careful to shut themselves up in their dwellcitement of the chase, too indiscriminate in the be- ings, with the security of bolt and bar, whenever stowal of his favours. As he was pelted by the the anniversary of the monstrous saturnalia came mob, and plentifully swilled with water, of which round; but sport, rather than persecution, was the there were running streams in most of the streets, object of the mob, and it mattered little to them it is no wonder that he should lose his temper, and who were the victims, so long as they were not become really savage, after having played the balked of their pleasure. It may seem surprising tyrant and the target for a few hours. By way of at the first glance, that a custoin so silly and puerile restraint, therefore, he was tied round the waist by in its origin, and so hateful and immoral" in its a stout barge rope about fifty yards long, the end operation, should have survived in all its complete. of which was in charge of his cabinet council, ness through five or six generations, and lasted consisting of half-a-dozen congenial spirits, who until our own day; but the force of precedent will probably shared his profits, and who, if they chose, keep alive even greater abuses; and of all the abcould moderate his pace or pull him up suddenly surdities which gradually disappear from the face when in pursuit of unlawful prey—such, for in- of the earth, those perhaps are among the longeststance, as the parish doctor on a visit to a patient, lived which are linked with the recreations of an or a magistrate amusing himself with a sight of ignorant populace. the popular sport. That they were not very par. ticular in these exceptional cases, may be gathered from the fact, that we once saw the Reverend

Now.-"Now" is the constant syllable ticking froin Caleb Colton, the author of " Lacon," and " The wise.

the clock of time. “Now" is the watch-word of the

“Now" is on the banner of the prudent. Let us Sampford Ghost,” who was then clergyman of the keep this little word always in our mind.

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A VISIT TO THE TREASURY OF PERU. though the little rivulet that trickles from the Os the great table-land of Pasco, in the Peruvian lake, and ripples slowly through the lofty plain, Andes, at an elevation above the sea of nearly four. bears little likeness to the mighty stream that teen thousand feet, lies the mountain lake of Lau. rolls its floods across the eastern forests, and, ricocha, the source of the great river Amazon, gathering power from its numerous tributaries,

No. 76, 1853.


spreads at length into a shoreless sea vast as the silver-mines—for nearly all the mining operations ocean, across whose waves it pours its muddy are conducted within the city itself—and the minebillows.

owner can, not unfrequently, pass at once from his More than two centuries ago there lived upon dining-room or chamber into the pit that leads to the borders of this lake a wealthy Spaniard, named his hidden treasure. Even in some of the streets Don Jose Ugarto. Like many mountain settlers these pits are opened, and the foundations of the in the present day, he derived his wealth chiefly whole city are so thoroughly honey.combed, that it from the produce of his flocks of sheep and llamas, may easily be at any moment buried amongst the that fed in the sheltered valleys, tended by Indian glittering ores that have alone caused its erection. shepherds. The scarcity of pasture often led the 'The mines are generally shallow, rarely exceeding flocks far from the shepherds' huts, and then, as a hundred feet in depth, whilst many of them are now, it was common for the Indians to wander mere openings of thirty or forty feet. The mode with their woolly charges amongst the mountains of working them is the simplest and most original for many successive days. On one of these occa- that can well be conceived." The descent into the sions a shepherd, whose name, Huari Capcha, is smaller mines is usually by steps cut in the perstill preserved in the sierra, made his little encamp- pendicular side of the shaft, or built up with loose ment in the hollow of a great rocky basin, and, stones, that occasionally give way beneath the having seen to the safety of his flock, lighted his tread, and clatter down the dark opening, to the fire of withered cactus and dry grass, and then lay dismay of the unpractised stranger. In the deeper down to sleep beside it. When he awoke in the mines, a common winch is used, or sometimes a morning the fire had burned out, and the stone gin worked by mules ; but the machine is usually beneath it, melted by the heat, was transformed of such a fragile construction, and in such a deinto a lump of solid silver. Delighted with his cayed condition, that every safe descent by the discovery, the Indian hurried home to report it to half-rotten rope and rusty chain seems to be one his master. A slight examination of the locality of a continually-occurring series of miracles. The disclosed the existence of a rich vein of silver ; and scarcity of timber prevents the miners from placing the news of this valuable discovery soon spreading the necessary supports in the galleries, and men to the neighbouring villages, attracted to the are consequently often killed by a fall of earth; barren and secluded spot a numerous and rapidly but it is a melancholy fact, that very little notice increasing population, eager to share in the new is taken of such accidents, under the feeling that source of wealth thus opened. Such is the story Indians are tolerably plentiful, and that, when of the foundation of the city of Cerro Pasco-the killed, they can easily be replaced. Nearly all Treasury of Peru-the highest city in the world, the work is performed by Indians, who are paid and perhaps also the most remarkable in its situa- generally by the day, earning from two to three tion, in its general appearance, and in the extraor. shillings; but, when an unusually prolific vein is dinary variety of its inhabitants. A recent tour opened, many extra hands are employed, and these amongst the Andes having led me to Cerro Pasco, are always paid by a share of the ore which they I am enabled to give from actual observation a succeed in obtaining. At such times the populashort sketch of these peculiarities, and likewise of tion of the city is greatly increased by the influx the present condition of the mountain city and its of Indians from the villages of the sierra, and motley population.

these men often earn very high wages, so long as The party with which I travelled was employ the new vein continues to yield well; but immeed in conveying machinery from the coast to the diately on its failure they return to their home silver districts, to be used in the mining opera- often penniless, having spent their hard earnings tions of an English firm there ; and, in conse- in the purchase of absurd and useless finery, or quence of the heavy loads of iron borne by the in the most foolish and disgusting excesses. mules, our progress up the mountains and across The ore obtained in the smaller mines is carried the passes had been unusually slow. It was, up the dangerous ladders by the miners in hide therefore, with considerable pleasure that, after a bags; and it is then conveyed to the smeltingshort descent from a very high and broken ridge, houses, most of which are situated beyond the a sudden turn in the mountain-road revealed an city. Here it is amalgamated with quicksilver apparently well-built town, lying in an irregular in a most primitive fashion, by throwing the two valley, surrounded by little lakes and patches of metals together, and then driving mules or horses grassy morass, the whole encircled by a wall of over them until the trampling has caused a thobleak and lofty rocks, on one of which I stood. rough union to take place. The quicksilver is From this point the narrow road wound, with then separated by heat; but the whole operation is many turnings, through the defiles that led down. generally conducted in the rudest and most ineffiwards to the town, until we at length entered the cient manner, though the recent improvements low suburbs, and mingled with the many-coloured introduced by the enterprise of an English firm crowd that sauntered through the streets. promise to effect a complete revolution in the pre

The outskirts of Cerro Pasco, as of almost all sent wasteful system. the Peruvian towns, are a collection of miserable Of the amount of silver actually obtained from huts, built of mud and reeds, and inhabited only the mines of Cerro Pasco it is difficult to form by the lowest class of Indian cholos ; but the any correct estimate; for, though every bar is supmiddle of the city contains many good houses, the posed to be assayed and stamped at the governproperty of mine-owners and shopkeepers, though ment smelting-house, where a trifling duty is in the best streets the conical Indian hut stands levied on it, yet such vast qnantities are annually pertly forward among its more lofty neighbours. smuggled to the coast, that the government reWithin many of these huts are the mouths of turns are worthless as a means of ascertaining the real value of the mining produce. It is certain, made so high that the rider is securely wedged however, that the supply has latterly suffered between them. From a silver ring on each side a considerable diminution. At the close of the hang the stirrups, which are large pyramidal blocks eighteenth century, Humboldt calculated that the of wood, twelve inches square at the bottom and annual yield of the Pasco mines amounted to two gradually tapering to the top, where another silver hundred and fifty thousand marcs' worth, or, at its ring receives the twisted straps by which they are present value, about two millions one hundred and suspended. The stirrups are often elaborately twenty-five thousand dollars. With an increased carved, and inlaid with silver on three sides, the number of mines and workmen, the quantity now other being hollowed out to receive the foot. The passed throngh the government office does not bridle is profusely ornamented with silver buckles reach two hundred thousand marcs annually; but and stained leather fringes ; and the reins somethe introduction of improved modes of amalgama. times consist of one continued chain of silver tion, and a more careful system of mining, is al links. One rein is usually continued in a long ready beginning to show its effects in the increas- plaited lash ; and, besides the bridle, a heavy ing produce.

leathern halter encumbers the head, to which is The silver is all cast into large flat oblong bars, attached a long strap, coiled on the pummel of the weighing one hundred pounds each, and in this saddle. The spurs are of immense length, with shape it is conveyed to the coast and shipped for rowels of five or six inches diameter, so that walk. Europe. On its passage down the mountains the ing in them is all but impossible. These, too, are metal is intrusted to the mule-drivers, and is frequently of solid silver, richly ornamented. From rarely guarded by soldiers; for the bandit monte- this description, some idea may be formed of the neros do not choose to encumber themselves with glittering splendour with which the equestrian the heavy stamped bullion, but prefer rather to dandy of Lima shines among the more humble wait for the remittances of coin that are returned equipments of the poorer cavaliers ; whilst his own from Lima. These are always sent under a strong precious person is enveloped in a brilliantly coescort, but are, nevertheless, often attacked by the loured poncho, and his sallow face surmounted by robbers, who occasionally succeed in obtaining a a grass hat of exquisite fineness, often worth valuable booty. After its arrival in the low coun- forty or fifty dollars. In the mountains the same try the silver is rarely removed without a guard, love of show prevails as on the coast, and the Inand on the road between Lima and its seaport dian miner loves nothing better than to deck himCallao a picturesque group frequently attracts the self in costly silks and tawdry ornaments; whilst attention of the passing stranger. In the midst the women vie with each other in the splendour of of the cloud of white dust, that always accompa- their jewels and the rich colours of their ribbons, nies the traveller on the dry Peruvian roads, a and leave their half-naked children wallowing in light cart is seen proceeding at a rapid pace from the filth that quietly accumulates in the miserable the city towards the port. One or two well. dirty houses, which no Englishman can enter withmounted civilians usually ride by its side, and it is out a sickening feeling of disgust. guarded by a troop of Indian lancers-a corps The towns and villages scattered over the silver which forms the chief, and by far the most soldier. districts receive their chief supplies of food from like, portion of the army of the republic. The cart the fertile valleys that are buried deep amongst contains a load of plata on its way from the cellars the mountains. Reached by a route which passes of some Lima merchant to the ship which is to through the most desolate country in the world—a convey it to Europe, in return, perhaps, for a cargo succession of burning sands, frightful gorges, and of that far more valuable though less costly metal, terrible ravines ; of narrow foot-paths cut in the iron, of which this land of gold and silver is almost face of steep precipices, and crossing slight, tremdestitute. The strange accoutrements of the escort bling bridges, suspended over chasms of unknown attract the notice of the foreigner in an almost depths—these valleys offer a strange contrast to equal degree with the treasure that they guard. the savage scenery around them. Clothed with Their patched and tarnished uniforms, rough- rich vegetation, they abound in tropical produccoated horses, and rusty spurs and scabbards, give tions, and in many of them fruits of a more temthem, in spite of their martial bearing, far more perate climate are successfully cultivated; for perthe air of robbers than of soldiers ; and, indeed, haps no other country possesses so many climates the history of the revolutionary wars of Peru, within so limited a range of latitude. Commencstained as it is with cruel massacres, cold blooded ing with the vineyards and olive-gardens that murders, and wholesale plunder, conveys rather skirt the rivers on the desert coast, the traveller the idea of conflicts between hordes of savage ban- passes in a few days through every degree of vegeditti than between the disciplined armies of civilized tation, until he reaches the barren table-lands that nations.

rest upon the summits of the great Cordillera. It The exceedingly picturesque appearance of the is hardly possible to imagine a more dreary and Peruvian horsemen is considerably increased by desolate scene than that presented by this inhosthe lavish use of silver ornaments in the equip- pitable region. The broom and stunted herbage ments of the more wealthy ones, while the slight growing in scattered patches on the banks of the compact horses are sometimes completely hidden mountain lakes seem unable to extract sufficient beneath a mass of gorgeous trappings. The sad- nourishment from the ungenial soil. Stretching dle-cloth is a dyed alpaca skin, with the long silky away into the sierra are the bleak mountain plains, wool twisted into a fringe of numerous tassels. broken only by vast masses of rock, and surrounded Upon the saddle another skin is often laid, and the by the rugged peaks of the Andes crowned with saddle-bow is beautifully ornamented with devices eternal snow. The usually pure blue sky of the worked in silver. The pummel and crupper are tropics assumes, in this portion of them, a dark


leaden hue, and the vertical sun vainly pours getting that the very ground on which he rests is upon the green, unyielding glaciers the same hollow and deceitful as the riches that lie hidden fierce rays that scorch the dwellers in the plains. in its bosom. More than a thousand mines are The stranger, unaccustomed to the rarefied atmo- opened in and around the city. Two great veins sphere, breathes with difficulty and generally suffers of silver traverse its site, intersecting each other, from the Puna malady—the soroche. The sight it is said, beneath the market-place. One of these becomes dim and misty; the hearing fails ; a heavy lies nearly due north and south, extending to an weight oppresses the chest; the lips swell and ascertained length of about two English miles, crack; blood flows from the mouth, nose, and and having an average breadth of upwards of a eyes; and, occasionally, the traveller sinks under hundred and thirty yards. The other crosses it at the attack. But a few days usually suffice to ac- an angle of seventy degrees, running about westcustom him to the air of these lofty regions, in north-west to a distance of more than two thouwhich he is astonished to discover many towns and sand yards. Besides these principal arteries, numvillages, containing, like Cerro Pasco, a numerous berless small veins traverse the earth in every population attracted by the rich deposits that are direction; and as upon all these lines small shafts hidden beneath the barren surface. But these are sunk, and horizontal tunnels driven at various towns are usually mere collections of miserable levels

, the condition of the foundations of the city huts, whose inhabitants have gathered from all may be imagined. quarters of the world to this desolate territory. I have often remarked with astonishment the

Without manufactures, with no agriculture, pro- small quantity of food consumed by those Indians ducing nothing but silver-the only religion who work in the mines throughout the year, and amongst them the worst popery of the dark ages, who consequently lead a life of unremitting and with all its absurdity of rude mechanical miracles, most arduous toil, far different from the monoand all its terrible folly of gloomy superstitions, tonous existence of their indolent countrymen, the precluded from communication with other coun- inhabitants of the sierra valleys and the coast tries by immense and almost insurmountable bar- towns. In Cerro Pasco the miners never take riers-these singular communities present a condi- more than two slight meals a day, and not unfretion of society for which it would be difficult to quently make one suffice them. These are nearly find a parallel. The precarious nature of the pur- always procured at the fondas or eating-houses, as suit in which they are engaged gives to the people the Indians seldom possess the most common-place a desperate recklessness, an utter carelessness of conveniences for cooking. The first meal is usually consequences, which the member of a more culti- taken about eleven o'clock, and consists of a roasted vated society cannot comprehend. The safeguards banana with a few grains of boiled maize, or a of law are almost unknown. Crimes of the most handful of quinua—a small seed resembling millet, appalling nature are of constant occurrence, and which is extensively cultivated in the montaña, and are little heeded by the authorities. It is no un forms the chief subsistence of thousands of its incommon circumstance to see two bands of Indian habitants. To this scanty repast is added a cup of miners meet on a Sunday, or a holiday, in the streets chocolate or a draught of chicha. At three or four of Cerro Pasco, and attack each other with their o'clock dinner appears, commonly in the shape of a knives, fighting with the fury of wild beasts. In puchero, a dish peculiar to Spanish America. It is these savage affrays one or two of the combatants a mixture of charqui (dried beef, or llama flesh are frequently killed, and severe and dangerous chopped small) with crushed maize, camotes or wounds are always inflicted. Gambling is carried sweet potatoes, a species of bean called frijoles, to even greater excess than in the coast towns, bananas, and various other fruits and roots, the and, with cock-fighting, forms the chief amuse- whole being highly seasoned with tomatas and ment of the people. The intellectual character of capsicums, and sometimes served up swimming in such a society is of course miserably low, and, in olive oil. A huge glass of chicha and perhaps a fact, it is almost impossible to conceive a more smaller one of pisco or guarapo (a fiery sort of rum) degraded and brutal condition than that to which serves to wash down the mess. Chicha is a pleathe inhabitants of the Peruvian silver districts are sant slightly acid beverage, of a dark yellow colour, reduced.

made from fermented maize or frijoles. It is in The population of Cerro Pasco varies with the universal demand throughout the west coast of produce of its mines. When several boyas or rich South America, and is consumed in vast quantities lodes occur together, the influx of sierra Indians by the Indians, scarcely a single hut in the interior and traders sometimes raises the number of inha. being without a jar of the favourite liquid. In the bitants to fifteen thousand, but it usually falls con- valleys of the sierra, the most highly-prized chicha siderably short of that amount. It will easily be is prepared in a manner that would hardly be believed that, as a permanent residence, the silver appreciated by European epicures. It is called city is not a desirable locality, especially for those chicha mascada, or chewed chicha, and is brewed who have a prejudice in favour of the comforts of in the following nauseous style. All the members civilization, and who prefer that their houses of the family, including such strangers as choose to should rest on a foundation of solid earth rather assist in the operation, seat themselves on the floor than hang suspended over a crumbling mine. The in a circle, in the centre of which is a large calabash knowledge that the mine is a silver one does not surrounded by a heap of dried maize. Each person add to the sense of security; and, as the miners then takes up a handful of the grain and thoronghly work all night, the incessant clattering of picks masticates it. This is deposited in the calabash, and hammers rising from the dark pits that gape and another handful is immediately subjected to on every side mingles with the dreams of the the same process; the jaws of the company being stranger, and effectually prevents him from for- kept continually busy until, by their agency, the

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